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PRESIDENT'S SECRETARIAT 

(LIBRARY) 

Accn. No Class No 

The book should be returned on or before the date 
last stamped below. 





SPEECHES 


BY 

LORD IRWIN 


VOL II. 


From 30th October 1929 to 18th April 1931. 



SIMLA 

OOVERNMENT OF INDIA PRESS 
1931 



1 


INDEX TO H. E. LORD IRWIN SPEECHES, VOLUME II- 

A 

Page. 

Adi Dravida Mahajana Central Sabiia, Madras, 

Address from the .. .. 70 

Agricultural Museum at Kolhapur, 

Opening of the .. *. .. S2 

Ajmer, 

Prize-giving at the Mayo College and address 
from the Old Boys ’ Association of the Mayo 
College at .. .. 155 


Ajmer, Istimrardars of. 


Address to the 

» « 

153 

Ajmer Municipal Committee, 

Address from the .. 

• # 

151 

Aligarh Muslim University, 

Address from the * . 

Anglo-Indian and Domiciled European Association of 

259 

Southern India, 

Address from the . . 


73 

Anjuman-e-Mufid-e-Ahl-e-Islam, Madras, 

Address from the . ♦ 

0 0 

61 

Arundhatiya Mahasahha, Madras, 

Address from the . . 

• • 

70 

Associated Chambers of Commerce, 

Opening of the annual meeting of the 

B 

•• 

273 

Banquets, 

Speech at Baroda 


85 

Speech at Cochin .. •• 

m 0 

45 

Speech at Hyderabad .. 

m 0 

75 

Speech at Jaipur 

0 0 

337 

Speech at Kolhapur 

0 0 

29 

Speech at Malerkotla - . 

0 0 

122 

Speech at Manipur (Imphal) 


300 

Speech at Mayo College, Ajmer 

* - 

162 

Speech at Trivandrum .. 

9 * 

47 


liOPSV 



11 


B 

Page. 

Baroda, 

Speech at Banquet at . . . . 90 

Birdwood, H. E. Field-Marshal Sir William, 

2 Farewell Dinner to . . - . . • . 25d 

Bishop Cotton School, 

Opening of a new Hall at the , Simla . . 237 

Bombay, 

Address from the All-India Muslim Federation 

at . . . . . * . , 88 

Bombay Chamber of Commerce, 

- - Furewell address from the . . . . 375 

Bombay Millowners’ Association, 

Farewell address from the . . . , 377 

Bombay Municipal Corporation, 

Farewell. address from the .. .. 382 

Bombay Muslim Committee, 

Farewell address from the . . . . 380 

0 

Calicut Municipal Council, 

Address from the . . . . . . 43 

Calcutta, 

-Annual Convocation of thie Serampore College 

.. .. .. .. 269 

Calcutta, 

European Association Dinner at , 289 

Calcutta, 

Laying of the Foundation-Stone of the new 
Headquarters Building of the Institution of 

Engineers (India) at . . , . 286 

IJaleutta, 

of the Annual Meeting of the Asso- 
mated Chambers of Commerce at — r- 273 



m 


G 


Calcutta, 

Unveiling of the Bust oil the late Sir Eash Behari 
Ghose at 

Catholic Indian Association of Southern India, 

Address from the . . 

Cauvery Metnr Canal, 

Opening of the Bridge at Tan jore 

Chamber of Commerce, Bombay, 

Farewell address from the 

Chamber of Commerce, Madras, 

Address from the . . 

Chamber of Commerce, Southern India, 

Address from the . . 

Chamber of Princes, 

Opening of the 9th Session of the 

Chamber of Princes, 

Opening of the 10th Session of the 

Chambers of Commerce, 

Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Asso- 
ciated at Calcutta 

Chambers of Commerce and Industry, 

Address to the Federation of Indian at 

Delhi 

Chelmsford Club Dinner 
Child Marriage Eestraint Act, 

Eeply to Muslim Deputation at Delhi in connec- 
tion with 

Christian, Indian, 

Address from the Community . . 

Cochin, 

Speech at Banquet at 

College, Mayo, 

Prize-giving at the Ajmer and Address 

from the Old Boys^ Association 


P^GB. 

284 

67 

50 

375 

54 

54 

136 

341 

273 

125 

354 

16 

371 

45 


155 



IV 


O 


Page. 


College, Mayo, 

Speech at Banquet at , Ajmer . . « . 162 

College, Rajkmuar, 

Prize-giving at the , Raipur • . * • 265 

College, Serampore, 

Convocation of the . • • . 269 


Conference, All-India Police, 

Opening of the . . . • . . 320 

Conference, AU-India Shia, 

Address from a deputation of the , . 179 

Conference, Opium .. .. .. 186 

Conference, Universities’, 


Opening of the at Delhi 

. . 

1 

Convocation of the Delhi University . . 

. • 

165 

Convocation of the Serampore College . . 

• » 

269 

Coorg Addresses . • 

• • 

34 

Cooi^ Landholders’ Association, 

Address from 


34 

Coorg Planters’ Association, 

Address from 


34 


D 


Behra Bun, 

Opening of the Forest KesearcR Institute 

•• •• .. 10 


Belhi, 

Chelmsford Club Dinner at . . , , 354 

Delhi, 

Laying of the Foundation-Stone of the Central 
Hospital, , . ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Iklhi, Citizens of, 

, Oarden Party given by , , ^ 370 



V 


Delhi Fine Arts Exhibition, 

Opening of the ... 


Page. 

134 

Delhi, Muslims of, 

Address from 


175 

Delhi University, 

Convocation of the 


165 

Depressed Classes Federation, 

Address from the Madras Provincial 


70 

Dinner, 

■ Chelmsford Club, Delhi . . 


354 

European Association, Calcutta 

. . 

289 

Dinner (Farewell) given by the Members 
Ministers of the Punjab Government 

and 

243 

Dinner (Farewell) to H. E. Field-Marshal 
William Birdwood 

Sir 

254 

District Board, Malabar, 

Address of welcome from the at Calicut . . 

43 

Dominion Columns, 

Unveiling of the at New Delhi 


326 

Durbar at Lucknow 

. . 

115 

£ 

Engineers, Institution of, 

Laying of the foundation-stone of the 

Headquarters building of the 

Calcutta 

new 
- at 

286 

European Association Dinner, Calcutta 

•• 

289 

Jc 

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce 
Industry at Delhi, 

Address to the 

and 

125 

Fine Arts Exhibition, Delhi, 

Opening of the 


134 

Forest Research Institute, 

Opening of the at Dehra Dun • ♦ 


10 



VI 


a 

Garden Party given by the citizens of Delhi 
Ghose, Sir Eash Behari, 

Unveiling of the bust of the late at the 

High Court, Calcutta 

Government of India Secretariat, 

Entertainment for the 

Gowda Community, 

Address from the at Coorg . . 

H 

Hospital, 

Laying of the foundation-stone of the Central 
— at Delhi 

Hyderabad. 

Speech at Banquet at 

I 

Imphal (Manipur), 

Speech at Banquet at 

Indian Christian Community, 

Address from the . . 

Indian Red Cross Society, and St. John Ambulance 
Association, 

Combined annual general meeting of the . . 

Istimrardars of Ajmer, 

Address to the 

J 

J^pnr, 

Inv^titure of His Highness the Maharaja 
Jaipur, 

Opening ceremony of the new Water Works 
at 

Jaipur, 

Sj^eeh at Banquet a| 


Page. 

372 

284 


352 


34 


84 

75 


300 

371 

202 

153 


330 

320 




337 



Page* 


vii 

K 


Kodhava Sabha, 

Address from the at Coorg . . . . 34 

Kolhapm 

Opening of the Agricultural Museum at 22 

Kolhapur, 

Opening of the O’Brien’s Technical School at 

and the unveiling of the Statue of Her 

Highness the Dowager Maharani of 25 

Kolhapur, 

Speech at Banquet at . • * . 29 

Kolhapur, 

Unveiling of a statue of Sir Leslie Wilson 

at “ . . . . . ♦ . * 28 

Zi 

Landholders’ Association, 

Address from the Coorg . . . . 34 

Landholders’ (All-India) Deputation, 

Address from the . . . . . . 230 

Legislative Assembly, 

Address at the Delhi Session of the (1930) 94 

Legislative Assembly, 

Address at the opening session of the 4th 


(1931) ■ .. .. 306 

Legislatures, 

Address to the combined (1930) . . 215 

Legislatures, 

Karewell address to the . . * . 366 

Lucknow, 

Address from the members of the Ex-Royal 

Family of Oudh at *. .. 112 

Lucknow, 

Address from the Municipal Board of * , 105 



VUl 


L 


Page. 


Lnetoow, 

Address from the Taluqdars of Oudh at . . 108 

Lucbiow, 

Durbar at • • • • • • 

M 

Madras, 

Address from the Anglo-Indian and Domiciled 
European Association of Southern India 
at .. ^ .. .. 73 

Madras, 

Address from the Catholic Indian Association of ’ 

Southern India at . . » . 67 

Madras, 

Address from the Corporation of . . 51 

Madras, 

Address from the United Planters^ Association 

of Southern India at . . . . 59 

Madras, 

Addresses from the Arundhatiya Mahasabha, 

Adi Dravida Mahajana Central Sabha, 

Madras, and the Madras Provincial Depress- 


ed Classes Federation at .. 70 

Madras Chamber of Commerce, 

Address from the . . . . . . 54 

Madras Presidency Muslim Le«^ue, 

Address from the . . . . , . 61 

Madras Provincial Depressed Classes Federation, 

Address from the . . , , . , 70 

Malabar District Board, 

Address from the at Calicut . . . , 43 

Malerkotla, 

Speech at Banquet at . . . . 122 

Manipur (Imphal), 

Bpe^ at Banquet at ^ , 300 



IX 


Mayo College, Ajmer, 

Prize-giving at the and address from the 

Old Boys^ Association 

Mayo College, Ajmer, 

Speech at Banquet at 

Members and Ministers of the Punjab Government, 
Dinner given by the 

Mercara, 

Address from the Municipality 

Millowners^ Association, Bombay, 

Farewell addrqss from the 

Muhammadan Educational Association of Southern 
India, 

Address from the . . 

Municipal Committee of Ajmer, 

Address from the .. 

Municipal Corporation of Bombay, 

Farewell address from the 

Municipal Council of Calicut, 

Address of welcome from the . . 

Municipal Board of Lucknow, 

Address from the . . 

Municipal Corporation of Madras, 

Address from the . . 

Municipality of Mercara, 

Address from the .. 

Municipal Committee of New Delhi, 

Address from the . . 

Municipal Board of Shillong, 

Address from the . - 

Muslim Committee of Bombay, 

Farewell address from the , , ^ , 

L8PSV 


Page. 

155 

162 

243 

34 

377 

61 

151 

382 

43 

105 

51 

34 

81 

303 

380 



X 


U: 


Muslim Federation (All-India), 

Reply to at Delhi, in connection with the 

Child Marriage Restraint A^t . . 

Muslim Deputation, 

Address from the at Bombay . 


Muslim University, Aligarh, 

Address from the . . 

Muslim Zemindars of the Punjab, 

Address from the , . 

Muslims of Delhi, 

Address from the . . 


New Delhi, 

Ceremony at the Indian War Memorial Arch 
at . . 

New Delhi, 

Laying of the foundation-stone of the Red Cross 
Building at 

New Delhi, 

Opening of the Red Cross Society Seadouarters 
at .. 

New Delhi, 

Unveiling of the Dominion Columns at 

New Delhi Municipal Committee, 

Address from the 

North-West Frontier Province, 

Address from the Nawabs, Khans and Eaises 


Opium Conference, 
Opening of the 


Page. 


ir> 


88 

259 

193 

175 


328 

149 

324 

326 

81 

183 

186 



XI 


o 

Oudh, Members of the Ex-Royal Family of, 

Address from the .. 

Oudh Taluqdars, 

Address from the . . 

P 


Page. 

112 

108 


Peshawar, 

Address from the Nawabs, Khans and Raises of 
the Korth-West Frontier Province at 

Planters’ Association, 

Address from Coorg 

Planters’ Association of Sonthem India, 

Address of welcome from the United at 

Madras . . 

Police Conference, 

Opening of the All-India 

Police Parade at New Delhi , . 

Princes, Chamber of, 

Opening of the session of the . . 

Punjab, 

Deputation from the Muslim Zemindars of 
the . . 

Punjab, 

Deputation from the Sikh Community of the 

Punjab Government, Members and Ministers of, 
Dinner given by the 

B 

Rajkumar College, Raipur, 

Prize-giving at the . . 

Red Cross Building, 

Laying of the foundation-stone of the — — at 
New Delhi 

Red Cross Society, 

Opening of the Headquarters at New Delhi 


183 

34 

59 

320 

369 

136,341 

193 

209 

243 

265 

149 


324 



St. John Ambulance Association, and the Indian Red 
Cross Society, 

Combined annual general meeting of the . . 

Sangli, 

Opening of the New Krishna Bridge at . . 

School, 

Opening of the O’Brien^s Technical at 

Kolhapur 

School, Bishop Cotton, 

Opening of a new Hall at the ^ Simla 

Secretariat, G-overnment of India, 

Entertainment for the at New Delhi 

Serampore College, 

Convocation of the 

Shia Conference, 

Address from a Deputation of the All-India 

Shillong, 

Address from the Siems of the Khasi and 
Jaintia people at 

Shillong Municipal Board, 

Address from the . . 

Sikh Community, 

Deputation from the of the Punjab 

Simla, 

Opmiing of a new Hall at the Bishop Cotton 
School, 

Simla, 

Opening of the T. M. C. A. Building in . . 

Southern India Chamber of Commerce, 

Address from the 

Southern India United Planters' Association, 
Addre^ of weieome from fte . . 


f # 



zui 


T 


Taliiqdars of Oudh, 

Address from the . . 

Tanjore, 

Opening of the Canvery Metur Canal Bridge 

at ■■ •• •• •• ** 

Trivandrum, 

Speech at Banquet at 

TJ 

United Planters’ Association of Southern India, 

Address from the . . 

Universities’ Conference, 

Opening of the at Delhi 

University, Aligarh Muslim, 

Address from the . . 

University, Delhi, 

Convocation of the . . 

W 

War Memorial Arch, Indian, 

Ceremony at the . . 

Wilson, Sir Leslie, 

Unveiling of a statue of at Kolhapur .. 

Y 

Young Men’s Christian Association, 

Opening of the building in Simla • 

Z 

Zemindars, Punjab Muslim, 

Address from a Deputation of the — ^ 




108 

50 

47 

59 

1 

259 

165 

328 


200 

193 




SPEECHES BY 

LORD IRWIN, 


1929 . 


OPENING OP THE UNIVEBSITIES’ CONPERENCE 
AT DELHI. 

In opening the Universities’ Conference at Delhi on the 30th October 
30th October, His Excellency the Viceroy said : — 

Gentlmen , — It is a great pleasure to me to join you 
to-day at the inauguration of your proceedings, and to be 
able to welcome to Delhi such a distinguished body, repre- 
sentative of the whole of Indian University life. L kruw 
that all of you are busy men, ill able to spare the time 
demanded of you in attending a conference like this and it 
is cause therefore for all the greater satisfaction that such 
a large number of delegates should be present. 

Of the need for a body such as yours I think there 
can be no doubt. The institution of the inter-University 
Board was the direct outcome of resolutions passed at 
the first Universities’ Conference held at Simla m 1924, 
and I think that those to whose initiative that Conference 
was due may rightly congratulate themselves on the 
results which have sprung from their endeavours. Since 
1916, when Government may be said to have first aimed 
at the localised residential and unitary type of Universit.y, 

India has made rapid strides. The number of her Uni- 
versities has increased more than three-fold. Moreover, 
the course of University reform in other countries and 
the report of the Calcutta University Commission have had 
LOPSV 



2 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Universities Conference at Delhi, 

their effect both on the type of new institutions established 
in India and on the character of reorganisation which some 
of the older Universities have undergone. Such important 
developments as these naturally suggested the need for 
co-ordination, and this, I am glad to say, has been met to a 
great extent by the Inter-University Board* Its record of 
work, since its inception, whether in compiling information 
regarding the courses of study and curricula of Indian 
Universities or as a convenient forum for the exchange 
of ideas regarding the life and ideals of these institutions 
among those most closely associated with them, has been 
wholly admirable. Indeed, when I consider the results 
you have achieved, I feel the hesitation natural to one 
who offers advice to a body of experts on their own sub- 
ject. But for reasons which I will shortly make plain I 
think there are few more important things in these days 
than Universities, and I wish therefore in this .perspective 
and as a layman to make such comments as I may upon 
University education, in the hope that others more com- 
petent may be assisted to find a satisfactory solution of 
the problems which here face educational statesmanship, 
lict me in parenthesis say that I make no apology for 
affirming that such problems exist, A country that felt 
Itself to be immune from the necessity for periodic over* 
haul of its educational policy would either have attained 
to perfection which is denied to human effort, or have 
unwittingly fallen into that paralysing atmosphere of self- 
satisfaction wMeh spells stagnation. Neither is true of 
India* India is rapidly growing. Her problem is 
nothing less than the adaptation, without too violent 
j.ar or stress, of an ancient and organic structure 
of society to the dynamic forces of evolution 

that are driving the modem world. New forces are mov- 
xmloosing new energies, kindling the imaginations and 
iwf>es of millions of the future citizens of India at their 
mast impressionahle age. Can this’ ardour of youth, this 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


S 


Opening of the U7nver$ities* Conference at Delhu 

coursing of blood tbrougb the young veins of India he 
utilised and directed to constructive ends» or will it become 
an explosive force, charged with incalculable danger to 
the future of the land ? This question should be written 
in flaming characters over the desks of all who guide public 
opinion or policy ; and that is why I said just now that 
I thought there were few more important things than 
TJniyersities. ‘ 

Let us look back. The first Indian Universities which 
were founded some 70 years ago on the model of the 
London University aimed primarily at ascertaining, by 
means of examination, the proficiency acquired by candid- 
ates in different branches of knowledge. Teaching was 
left to Colleges. In some of these, students fell under the 
influence of teachers nurtured in the traditions of the 
older British Universities, and thus imbibed ideals of 
conduct which helped to produce not only scholars, but 
men endowed with the light of idealism and with force of 
character. But the first Indian Universities did not, in 
the earlier stages of their existence, concern themselves 
directly with training and developing the personality of 
those on whom they conferred the hall-mark of scholastic 
proficiency. Though the legislation of 1904 went some 
way to recognise the wider functions of a University in 
the matter of discipline and residence, it was not until 15 
years later that, as a result of the Calcutta University 
Commission, their scope of activity was definitely con- 
ceived as embracing not merely the training of intellect 
but the formation of character. In the light of this con- 
ception some Universities have been reorganised, some have 
been created, and the experience of the working of these 
institutions, though it is too short to permit final judg- 
ment, has already given us much material for synthesis 
and review. 


4 


Speeches lij Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Universities^ Conference at Delhi, 

'And tMs brings me to wbat is surely the kernel of the 
■whole matter. What do we really expect from and what 
is essentially the function of a University ? If I had to 
answer in a sentence I should say The function of a 
University is to create and maintain standards’’. Let 
me amplify what I mean, ' I mean principally three things^ 
There is first the standard of learning and research which 
Universities, as the homes o-f scholarship, owe it to. them- 
selves to preserve. And if learning and research are to 
have their real value, are to be more to a man than mere 
graceful accomplishments, and decorative adjuncts of his 
life, they must he human enough to fit into and join up 
•with the various categories of man’s activity. I think this 
is of all learning. The technical sciences are ob- 
vioii';'y related to the necessities of our ordinary existence 
at every turn. History too, and philosophy, and litera- 
ture, whether ancient or modern, all have their points of 
contact with everyday human life, and their lessons ring: 
most true when we feel that we can read our own ex- 
perience in them. . 

Second, I would assert the necessity of a right standard 
of judgment. A man’s training at a University has de- 
finitely failed if he leaves it without such an appreciation 
of values as may give him a Just sense of proportion, a 
knowledge of how much — ^for all his store of learning — 
there is yet for him to learn, and some instinctive sense of 
the mystery of the universe and of the mystery of man’s 
place in it. Whatever the channel through which this 
comes into and takes shape in his mind, it seems to me in- 
dispensable to real education. And here again in playing 
his part in the world and in his dealings with other men, 
whether as politician, administrator, employer, or in pro- 
fessional or business life, a man is trebly armed who^ 
intmtiyely the relative importance of all the 
amnerous elements which every human problem must 


Speeches ly Lord Irwm, 5 


Opening of the Univerdties^ Conference at Delhi. 

contain. Or at least lie must have sufficient of the quality^ 
call it imagination or what you will, to appreciate that 
such elements exists and if, by fault of training or for 
any other reason, he lacks this faculty, he is as a man 
who sees himself in a mirror which shows him his own 
face magnified and nothing more. His own problems, 
his own position, his own perspective absorb too much of 
the picture, and hopelessly obscure and distort his view 
of persons and things beyond himself. Some of you— 
and it is not irrelevant to my present argument — will re- 
member the reply given by a wise Master of a famous 
Oxford College to a lady who asked him what he thought 
of God. Madam ”, he said, I have always thought it 
of more importance what God thinks of me.” 

Nor need we fear that such breadth of mind or judg- 
ment as I should desire my University to inculcate would 
result in a type of man halting in decision or uncertain of 
opinion. That is never likely to spring from foundations 
of thought and reflexion securely laid. Eather perhaps 
will it breed a wise tolerance, and teach a man the secret 
of winnowing the good from the evil in the strangely 
mixed amalgam that constitutes the world of men and 
things with which we have to deal. 

And fhiid, the standard of conduct. At a University 
a young man is learning to make use of liberty. He has 
left the disciidine of home and school behind him, and 
he is given, in greater or less degree, a new found liberty 
in action, and liberty in Study. The time has come for 
him to put to the test the discipline he has learnt, and' 
con his response to this demand will largely depend the 
success or otherwise with which he fills the position to 
which his education should entitle him. 

Three standards—learning, judgment and conduct — 
I have suggested to you as the things that a tlnivorsiiy 
miLSt hold in view. Together, eachi^lnying its part, they- 



6 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin* 


Opening of the Universities^ Conference at Delhi^ 

will form human character. And the vital importance 
of .securing such standards is apparent when we think 
that on University men must largely fall the burden of 
leading others in all the various walks of public life. 

Ai’e then, we must ask ourselves, our Universities 
fulfilling these requirements ? It is vital that they should. 
For the youth of India to-day will, when they are iiv^n, 
have responsibilities graver than perhaps they realise. 
The political future of India with all its implications of 
civil and military obligation will depend largely on the 
character of the generations now passing through their 
University courses. On them will largely depend the 
future quality of the Public Service. On their capacity 
will largely turn the future expansion and development of 
India’s agriculture and India’s industry. And in all 
these things they will succeed or fail according as they can 
'be assisted by their University training to acquire that 
poise of body, mind, and character which is the indispens- 
able equipment for their task. 

I have spoken of University education as having for 
one of its main objects the training of those who are 
destined to be leaders of the nation. And it is well, I 
think, to remember that there is a real distinction between 
the functions of a University and of educational institu- 
tions of a lower order. No one indeed would suggest 
that these latter have not their essential part to play. One 
might as well say that the foundations of a building are 
inferior to or less important than the top story, or, to 
vary the metaphor, the simpler cells in a living organism 
less necessary to its life than the more delicate and com- 
plex. Both types of institution are essential for any 
^^untry ; and complementary to each other. But they are 
^ fundamentally different, and a clear recognition of this 
is necessary to ^re for each its ma^inum 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


7 


Opening of the Universities* Conference at Delhi, 

efficiency. If a University must of necessity be concerned 
to prepare tho^ it trains for work different in quality 
from that which falls to the hulk of the population, it 
follows that a University is bound to exercise selection, 
not indeed on any class grounds but on grounds of ability 
and capacity to profit by its teaching, among those who 
may apply to be enrolled upon its books. 

The results of recently instituted competitive examina^ 
tions in India force the layman to wonder whether this 
fact is always borne in mind. The disproportion of 
successes among the various Universities seems to lead 
inevitably to the inference that • some demand and are 
satisfied with unreasonably low standards of proficiency. 

It may be that the older order of things required less 
exacting tests ; that the occupations for which the Univer* 
sities prepared their students in former days demanded 
merely a modicum of mechanical qualities ) that the 
excess of the demand over the supply could have had no 
other result. But that is past and we have to ask our- 
selves to-day whether the true ideals of a University are 
sufficiently appreciated, or whether Universities them- 
selves and parents and students, under the influence of the 
past, are not in some danger of demanding and being 
satisfied with too low a standard for degrees. It was 
after all a thoroughly fallacious syllogism by w^hieh a 
speaker once sought to champion a certain University 
whose standards were lower than they ought to be. It 
is the business of a University, ’’ he argued, ‘‘ to grant 
degrees. This University grants a great many degrees. 
Therefore it is a very good University 

But, whatever the cause, the gravity of the effects of . 
low University standards can -hardly be exaggerated. 
They lower a University's reputation. They debase it 
from what is its real and only purpose — the maintenance 
of those standards on which our civilisation depends^ and 


8 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Cniversities' Conference ot Delhi 

“wliicli ought to be to civic life exactly wliat a high standard 
of v'orknianship is to the craft coiieeiuied. 

Gentlemen, your knowledge of these matters is deeper 
than mine and I leave it to you to judge whether I am 
justified in the misgivings which I have attempted to 
express. Nor shall I presume to prescribe any read^^-made 
panacea. Eemedies that profess to be easy are generally 
ineffective and, in seeking your expert aid in diagnosing 
and curing the malady, I am conscious that my prescirip- 
tions are those not of a specialist but of a general practi- 
tioner. 

I have laid, I hope, not undue emphasis on the part 
that Universities must play in the building up of character. 
For this I have the high authority of the Calcutta University 
Commission and of the example of the ancient Universities 
of Oxford and Cambridge. If this part of their work Is 
to be done efficiently, Universities in India must, I fancy, 
more and more evolve on residential and tutorial lines or, 
if they must retain their affiliating character, insist on the 
provision of adequate facilities for h’gher teaching in the 
constituent colleges, and for the fostering in their colleges of 
a healthy and stimulating corporate life among the stiidenls. 
They must on the one hand see that their standards of 
instruction and examination are high enough to ensure 
that those who attain them are really capable of performing 
the tasks for which they will be nominally declared pro- 
ficient, and on the other insist on maintaining sueb 
standards of admission as to exclude those who have neither 
the capacity nor equipment to profit by University train- 
ing. I see that in their review of the growth of education 
in British India, Sir Philip Hartog and his colleagues- 
have made the suggestion that, if Government were no 
longer to insist on a University degree as a passport to 
service, except for higher appointments, the pressure on 
Universities and colleges would probably be relieved* 



Speeches hy Loi'd Invin, 


Opening of the Universities^ Conferenee at Delhi, 

This suggestion, along with others in the review, is one on 
which a body such as yours is eminently qualified to give 
an opinion, and you will i>erhaps give it your considera- 
tion. One other objective I would put forward for your 
consideration, namely, the prevention of uneconomical 
overlapping among the large number of Universities that 
now exist in India. It ^vould clearly impose a great 
financial strain on those responsible for the upkeep of 
these institutions to equip each one of them all for the 
efSeient study of all branches of the Arts and Sciences. 
It would also be wasting the opportunities for specialisa- 
tion that the history or the environment of particular 
Universities provide. This question seems to need special 
study at your hands. 

Gentlemen, my excuse for detaining you so long is 
your own kindness in asking me to open your Conference 
this year, and the feeling that in practical affairs it is 
Tile privilege of the large bedy of amateurs who constitute 
the public to appraise the work of the experts. If thd 
experts wish their achievement to be as^^essed correctly they 
must keep the amateur in mind, and help him to judge 
them aright. It is in this spirit that I have addressed 
you. But I have also wished to keep in mind the larger 
public outside. University reform, even if it w^ere begun, 
would be shortlived if public opinion did not realise its 
value and lend to it its support. As parents and guardians, 
as employers, as leaders of opinion, it is the members of th^ 
public who have to be convinced of the need for reform^ 
In particular the parents, whose natural affection for their 
children is often apt to lead them to form exaggerated hopes 
of their capacity, have to be educated to a recognition of 
the importance of impartial discrimination so as to save 
themselves the expense, and themselves and their children 
the disappointment, that comes of giving a University 
edueatioii to those who are naturally unfitted for it% It 



10 


Speeches hy Lotd lr)jDh. 


Opening of the Forest BOseareh Institute at Dehra Dun. 

is at once your privilege and your duty to study the neces* 
sity for, and the scope of, University reform ; to suggest 
measures for the consideration of those with whom the 
duty of taking decisions may rest, and to rouse and educate 
public opinion. I wish you every success in the discharge 
of your heavy and important responsibility* 


OPENING OF THE FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE 
AT DEHRA DUN. 

Tth November In opening the Forest Research Institute at Dehra Dun on 

the 7th November 192>9, His Excellency the Viceroy said 

Ladies and Gentlemen ^ — ^We have all listened with the 
greatest interest to Mr. Rodger ^s account of Forest 
Research in India and at Dehra Dun, and of the inception 
and development of the Institute which I am to have 
the honour of formally opening this morning. It is an 
uccasion of no small significance. This Forest Researcli 
Institute is, I believe, the largest and most complete in 
the British Empire, if not in the whole world, and its 
completion is an event in which India may well take pride. 
It is a very great pleasure to me therefore that I should 
have been given the opportunity of taking part in this 
ceremony. 

I remember that my first thought on seeing the lay- 
out of the Institute three years ago was that the buildings 
and their setting were in every way worthy of the great 
forests with winch this country is endowed, and of the 
fine work that has been, is being, and is yet to be done 
towards their development and utilisation for the benefit 
of the people of India. And now temembening that the 
Indian Forest Department has to deal with nearly one- 
quarter of the area of British India, that it makes an 
annual profit of nearly three erores of rupees, and that it 



Speeches hy Lord Inmu 


11 


Opening of the Forest Research Institute at Dehra Dun. 

has such wide opportunities of increa>sing the prosperity 
of the people, not only in the villages and remote tracts, 
but also by the development of trade in commercial 
centres, I feel that those who have planned, and those 
who have found the money for, this Institute, have been 
inspired by no unworthy conception of its potential value 
to the life of India. 

Many of you have a much better acquaintance with 
the forests of India than I can claim, but even in the 
journeys that I have performed up and down India and 
Burma, in hills and in the plains, I have seen enough of 
the country’s wonderful wealth of forestry to realise the 
value of the trust we have in our keeping and our obliga- 
tions to use it to the best advantage. The control of our 
forests has, as you Imow, already been transferred in two 
Provinces and it is quite possible that a similar develop- 
ment may before long be seen in other Provinces too. But, 
where an Imperial asset of such value is concerned, my 
Government have felt that a great responsibility will still 
rest upon them, and they have therefore undertaken the 
financing and direction of forest research. Research is the 
essential counterpart of the splendid work that is carried 
on from day to day and from year to year by the officers of 
the Indian Forest Service, often in face of danger a? id 
generally in that isolation which is a stern test of character 
and of devotion to duty. I f^el no doubt that those whose 
part in the drama of Indian forestry will lie within the 
four walls of these buildings will make the best use of the 
great opportunities afforded to them of assisting their 
Service to achieve even finer results than India has yet 
seen. 

I suppose the first question which anyone^in this 
utilitarian age — ^will ask is What use is all this research 1 
What can the Institute actually show in the way of a 
dividend on all the money spent upon it ? I confess 




i2 


Speeches ly Lord Irimn, 


Opening of the Forest BesearcJi Institute at Belira Dun. 

'that not long ago I asked Mr. Eodger the same question, 
and he has been good enough on more than one occasion 
to give me some account of what has been done since the 
inception, in a small way, of the Institute in 1906. In the 
belief that it will be as interesting to my audience as it 
was to me I will try and summ^arise something of what 
he has told me. , 

Take the Silviculturist’s branch. He is the medium 
by which information on silvicultural subjects is supplied 
to forest officers all over India, as well as in other countries, 
‘tod he can, by keieping in close touch wuth the problems of 
all Provinces and with progress made in all parts of the 
v/orld where forests are of importance, give invaluable 
help to enquirers from every forest division in India. 
From the investigations of this branch the owner of a 
-forest, Government or private, can learn the age to which 
his trees cah be grown so that the maximum interest on 
the invested capital may be realised, and the manner in 
Which the greatest possible quantity of good timber can 
he produced. When planting a new forest, the methods 
•evolved at Dehra Dun, or evolved elsewhere and recorded 
at Dehra, may save ten years in the time taken to form a 
plantation, ghing a direct gain of nearly 2e5 per cent, 
in the present value of the crop. The silvicultural branch 
*can give, and has given, most valuable assistance in the 
afforestation of barren lands, and I have little doubt that 
5ts aid will be called in to help the Imperial Council of 
Agricultural Research, now that that body has begun its 
Work of improving the methods of the Indian agr|icul- 
turist, by showing how to establish fuel plantations to save 
valuable manure for the fields. 

Then comes the question of utilising’ the trees When 
they have been grown. Mr. Eodger has given us some 
’account of the economic side of Eeseareh, and I propose 
only to supplement this by a few instances of actual 


SpeccJies ly Lord Irwin, 


13 


Opemng of the Forest Research Institute at Dehra Bun. 

results. Spars for aeroplanes^ poles for gun-carriages, 
stocks for Army rifles, sleepers for railways, are all the 
subject of exhaustive research at Dehra Dun, and thanks 
to that research have attained a considerably higher degree 
of efSciency. The Railways have saved many lakhs of 
rupees by employing modern methods of preserving second- 
class woods so that they may be used as sleepers, and large 
plants are now in operation in the Punjab and in Assam. 
The Government Rifle Factory at Ishapore will save nearly 
£10,000 a year by adopting the methods that have been 
worked out here of seasoning walnut for rifle stocks. The- 
Railways are building seasoning kilns at liliooali, being 
convinced by the result of the experiments made here 
that Indian timbers can be so treated, and their value 
greatly increased. The Dehra Dun experimental work 
has also been embodied in the new seasoning kilns at the 
Gun Carriage Factory at Jubbulpore, where they are 
giving every satisfaction. After many 3’'ears of work at 
Dehra Dun, bamboos are coming into their own for paper 
pulp, and two companies are now being floated in London 
to work the enormous bamboo forests in Burma, the 
technical member of the Boards being the pulp expert, who 
has just retired from this Institute. It is expected that 
these two companies will be tbe forerunners of others which 
will work the extensive bamboo forests of India and Burma, 
which are now standing more or less idle. Another im- 
portant question in India is the manufacture of matches 
from indigenous woods, and, on the recommendation of the 
Tariff Board, proposals are now being considered for ex- 
tensive experimental work and for a survey of tbe forests 
which contain potential match woods so that India may, 
as far as possible, produce all her own matches. 

In other ways too such as in assisting the manufacture 
of turpentine, oils from grasses, medicinal drugs, gumS 
and other products, J:he Economic Branch has done w^i;; 



14 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Forest Research Institute at Dehra Dun. 

of the greatest practical utility, and a continually in- 
creasing demand is being made upon them from every 
quarter for technical information. 

In this Institute too incessant warfare is carried on 
against the insects and pests which affect the growth of 
forest trees and damage their timbers. Of all the in- 
jurious species the heartwood borer of sal must, I think, 
bear the Entomologist the heartiest grudge, for its ravages 
on sal forests have by the Entomologist's efforts been 
enormously restricted in recent years. There was lately 
an epidemic in which it was found that no less than five 
and a half million trees had been destroyed by this borer, — 
a loss of forest capital of approximately 13 lakhs of rupees. 
Thanks largely to the advice of the Dehra Dun Entomo- 
logist the control operations taken in hand to deal with 
this outbreak have been so successful that the attack has. 
now almost abated and a loss of several millions of rupees 
has been prevented. 

I have said enough to indicate to you the tale of 
romance and achievement which is being written here. 
For myself, I have been fascinated by what in frequent 
conversations with Mr. Rodger I have learnt of the possi- 
bilities which lie before us, and I only wish that I were 
competent to initiate you, as he has sought to initiate me, 
into the mysteries of botany, chemistry and mycology which 
are conducted in their allotted rooms in this Institute. The 
work of these departments is indispensable to the success 
of our Research organisation and to the economic utilisa- 
tion of our forest resources. But I have tried to give you 
some idea of what the Institute is doing. Nor have I 
time to refer to the valuable educational work done at the 
colleges allied to this Institute, for the training of officers 
in forestry. The work done here, which owes so much to 
Mr. Rodger’s own efforts and to the unceasing interest he 
and. those under him have taken in tiaking it worthy of 


Speeches 'by Lord Irvnn. 


IS 


Opening of the Forest Research Institute at Dehra Dun. 

their great charge^ is of the very greatest importance, and 
the construction of these buildings is cause for 
legitimate pride and satisfaction. Buildings, how- 
ever, are not everything. It was because my Gov- 
ernment realised this fact that, on the initiative 
of Sir Muhammad Habibullah to whose interest and 
enthusiasm the Forest Department owes so much, and 
whose presence here to-day has to our great regret been 
unavoidably prevented by the duties awaiting him on his 
return from his responsible mission to Geneva and London, 
they appointed recently a small but expert Committee, 
under the presidency of Sir Chunilal Mehta, to advise them 
about the functions and policy of the Institute and the 
future of its activities. We are greatly beholden to the 
Committee for the valuable report which they submitted 
this summer and which was made public very shortly after 
it was received. In that report, they made a number of 
most helpful suggestions and laid down with admirable 
judgment and lucidity the line of policy which should be 
pursued in the future. I am glad to have this opportunity 
of acknowledging our indebtedness to them. Complete 
examination of their report must necessarily take time, but 
I am happy to be able to say that the bulk of their recom- 
mendations have already been taken up in consultation 
with Mr. Eodger and that we hope to give effect, in due 
course, to very many of them. We intend within the 
limits of our financial liability to give this Institute, now 
so finely housed and located, the scientific staff which it 
requires, and to omit or neglect no measure which we think 
will make for its continued success and greater useful- 
ness. 


The Institute and the various allied activities of 
which it is the centre must, as I see ,it, aim at the discharge 
of a double purpose. Of the most effective utilisation of 
Indian woods I have already spoken, but it is not less our 



16 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Reply to Muslim Deputation at Delhi. 

desire to train Indian personnel in all tlie teclinical branches 
of forestry research work. The governing consideration 
must remain that of efiSciency, and I am certain no Indian 
who is concerned to see this branch of India’s resources 
fully developed would be so short-sighted as to desire the 
employment of Indians in any technical post, just because 
they were Indians, without regard to their technical quali- 
fications. In research of any kind reliable and accurate 
work is an absolute necessity. But subject to the main- 
tenance of this technical standard, I yield to no Indian 
in my desire to see Indians filling an increasingly large 
place in the several posts that this Institute may have to 
offer. 

In carrying out the policy which 1 have enunciated, 
the Government of India, I need hardly add, look forward 
to and most heartily invite the cordial co-operation of the 
Provincial Governments. The future success of the Insti- 
tute must depend on the goodwill of the Provinces, and I 
fully recognise how much the work of the Institute can be 
furthered, and how much more fruitful the results of its 
work for India are likely to be, if their co-operation and 
support are assured. My Government will w^elcome all 
the help that Provinces can give ns in the work of co- 
ordinating forest research, and I feel confident that as 
the years pass the material gain to the country from the 
activities of the Institute so supported will be greater than 
I venture to think many of us here to-day can realise. 

^ REPLY TO MUSLIM DEPUTATION AT DELHI. 

0th November His Excellency the Viceroy received a Deputation composed 
1^20. representatives of the Muslim community at Delhi on the 
forenoon of the 9th November in connection with The Child 
Marriage Restraint Act a^nd after hearing their views said : — 

Gentlemenr-L am very pleased to have the 
Opportunity of meeting representatives of the Muslim 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


17 


Reply to Muslim Deputation at Delhi, 

tjommunity h^re to-day, and to hear frankly from them 
of their anxieties in regard to the matter which has been 
the subject of our discussion. 

I fully appreciate the strength of your feeling on the 
subject, and wish to state as plainly as I can what seems 
to me to be the relevant considerations which we all have 
to bear in mind. 

First of all, let me remind you of the legal position 
fey Tfvhich I and you are both alike bound : 

Under the Indian constitution, The Indian Legisla- 
ture has power to make laws for all persons, for ail courts 
and for all places and things, within British India 
1^5 ( 1 ) 1 . 

This is a very wide power but it is governed by the 
provision among others of ^67 (2) (b ) — 

It shall not be lawful, without the previous 
sanction of the Governor-General, to introduce 
at any meeting of either Chamber of the 
Indian Legislature any measure affecting the 
religion or religious rites and usages of any 
class of British subjects in India. 

In the exercise of this power my predecessor and I 
think I myself have on several occasions refused sanction 
to bills which, hy reason of their religious or quasi-religious 
import, would have wounded the religious feelings of a' 
community, and the mere discussion of which therefore 
would inevitably have aroused sharp communal feeling. 
And I can without hesitation say that in all such cases 
any one who holds my office would scrutinise very serioiisly 
any such proposals for legislation before granting sanction. 

There may be cases of purely religious and spiritual 
character where a civil legislature would naturally be very 
unwilling to intervene, unless it were with the assent of 
the preponderance of opinion in the community concerned, 
I am thinking of what Maulana Mahommed Ali, in his 
LjBPSV 



18 


Speeches by Lord Irwhi, 


Meply to Muslim Deputation at Delhi, 

very complete and interesting statement which he was 
good enough to give me yesterday, has referred to as ‘ the 
boundaries of Allah ’ which must never be transgressed. 

But as I see it there are other questions, of which this 
Marriage question was one, which are border-line cases 
between sociology or civics and religion. In the statement 
1 have just referred to Maulana Mahommed Ali has spoken 
of the fallacy of trying to differentiate sociology from 
religion. But here clear thinking is important. In a 
matter of this kind, it is impossible for the modern state 
to disinterest itself, because it clearly bears upon social 
questions which must be of the most vital interest to it 
— ^but in dealing with the question a civil legislature is 
dealing with it primarily in its civil aspect which must 
always remain its responsibility. 

Difficulty is bound to arise for us all in such border- 
line cases, and we have to judge them both as men sincerely 
devoted to our religion whatever that may be, and also 
as fairminded and progressive citizens of a progressive 
age. 

It is not only therefore a legislature which has to 
reconcile these conflicting duties but it is a duty which 
none of us can evade in forming our own private judg- 
ments. 

You are rightly jealous — as I am in my own ease in 
similar difficulties that frequently arise in England— of 
spiritual liberty and freedom in matters of religious faith 
and practice. Where the limits of the civil society and 
the religious organisation are coterminous these difficulties 
do not arise, for each is the counterpart of the other in 
the civil and religious sphere respectively. But neither 
you nor I can ignore our obligations as citizens in a civil 
society which is not composed only of members of the same 
religious profession as ourselves. 

It is not necessary for me to stress the civic side of 
the evils of child marriage with which the bill introduced 
Sahib Har Bilas Sarda was designed to deaL The 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


19 


Reply to Muslim Deputation at Delhi. 

action taken by my Government — thongh it was taken in 
my absence — was one with which I whole-heartedly con- 
curred, and on which for the reasons I have given earlier 
Government are bound to adhere to the position which after 
most full consideration they felt it right to adopt. The 
Bill, as yon know, has duly received Lord Goschen’s 
assent. 

But in this particular case I understand you do not 
claim that the civil authority has sought to debar you 
from a duty enjoined upon you by religious sanction — for 
no Moslem maintains that child marriage is obligatory on 
religious grounds. I am speaking to men not only of 
deep religious feeling but learned in their scriptures, and 
I would not presume to speak to you at any length on the 
provisions of Islamic law in regard to marriage, whether 
laid down in the Qoran Shareef, the Hadis or in other 
authoritative sources. But I believe that child marriage 
is so far as Moslems are concerned an exceptional practice, 
and one which as a community they are not prepared to 
defend. I believe it is also true that in Egypt, and 
possibly in other Muslim countries, marriage laws have 
been enacted by a civil legislature. 

But I take it that your chief concern is in regard to 
the wider principle of asserting the religious character 
of the act ol marriage, and of ensuring, so far as it is 
possible for you to do so having regard to those general 
obligations as citizens of which I spoke just now, that 
religious liberties and those that arje included in the 
Personal Law should not be impaired by civil legislation 
against your wishes. Thus Maulana Mahommed Ali, in 
his written statement, talks of Islamic law as being 
absolutely self-contained— a complete prescription of 
everything that a man shall do to God, to his neighbour 
and to himself. What Muslims fear, as he puts it, is the 
repeal of Qoranic law by a human and non-Islamic legis- 
lature. I have said .enough to show you that I recognise 



20 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 

Opening of the New Krishna Bridge at Sangli, 

and largely share your feeling on these points and you 
may rest well assured that I shall continue to have full 
regard to the sentiments you have expressed in considering 
whether or not sanction should be accorded to projects 
of legislation, and inasmuch as the future constitution of 
India is now under discussion I shall make it my duty to 
acquaint those, who may now or later be concerned with 
the drawing of its lines, with the views you have laid before 
me. . 

I would only addi in conclusion that I am very pleased 
that you have seen fit to represent to me so frankly your 
anxieties, and I trust that what I have said will allay 
those that you yourselves have felt and enable you to 
remove anxieties from the minds of others, who were 
unable to be here to-day. 

OPENING OF THE NEW KRISHNA BRIDGE AT SANGLL 
lathNovemi In opening the New Krishna Bridge at Sangli on the 18th 
her 1929. Excellency the Viceroy said 

Jour Highness, Ladies and Oentlemen , — I am deeply 
gratified that Your Highness should have decided to 
signalise the first visit of a Viceroy to Sangli by a ceremony 
of this kind, and to allow me to take part in a function 
which inaugurates an undertaking destined to be of the 
greatest benefit to the people of Your Highness’ State. 
Ever since I was prevented by illness two years ago from 
taking advantage of Your Highness’ kind invitation, I 
have looked forward keenly to visiting your State, and 
nothing could have exceeded the warmth of the reception T 
have received from Your Highness and Your Highness’ 
people this morning. 

Lady Irwin and I are both deeply grateful to you for 
the kind terms in which you have just bidden us welcome 
to ^Sangli. My visit is, by force of circumstances, shorter 
than I could have wished, but a Viceroy does not have to 



Speeches T>y Lord Irwin. 


21 


Opening of the New Krishna Bridge at Sangli, 

spend more than an hour or two in an Indian State to 
realise the loyalty and friendship which its people feel 
towards His Majesty the King-Emperor’s representative. 
Your Highness has given expression to that sentiment this 
morning and to the friendly relations which have existed 
for so long between Your Highness and Your 
Highnessi’ predecessors and the British Government, and 
which have been marked by honours and distinctions of 
which you may well feel proud. Of all those honours the 
most valued, I think both in Your Highness’ eyes and in 
those of the Government, is the salute conferred upon the 
Chief of Sangli in recognition of the services of the State 
in the Great War. I have listened with great gratifica- 
tion to what Your Highness has said regarding the 
announcement which it was my duty to make on November 
1st. I am glad that Your Highness feels, as I myself feel, 
that great value may be found in the procedure 
outlined therein w^hich will enable His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment before submitting definite proposals to Parliament 
to have had the advantage of free and full discussion with 
representatives both of Your Highness’ Order and of British 
India, 

I have had the privilege for some time of knowing 
Your Highness in other surroundings, and I have learnt 
to value the work which Your Highness has done as a 
member of the Standing Committee of the Chamber of 
Princes. This adds to the pleasure I feel in visiting Your 
Highness in your own State and in seeing for myself the 
results of your good administration. Here in this town 
of Sangli the signs of prosperity are apparent in the 
cleanliness and well-being of the streets and in the com- 
modious buildings which house its population. In the rest 
of your State I believe that conditions are no less com- 
mei^ble, and I congratulate Your Highness on thi« 
sat^factory state of affairs. We have one instance before 
v£ of Your Highness’ thought and consideration for your 



22 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


Opening of tJie Agricultural Museum at Kolhapur, 

people in the fine bridge ’which I ant now to open and 
which you have been good enough to call by my name. 
Much of the history of India is in its bridges ; they have 
played their part in the gradual consolidation of a widely 
varied country and varied peoples, they have added 
immeasurably to the prosperity and comfart of a great 
population. This bridge will, I am confident, be widely 
welcomed by Your Highness' people, and will be a very 
real boon both to Sangii town and the ’villages of Sangli 
State. May it long endure to remind future generations 
of Your Highness' solicitude for the well-being of those over 
whom you rule. 

OPENING OP THE AGRICULTURAL MUSEUM AT 
KOLHAPUR. 

His Excellency the Yiceroy delivered the following speech 
when he opened the Agricultural Museum at Kolhapur on the 
19th November 1929 : — 

Your Highnessy Ladies and Oenilemen , — The pleasure 
which I felt in accepting Your Highness’ kind invitation 
to visit your historic State was greatly enhanced by the 
knowledge that it would be a pleasure experienced by no 
previous Viceroy. Now that I have broken this fresh 
ground and received a welcome so genuine and cordial^ 
I have little doubt that my successors will feel a desire to 
follow in my footsteps. It was, I need hardly say, a 
grievous disappointment to me two years ago when illness- 
prevented me from visiting Kolhapur, and that dis- 
appointment was heightened by the knowledge that Your 
Highness had already made elaborate arrangements for our 
comfort and entertainment. 

The ceremony I am now to perform symbolises what 
I hope is a general aspiration throughout India to-day, 
The recommendations made by the Royal Commission on 
Agriculture have aroused great interest in Indian farmihg, 
and have caused Local Governments and Indiaja 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


2S 


Opening of the Agricultural Museum at Kolhapur. 

States to take fresh, stock of their agricultural position, 
and among other things to effect improvements in the 
methods of the cultivator by means of shows, exhibitions 
and Co-operative Societies. The buildings I am now to 
open are Youn Highness’ contribution to this important 
movement, and bear testimony to your keenness and 
foresight in the development of the agricultural resources 
of your State. I owe you my thanks for the honour you 
have done me by associating my name with the Museum, 
which will I am sure be of lasting benefit to the people of 
Kolhapur. 

Agriculture will always be the chief industry of 
Kolhapur: and the main source of the State’s revenue. 
Every advance made for the improvement of agriculture 
must accordingly bring wealth and prosperity to the 
cultivator, and by increasing the resources of the State 
enable the administration to progress in all its branches. 
I am glad therefore to be able to congratulate Your 
Highness on the efforts you have made and are making to 
study the needs of your agriculturists by the introduction 
of Co-operative Societies, the construction of irrigation 
tanks, the employment of trained Agricultural Advisers 
and the facilities you have recently given to the British 
American Tobacco Company to introduce the growth of 
American tobacco in the villages of your State. The 
measures too which Your Highness is taking to improve your 
forests cannot fail to be of great benefit to your people. 
My visit to Panhala yesterday gave me a chance of seeing 
something of the work already carried out and I know that 
Your Highness will not fail to seize any opportunity that 
may offer itself of further development of your planta- 
tions. 

Your Highness’ State stretches from the Sahyadri 
range to the broad plains of the Deccan, The produce 
of the forests, the rice and small millets of the hills, the 



24 


Speeches hy Lord Irmre. 


Opening of the Agricultural Museum at Kolhapur, 

larger millets the plains, th<^ cotton^ sugarcane, groiREBd- 
mut and otlier crops of the rich black cotton soil give a 
wide field for profitable research, and Your Highness has 
taken a wise step in establishing this Institution, of which 
the experimental farm should prove of inestimable benefit 
to your cultivators. 

I ain particularly interested in the measures you have 
taken to ensure that the results of work done here may be 
widely diffused among your people. The gap between 
research and work-a-day practice is one which mtcst 
everywhere be bridged, if both are to- work profitably hand 
in hand for the good of thear eommoit purpose. Nor I think 
is it easily possible to exaggerate the importance of effecting 
in agricultural communities as intimate a working alliance 
as may be between the education of the child and the 
industry of agriculture, which must claim his or her 
principal activities in later years. For this reason I con- 
gratulate Your Highness upon your foresight in attaching 
a Central Agricultural School to the Museum, and upon 
the other plans you have devised to link the energies of 
this plan with the common life of the gr^t majority of 
your subjects. 

With regard to Your Highness^ proposal for an exten- 
sion of the railway from Kolhapur to IJajipur, I 
understand that this matter is being examined in connec- 
tion and relation with projects in the same area having 
identical aims, and I can assure Your Highness that it 
wiE receive careful consideration at the hands of Govern- 
ment. 

Your Highness, while we are speaking, the crops are 
growing. We are all anxious to see this Museum, School 
and Exhibition started! on their mission of usefulness, and 
I will now ask your permission to declare them formally 
open. Your Highness has asked me to assist you with 
to make this Museum a success, and, though I 
^ i^Henf about offering counsel to a race of farm^ 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


25 


Opening of the O'Brien Teclinieal School at Kolhapur and the 
unveiling of the Statue of Her Highness the Dowager 
Maliamni of Kolhapur. 

on their ora soil and on their ora subject, I need hardly 
say that I shall be glad at all times to help you in any 
I can. But from what I have seen to-day I feel well 
assured that the best guarantee of the success of these 
Institutions will be that Your Highness should continue to 
bestow on them the personal interest and understanding 
which you have showm in their inception. In declaring 
them open, I wish them a long career of increasing utility 
to all whom it will be their privilege to serve. 


OPENIKG OP THE O^BRIEN^S TECHNICAL SCHOOL AT 
KOLHAPUR AND THE UNVEILING OP THE STATUE 
OP HER HIGHNESS THE DOWAGER MAHARANI OP 
KOLHAPUR. 

The following speech was made by His Excellency the loth Novem# 
Vieeroy at the opening of the O’Brien Technical School and the 
Unveiling of the Statue of Her Highness the Dowager Maharani 
of Kolhapur at Kolhapur on the 19th November : — 

Your Highness, Rao Bahadur, Ladies and Gentlemen,— 

I take it as a great honour that I should have beeai 
asked to unveil this statute of Her Highness the Dowager 
Maharani, and to open the O’Brien Technical School. 

You have spoken eloquently, Diwan Sahib, of the true mean- 
ing which this twofold ceremony possesses for the State of 
Kolhapur, and I am glad to be able to join you in con- 
gratulating His Highness upon this happy occasion. His 
Highness’ interest in education of all kinds is no new 
story, and it is gratifying to know that, in accord with the 
growing demand in other parts of India for an extension 
of technical education, His Highness has decided to increase 
the facilities for this sphere of training in Kolhapur. 

The difficulty of finding suitable and adequate employment 
for the educated classes in India is one of the most '’serious 
problems which face us in this country to-day. Efforts 



26 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the O^Brien Technical School at Kolhapur and the 
unveiling of the Statue of Her Highness the Dowager 
Maharani of Kolhapur, 

have been and are being made to solve it, but we are still 
far from finding the true answer to our question. A 
partial solution however is, I believe, to be found in 
industrial, mechanical and commercial emj)loyment, for 
which training such as this Institution will provide mast 
clearly be the foundation. I am confident therefore that 
the School I have just opened will be of great and real 
benefit to the youth of Kolhapur. The supply of technical 
and scientific training however must be adjusted wisely 
to the demand, for it will have little value in the absence 
of adequate opportunity to apply it. I trust therefore that, 
in so far as it lies within your power, Your Highness will 
not fail to encourage industrial and similar enterprises, 
which lie within the resources of your State. 

In naming the school after that able Political Officer,, 
Colonel O’Brien, who during the period in which he was. 
Eesident at Kolhapur enjoyed the friendship and trust of 
Tour Highness, you have given public and appreciative 
recognition of his work and worth. The excellent relations 
which in the main subsist between the Rulers of the 
Indian States and the representatives of Government 
accredited to them are a subject of congratulation no less, 
to the Rulers than to the Officers of the Political Depart* 
ment of my Government. Throughout the many States 
I have visited I have not only found these cordial relations 
existing but have met with memories of gratitude 
and auction regarding the work of Political Officers during 
a hundred and fifty years. The public is not always aware 
of this and a certain amount of ill-informed criticism 
has been directed against a Service which has served well 
not only its Government but also the States. Though it is 
the primary duty of Political Officers to interpret the 
policy and wishes of the Government of India they are 
a very real sense the friends and champions of the 
States, and from my own experience I can say that they 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


27 


Opening of the O’Brien Technical School at Kolhapur and the 

unveiling of the Statue of Her Highness the Doicager 

Maharani of Kolhapur. 

are never backward in cLampioning the cause of a Durbar, 
where this differs and in their Tuew rightly differs from the 
point of view held by the Government of India. I trust 
that the measure of the usefulness of this institution 
dedicated in Colonel O’Brien’s name will be that of the 
esteem in which he was held by Your Highness. 

Let us now turn our thoughts to Mr. Karmarkar’s fine 
work of art which His Highness has presented to this city, 
and which I have just unveiled. It is well that a city 
or a State should perpetuate the memory of its benefactors, 
and Her Highness in spite of her secluded life has done 
much for Kolhapur to entitle her to the gratitude of its 
people. Speaking in this place I need not enlarge on her 
charity to the weak and poor, her care for the children 
and women of this State, her determination to improve the 
conditions of life and upbringing for all. I feel sure that 
in these and kindred works of service of her humbler 
fellows she has found the secret of true and enduring 
happiness, and I fervently hope that she may enjoy health 
and strength for many years to continue her good work. 

Gentlemen, your city is already indebted to His 
Highness the Maharaja for a statue of his late father. 
This second statue is a fitting counterpart. Its site too 
has been > well chosen, at the junction of two broad 
thoroughfares forming part of the important scheme which 
has been of such benefit to the people of His Highness’’ 
capital. The roads also, I notice, are named after two 
men in whose hearts Her Highness’ charitable endeavours 
will always strike a ready chord of sympathy, His 
Excellency Sir William Birdwood and Sir Leslie Wilson. 

Tour Highness, I thank you for inviting me to 
perform this ceremony. I can readily picture to myself 
the double pleasure you yourself must feel at this moment, 
the pleasure of a dutiful son paying reverence to an 



28 


Speeches 'hy Lord Irwin, 


Unveiling of a Statue of Sir Leslie Wilson, 

honoured mother, and the pleasure of a good ruler com- 
memorating in lasting form the care and sympathy of his 
House for the loyal people of his State. I trust that, 
as the eyes of future generations rest upon this statue, 
they may interpret it as a memorial to one who deserved 
well of the State she sought to serve, as an expression of 
that family affection which is the foundation of all human 
society, and as a symbol of that mutual regard anci 
responsibility by which the relations of ruler and ruled 
should be inspired. 


UNVEILING OF A STATUE OF SIR LESLIE WILSON, 
fovem- lii Unveiling the Statue of Sir Leslie Wilson at Kolhapur 
1929. on the 19th November, His Excellency the Viceroy said 

Your Highness, Ladies and Gentlemen, ’-4. have had 
other opportunities of spealting in Kolhapur to-day and 
I do not propose therefore to make too great a demand 
upon your patience. Nor indeed, after listening to His 
Highness’ eloquent and heart-felt eulogy of Sir Leslie 
Wilson, do I feel that there is much foi me to add about 
a personality whose, memory is still fresh among the 
multitude of friends he has left in India. 

But I must thank Tour Highness warmly for having 
allowed me the privilege of unveiling this statue. It is 
fitting that Kolhapur should pay such a mark of honour 
to Sir Leslie Wilson, for during his tenure of the Governor- 
ship of Bombay he made, in a very special sense, the 
interests of the States within his political charge his own. 
During that period several States were transferred from 
the charge of the Presidency to that of the Government of 
India. But the personal regret which Sir Leslie Wilson 
must inevitably have felt at this change of relations acted 
only as a spur on him to show how much a Governor could 
still do on behalf of the States in political relations 
wiftrHm. Upon those who were left he bestowed unremit- 
ting cane and solicitude with the happiest results. His 



Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


29 


State Banquet at Kolhapur. 

genial personality won the friendship of the Rulers in a 
marked degree, and his passion for clean government and 
all good causes was a constant stimulus to the Princes and 
Chiefs to improve their administrations and to do ail in 
their power for the welfare and prosperity of their people. 
He* rightly thought that more improvement could be 
obtained by friendly encouragement and judicious praise 
than by threats and warnings. He was justified in the 
issue, and he often expressed his belief that many of the 
States in his charge could in the progressive and beneficent 
character of their administrations show an example to all 
India. I am glad to believe that he had good reason fe)r 
liis faith. His pride in their achievements made him an 
enthusiastic and whole-hearted supporter of the States in 
seeking to secure recognition for their just claims and 
aspirations, and they on their part owe him a deep debt 
of gratitude for his labours on their behalf. 

Your Highness has good cause therefore to value his 
friendship and to perpetuate his memory in the statue 
which you see before- you. I know that Sir Leslie Wilson 
himself appreciates very highly the honour you have done 
him, and that he is not likely to allow time to efface the 
memory of the good friends he has made among the 
Princes and people of the Bombay Presidency. 


STATE BANQUET AT KOLHAPUR. 

His Excellency the Viceroy delivered the following speech loth Novem3 
at the State Banquet at Kolhapur on the 19th November : — 1^29* 

Yotir Highness^ Ladies and Gentlemen , — I must begm 
by thanking Your Highness warmly for the cordial terms 
in which you have just proposed my health and Lady 
Irwin ^s. We are both most grateful to you for the welcome 
you have given us to your State and for all the hospitality 
you have shown us in it. We too have found our time all 



30 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


State Banquet at Kolhapur, 

too short, but thanks to Your Highness' excellent arrange- 
ments we have seen a great deal that was of interest and 
we shall carry away the happiest recollections of our 
visit. 

When I landed in India three and a half years ago, 
Your Highness was one of the first Princes to greet me 
and to give me a pressing invitation to visit your State. 
I determined to take an early opportunity of accepting 
Your Highness' invitation, and I w^as only prevented by 
illness from doing so two years ago, to my own great 
disappointment and, I fear, to Your Highness' great 
inconvenience. 

I have listened with much interest to Your Plighness' 
account of the progress made in the State under your 
rule. Your Highness has rightly spoken in terms of praise 
of your late lamented father who, as social reformer and 
leader of his community, exercised so important and 
beneficent an influence not merely in his State but through- 
out Western India. I am pleased to know that Your 
Highness is pursuing the same tradition of far-sighted 
policy, and is building on the foundations which he has 
laid. I have been greatly interested in all I have heard 
of your late father's successful efforts to spread education 
among the more backward classes of the community, and 
to break down certain social barriers which he felt were 
hindering his reforms. My attention has specially been 
attracted to the system of hostels attached to schools and 
colleges in Kolhapur, and I am glad to hear that Your 
IlighnesKS continues to carry on this good work. 

It is impossible to recall the name of your father 
without remembering with gratitude his loyalty to the 
British Throne and the Empire, and his personal work 
and influence which were of such value in the Great War, 
Nothing could have illustrated more vividly how staunch 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


31 


State Banquet at Kolhapur. 

and sincere a friend he was than the action which he 
took in the dark days when our Mesopotamian forces were 
beleaguered in Eut-el-Amara. I quote from the preface 
to the Memories of His late Highness by the present Dewan 
of Kolhapur. When the garrison in Kut ran short of 
food and the Mahratta sepoys had scruples about eating* 
horse-jdesh, the Chhatrapati Maharaja volunteered to go to 
Mesopotamia and be carried into Kut by aeroplane in order 
to talk personally with the men, and, when this proved 
impossible to attempt, sent them a stirringly-worded appeal 
as from one caste-man to his brethren, which effected 
its object and helped to prolong their gallant resistance.^’ 
I am glad to think, Your Highness, that you faithfully 
maintain the sentiments of your father towards the Person 
and Throne of the King-Emperor. The Mahrattas have 
been known in past history for their soldierly qualities, 
and Tour Highness’ position in this race of soldiers has 
recently been recognised by the grant of the honorary rank 
of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army. I take this opportunity 
of offering Tour Highness my warmest congratulations 
on the high honour which His Majesty has been pleased 
to bestow on you. By means of the education policy 
initiated by your father and carried on by* yourself, the 
Mahrattas are now able to take their place among the 
officials and Councillors of the State, and I trust Tour 
Highness will find them as wise and capable in the Council 
Chamber as they are brave and hardy on the battle- 
field. 


I have heard much of Your Highness’ endeavours to 
improve the administration of your State in all its 
branches, and I am glad to have had the opportunity of 
seeing for myself the outward and visible signs of a well- 
governed and prosperous State. No one could fail to he 
struck with the general air of well-being and business-like 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


32 


State Banquet at Kolhapur. 


energy pervading Your Highness’ Capital city, and I have 
noticed with pleasure the measures taken to improve the 
health and amenities of its citizens by the provision of an 
up-to-date water-supply, by the widening and improvement 
of streets and by the construction of two city extensions. 
Your Highness has also been good enough to arrange that 
I should see something of the agricultural side of your 
State and visit some of Your Highness’ prosperous 
villages, and I have noticed with pleasure the efforts which 
you are making to improve the conditions prevailing in your 
rural districts. As the ruler of the premier State in the 
Bombay Presidency Your Highness occupies a very 
fortunate if responsible position, and you have during the 
short period of your rule shown that you are fully alive 
to your responsibilities, and that you have the interests 
and welfare of your subjects at heart. 


Your Highness has referred to the 1862 Agreement 
and its effect upon your relations with your Jagirdars. 
As Your Highness is aware the question of the transfer 
to Your Highness’ Government of certain powers of 
control over the Feudatories of your State, which had been 
exercised for a number of years by the Government of 
Bombay, has been engaging* the earnest attention of my 
Government. It is an added pleasure to me on this 
occasion to be able to announce to Your Highness that 
with the concurrence of the Secretary of State a decision 
has now been made on this important question, which has 
not been free from difficulties. The transfer of control will 
shortly be effected, and it will be subject to certaift* under- 
standings and with the proviso that the conditions of 
existing Thailies of the Feudatories shall remain in force 
so long as individual Jagirdars who may object to their 
alteration continue to hold their respective Jagirs and abide 
loyally by the conditions imposed upon them. In making 



Speeches hy Lord Invin, 


33 


State Banquet at Kolhapur, 

this announcement I sincerely congratulate Your Higlmess 
tliat the conditions -which existed wlmn restrictions were 
placed upon your relations with the Feudatories in 1862 
have now passed, and that the exercise of good govern- 
ment over a continued period of years has made i^ossible 
this change, wiiieli is of such far-reaching moment in the 
history of your State, 


I listened with great pleasure to the tribute you paid 
to the assistance and advice which you have received from 
His Excellency Sir Frederick Sykes, as you did from Sir 
Leslie Wilson before him, and to tlm value of Colonel 
O’Brien’s and Major Lang’s connection with your State. 
I am certain that Sir Frederick Sykes will be anxious to 
do everything in Ms power to maintain those happy relations 
which subsisted between Your Highness and his pi’e- 
decessor. By Colonel O’Brien’s retirement Government 
lost an experienced officer and Holhapiir and its ruler a 
sincere friend, but in your present Resident you have one 
who is, I feel sui*e, a worthy successor to him* 


Your Highness, I felt that, as the first Viceroy who 
has ever visited Kolhapur, I might claim your patience for 
a -longer time to-night than otherwise I would have dared. 
I must not try it further, except to say that the welfare 
of Kolhapur, as of all the States of India, will always he 
a matter of the deepest concern to me*. Your Highness has 
shown us this evening that you look forward to the solution 
of the important constitutional problems that now face 
the Indian States in a mood of quiet optimism. You 
rightly realise that the personal ruler who has won the 
aiffection of his siibjects by his efforts for tlieir welfare 
and betterment has nothing to fear for the future and his 
entrenchments are stronger than those provided by Treaties 
and Engagements, however sacred these are rigutiy held 
Lapijv 



34 


Speeches Iry Lord Irwin. 


Coorg Addresses, 

to be. You recognise also that British India and the 
States cannot stand apart in the future of this great 
country, but must co-operate in some constitutional form 
for the common good of the whole. The solution may uDt 
be easy. The Butler Committee has examined the existing 
position so that we may Imow^ our foundations before we 
begin to build, and we may expect that Sir John Simon’s 
Commission will also have something to contribute to the 
material already at our disposal on this subject. Your 
Highness will no doubt have noticed the announcement it 
was recently my duty to make of the intention of His, 
Majesty’s Government in due course to convene a confer- 
ence of representatives both from British India and the 
Indian States, for the examination of these constitutional 
questions. I have always felt that, in any discussion of the 
future of those two parts of India which mke up the 
Geographic whole, it was essential that British India and 
the Indian States should as far as possible search together 
for the solution in which all alike are vitally concerned. 
For I firmly believe that a happy issue out of many of 
our present difficulties ought not to be beyond our reacli, 
and I sincerely trust that with general goodwill the proce- 
dure outlined by His. Majesty’s Government majr prove tlie 
means of finding it. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I now give yon the toast of 
our distinguished host, His Highness the Maharaja of 
Kolhapur. 


COORG ADDRESSES. 

29th ■N’oveta- His Excellency the Viceroy replied as follows to the Addresses 
her 1929* pj-^gg^ted by (1) the Coorg Planters^ Association, (2) the Coorg 
Land-holders^ Association, (3) the Kodava Sahlia, (4)' the 
Gowda Community, (5) the Mercara Municipality on the 29th 
November 

Lddies and OentUnun , — T wish, at the outset, to 
express on Lady Irwin’s behalf as well as my own our 



SpeeelH'S ly Lord Irwi, 


35 


Coorg Addresses, 

iirai’mcst tlianlvs to all tliose 'who hare comtmecl to offer ns 
such a cordial welcome to Coorg. I need not conceal the 
keen pleasure it has gi-ven ns to he ahle to pay a visit to 
what we have often heard, and no^v know, to be one of 
the most beautiful parts of India. Though I am fortunate 
among ^Tceroj^s to he the first to see youx country", I have 
no doubt that many must have desired to come this w^ay 
•and u'ould have done so had the beauties of your country 
been less remote. But If Coorg has waited long to greet 
His Majesty the King-Emperor’^s representative, its 
W’clcorae has perhaps been all the heartier on that account, 
and the expressions of y^our loyalty to the Throne all the 
more sincere. Coorg is at one with all India in rejoicing 
•at the recovery which has been vouchsafed to His Majesty, 
•after many months of serious illness, so patiently borne, 
•and to our happiness so courageously surmounted, and 
I shall not fall to transmit to llis Majesty the sentiments 
which the several deputations have expressed. 

The addresses to which I hav^ Just listened cover a 
wide area of Coorg* life and interests. And, apart from 
the pleasure it gives me to meet such a representative 
gathering, it Is always of great value to me to be placed 
in possession of the thoughts and wishes of any aud every 
section of those who go to make up the vast population 
uf India. To the best of my power, I will endeavour to 
say something in regard to the many and varied matters 
to which you have referred. 

You have in the first place mentioned certain im- 
portant questions wdiich fall within the purview of the 
Statutory Commission, whose report- will shortly I hope 
be completed. I refer to such questions as the amalgama- 
tion of Coorg with one of the greater Provinces, the 
formation of an autonomous Karnataka Province on a 
linguistic basis, the grant of Provincial autonomy and 
the representation of Coorg in the Legislative Assembly- 
Material on all these possible lines of political development 



36 


Speeclies T)i/ Lord Irwin, 


Coorg Addresses. 

has been submitted to Sir John Simon and his colleagues, 
and I hope you will not think I am merely trying to find 
an easy means of escape from the necessity of answering 
your enquiries, when I say that until that body has 
presented its report it would be fruitless and ill-timed for 
me to express any opinion on them, 

I have been much interested in the plea put forward 
in the Land-holders’ address for the separation of the 
Judiciary from the Executive. I appreciate the feelings 
wliich liave promoted this request. But Coorg is a small 
Province and I understand that it would be difficult to 
effect an entire separation except at a large increase in 
expense. There is too the objection that the appellate 
authority would be at a great distance and in another 
Province. If, however, any modifieations of the present 
system are found to be possible at a reasonable cost I will 
certainly give such a scheme my careful consideration. 

Eeference too has been made to the possibility of 
transferring Provincial Gazetted officers every five years. 
Such transfers could only be made to and from a neigh- 
bouring Province, and apart from the question of ex- 
pense, which ^vould not he negligible, I understand that 
experience has shown that such an arrangement is not 
altogether free from difficulties. It will be within your 
recollection, too, that the principle underlying this request 
has been very fully debated in the Coorg Legislative 
Council, where it failed to commend itself to the 
majority of the House. 

^Yith regard to the assessment of Jama holdings, 
ihis question was carefully considered in the year 1890 
by the Government of India w^ho came to the conclusion 
that the assessment should not be regarded as having been 
permanently settled. The sanacls merely ratify and 
confirm the tenure as defined by the custom of the country 
and the Standing Order of Raja Linga Eajendra. They 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


37 


Coorg Addresses. 

recognise the fact that, where the ordinary ryot pays ten 
rupees, the privileged Jama ryot shall only pay five 
rupees, but the lower rate though representing a concession 
is in no sense a fixed sum. I fear that in tliis matter I 
do not think Government can reverse their earlier decision, 
but I am confident that the local Administration will 
examine sympathetically the question of removing un- 
necessary restrictions on the cultivation of Jama, Unibli 
and Jagir lands, and I counsel you to bring to their notice 
any specific cases in which the restrictions may have 
operated hardly. Yon may feel sure that any such 
request will meet with all consideration and sympathy 
from your Chief Commissioner, Mr. Pears, who has the 
interests of Coorg and its people so much at heart. 

Then there is the question raised by the Land- 
holders’ xVssoeiation of exemption from the Arms Act. 

I should be loth to associate myself with the removal of 
privileges of this kind from a race which has shown 
itself consistently loyal to the British Government, but I 
feel that .there is a tendency to attach to the privilege a 
scope which it did not originally possess. For it was not 
so much a permission to bear arms, as an exemption from 
disarmament, and T do not think that it is reasonable to 
claim that an exemption from disarmament in by-gone 
days, when travel was limited and conditions and weapons 
entirely different from those of today, should give a right 
to all Coorgs tO' carry such dangerous arms as revolvers 
throughout India. A gun is the traditional Coorg weapon 
and is borne by many of you as part of your Jama tenure 
duties, and I would remind you that the privilege of 
bearing arms has been reserved to you in the orders of 
1924, in spite of the fact that old-standing exeniptioxis 
have been withdrawn from many persons and classes, 
privileged in the past. 

The Planters’ Association has referred to the question- 
of prohibiting the import of coffee. Tljis matter lias not. 



38 


SpeecTies by Lord Irwm. 


Coorg Addresses^ 

yet been finally decided, but I eau assare tbe Association, 
that the iDoints, they have raised are being carefully 
considered by the GoYei’iuneut of India in consultation 
mth the Imperial Council of AgrienlturaL Eeseareh, whose 
advice on this subject is. being sought. 

As regards piopaganda through the Empire Market- 
ing Board for the benefit of the coffee industry, I can 
])roinise the Association that any proposals they may 
make in this respect mil receive my Govtnuunent^s' 
sympathetic consideration. I may add that the Imperial 
Council of Agricultural Eeseareh is now in direct touch 
with the Empire Marketing Board and is ready to con- 
sider, and at their discretion to forward, applications for 
grants from the Board. It ii^ a condition of such grants 
that any scheme put forward must prove itself to be one 
©f more than purely focal impoid'ance, and to be of direct 
interest to more than one x^art of the Enipiin wiietluvr fromr 
the producing or marketing i^oiirt of view. 

I am glad to find that you are determined to combat 
that terrible scourge of many parts of India — ^IMalaria*. 
In 192o an Anti-Malaria Committee was; as you know, 
formed under the presidency of the Civil Surgeon, Coorg, 
and measures have been concerted for a campaign against 
the disease At the request of the Coorg Government,. 
Licuteirant-Colonel McCombie Toung visited the Province* 
in the years 19^27 and 1928 to examine and report on 
malarial conditions and his report is now being examined.. 
The question of obtaining the seiwices of an. ofiJeer of the* 
Research Institute was considered, but the cost was found 
to be prohibitive*. The local Adnrinistration are howevei* 
fully alive to the importance of obtaining expert adVice; 
and the possibility of arranging for periodical visits of an 
expert from the Malaria Institute at Kasauli will bo ex- 
plored. A Sub-Assistant Surgeon has meanwhile beeir 
sent to Kasauli to be trained and another to the Trojiicai 
SchcKd of Medicine in. Calcutta. Experimental work is. 



Speeches hy Lord Irivin, 


30 


Coorg Addresses* 

being carried on and. though it is too early to form a 
definite opinion, there are grounds for hoping for good 
results. I would impress upon you that such measures 
cannot be carried out by Government alone and that the 
co-operation of all is necessary if they are to be a success. 
Nor is it only a question of destroying mosquitoes. The 
disease attacks most easily persons whose stamina is weak — 
so that, side by side uith measures for stamping out the 
carrier, should proceed measures for improving the 
standard of living. 

In this direction I believe that the recommendations 
of the Royal Commission on Agriculture show the way to 
possibilities of great improvement. These recommenda- 
tions are now engaging the active attention of the Chief 
Commissioner with a view to submitting to the Govern- 
ment of India a plan to develop the agriculture, including 
research work, and animal husbandly of Coorg and I can. 
assure yon that, when the Chief Commissioner’s proposals 
reach us, we shall approach them with every desire to do 
wiiatever we can to help you in these directions. 

I fear, however, that the configuration of the country 
of Coorg precludes the use of irrigation on any large scale 
and even sueli a scheme as the Uarangi Project involves 
great expense and no small technical difficulties. I 
understand that the cost of the scheme is estimated to be 
nearly tw'elve lakhs of rupees and that the probable return 
on that sum would be very small — and in the circum- 
stances I do not tiiink that it w^ould be possible for the 
Government of India to assist. 

I recognise the importance 'which you rightly attach 
to communications by road and railway. As to the im- 
provement of the main west coast road, I understand that 
tlie Government of Madras promised in 1922 that the 
question of strengthening bridges’ on the TelJieherry-Coorg 
road would be considered as soon as finances permitted, 




40 


'Speeches 'by Lord Irwin. 


Coorg Addresses. 

and the Chief Commissioner has promised to refer the 
matter again to them. In the way of a railway there are 
of course serious physical and financial difficulties to 
overcome. The nature of the physical difficulties is clear 
e\'en to the inexpert eye, and I cari readily appreciate the 
financial difficulties which arise from the high cost of 
constructing railways in a hilly country, and the com- 
paratively sparse population and low prciduetivity of the 
area that any railway would serve. The surveys which 
have been made in this area during the last 30 years have 
demonstrated the difficulty of choosing an alignment which 
would serve a sufficiently wide number of interests to 
make it remunerative. Further investigations however 
are now to be made into' the prospects of a connection from 
Tellicherry to Makut and to Manantoddy and we must 
I think await the result of this enquiry. 

With refa’enee to the request made by two of your 
bodies for the establishment of a State-aided Bank in 
Coorg you are no douht aware that the Government of 
India have set up a Central Banking Enquiry Cwmniittee 
and a number of Provincial Banking Enquiry Committees 
to enquire into banking conditions in India, with a view 
inter alia to the expansion of indigenous eo- 0 ]>eratiou and 
joint stock banking with special reference to the needs of 
agriculture, commerce and industry. A .sub-eommittee 
of the Madras Committee consisting of the Chairman and 
two members, with whom will be associated two mcrabei-s 
for Coorg, will examine the possdbiliiy of providing bank- 
ing facilities in Coorg. 

The Kodava Sabha have asked that young Coorgs 
should be afforded chances in the Army and (he other All- 
India Services, and to obtain scholarships. I need hardly 
tell you that Coorgs have an equal chance with all others 
for appointment to sueh services. Indeed with youg 
Cadef . Commissioner in close touch with you I am not 



Speeches htj Lord Irwin, 


41 


Coorg Addremes, 

sure that you are not in a favoured position. I see iliat 
two Coorgs hold the King’s Commission in the Indian 
Arm}^ and another in the Indian Medical Service and I 
hope that others will follow their example. There have 
been but few applications fi^om Coorg for scholarships 
for study abroad — indeed none since 1911 when one vas 
given for engineering. Such applications can, I am sure, 
alwa 3 ^s count upon the goodwill of the local Administra- 
tion but I must remind t'Ou that funds for such scholar- 
ships are now provided from the Provincial revenues, so 
that requests should onl^^ be put forward for persons wdio 
can really be expected to benefit hy higher training and 
are likely to be a credit to the Province of Coorg. 

I am gratified to hear from the Gow^da community 
of the support which they have given to the local battalion 
of the Indian Territorial Force. It is I am sorry to say 
not possible to find room for representatives of eveiy 
community in the ranks of the regular army. The Terri- 
torial Force is however open to all and was expressly 
constituted with a view to commimities like jmurs. Your 
jroung men have, of course, the same opportunities as other 
Indians of entering the ai*my as ofScers and the same 
educational facilities as other communities. I trust that 
the Gowdas wdll make use of the opportunities gi\eii to 
them of fitting themselves for the service of their country^ 
and I am glad to hear that this year the applications made 
b}" Gowdas for scholarships in schools show that the^^ are 
conscious of their responsibilities in this direction. 

Lastly, I come to the problems of this town itself and 
I am glad to learn that the City Fathers of Mercara re- 
cognise the obligation resting upon them in matters 
affecting the health and welfare ot the- citizens tinder 
their chargee. The de^^'elopinent of public conveniences 
such as water-supplies and sanitation must largelv depend 
on local enterprise, and is of course a matter of Provincial 



42 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Ooorg Addresses, 

<3oncerii, but I am sure that, if a carefully conceived 
scheme is placed before the Local Government, they will 
lend to it all the encouragement they can. 

The question of making a survey of the waterfalls of 
Coorg with a view to utilising them as a source of electric 
power was debated in the Legislative Council in 1927. 
I* am not sure that the difficulties in the way of the 
establishment of an hydro-electric plant are fully realised. 
Apart from the question of whether a site with a suitable 
fall and flow of water exists, a very important question 
is that of disposing of the power when generated. A 
small plant such as that which would be required for the 
lighting of a town like Mercara is unlikely to be an 
economic, success unless conditions are exceptionally 
favourable, while at present it seems unlikely, even if 
the construction of a large power station were practicable, 
that there would be a demand for power sufficient to justify 
the enormous expenditure that such a station would in- 
volve. I am sure, ho^vever, that the local Administration 
wull not lose sight of the fact that opportunities for such 
a scheme fully exist in Coorg, should a demand for power 
arise within a reasonable distance. 

I have tried, Gentlemen, to traverse ’ most of the 
subjects you have referred to to-day, and, though I am 
conscious that my replies do not in all cases give a satis- 
factory answer to your questions, I have tried to state 
frankly to you what I am advised are the practical 
difficulties which arise on several of the matters you have 
brought before me. You may at least feel certain that 
the interests of Coorg are as much in my mind and in 
the mind of my Government as those of any part of India. 
It is now not far short of 100 years since the Proclamation 
was issued which announced that “ the rule and dominion 
ol Raja Vira Rajendra over the country of Coorg had now 
deflnitely and for ever ceased'', and the people of the 


Speeches hj Lord Invin. 




Addresses presented hp the Calicut Municipal Council and the 
Malabar District Board, 

country, tried of the old story of murder and disturbances, 
unanimously voted that they should be placed under the 
British Government. That decision, I am confident, they 
have never found occasion to regret, and it is gratifying^ 
to hear the assurances which have been repeated this 
morning of the continued loyalty of the people of Coorg. 
History is now moving fast once more, for Coorg as for 
tlie rest of India, and changes vrhieh were hardly dreamt 
of a generation ago are now in being. There are new 
responsibilities to be undertaken, new adjustments to be 
made in the old order of things. In this great task Coorg 
will have to play its part, and it is my earnest hope that 
in the outcome the people of this country, as of all India,, 
will find contentment and prosperity. 


ADDRESBEB PRESENTED BY THE CALICUT MUNI- 
CIPAL COUNCIL AND THE MALABAR DISTRICT 
BOARD. 

- In replying to the Addresses presented by the Calicut Nov^rn* 
Mnuicipal Council and the Malabar District Board at Calicut her 102^ 
oil the SOtii November^ His Excellency the Viceroy said 

Ladies and Gentlemenr-'Lsidj Irwin joins me in 
thanking you sincerely for yo-ur very kind addresses of 
welcome and for the assurances which you have conveyed 
to us of the friendship and goodwill of the people of 
Malabar. He would indeed show a strange lack of 
interest in the romance of the Etii’opean connection with 
India, who failed to find" a fascination in the coast of 
Malabar, where the names of Vasco da Gama, Albuquerque, 

Almeida were once household words, and where Portu- 
guese, Dutch and British have in turn played so important 
a role in Indians development each over a long period of 
years. 

As you have just said, those ancient bonds of friend- 
diip have been strengthened afresh by the declaration 



u 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


ji-ddresses preseuted by the Gcdicut J^lunicipcd Council und th& 
Malabar District Board, 

“whieli it was recently my duty to make. Every day I 
.receive fresh proof, as I have received proof from your 
lips this morning, of the firmly established belief that the 
people of India and the people of Great Britain are now 
again moving forward hand in hand and in harmony of 
spirit towards the attainment of a clearly defined purpose. 

I welcome more than I can say the outlook of hope and 
optimism with which you view the future that lies before 
us, for I feel that it is in truth characteristic of the great 
mass of opinion in this country today, and that it is the 
surest augury of success in striving for the goal we all 
desire to reach. 

Your addresses this morning have touched on wider 
things than jour own rural or urban problems, and I 
need not say more, in reply to the hopes expressed by the 
District Board, than that I am sure the Local Government 
will do everything in their power to assist the Board in 
carrying out any definite proposals which it may make 
for the amelioration of the lot of the people of the 
District. For on the efficiency of local administration, 
whether by Municipalities or District Boards, do]:)eiKH 
to no small degree the repute in which the govornnient 
of a country is held. Your schools, your hospitals, your 
roads, your sanitation, your marketing arrangements, aU! 
mean something definite every day to nearly every member 
of the community under your charge, and in shouldering' 
your responsibilities in such matters you are doing work 
of far more than parochial importance, for you are not 
only helping the great machine of government to run 
smoothly, but you are bringing to many sides of human 
life the means of fuller growth and self expression. May 
you have all success, gentlemen, in the discharge of your 
important duties, and may the people of Calicut and 
Malabar ho long attended by all good fortune and 
happiness* 



SpiCchcs l]j Lord Irwin. 


45 


STATE BANQUET AT COCHIN. 

The folloi;\’iiig speech Tras delivered by His Excellency the 
Yieeroy at the State Banquet at Cochin on the 1st December : — 

Y(j\ir Ilujhicss^ Ladies and OcniUmey }, — I should like 
at the outset to echo the remarks made by Your Highness 
in regard to His Majesty the jImg-Emperoi\ The deep- 
seated loyalty of the Indian States to the Throne was 
never more clearly shown than during His Majesty late 
illness, and his recovery was the occasion of great thank- 
fulness throughout India and the British Empire. 

As Your Highness has just said, this is only the second 
time in history that a Yieeroy has visited Cochin. T 
cannot but thiiilv that this is not the fault of Yieeroys but 
of circumstances. In this world we often find the 
pleasantest things the most difficult of access, and Cochin 
lies perhaps somewhat aside from the path which Viceroys 
ordinarily tread. I therefore think myself all the more 
fortunate that I should have been able to accept Your 
Highness’ kind invitation to visit this beautiful part of 
India and I thank you cordially for the warm welcome 
you have given us. There is the added attraction that I 
am visiting a coast where memories of the past are so full 
of interest. I can well imagine the feelings of eagerness 
with which the early European adventurers must have 
looked on this rich and fertile coast, and the delight with 
which the foHunate Portuguese settlers must have hailed 
the permission granted in 1502 to settle in the town of 
Cochin, to be followed a year later by the building of a 
fort and the opening of trade with the country round. It 
W’as not until three centuries later w’hen the Portuguese, 
and in their turn the Dutch, had long since disappeared 
from the scene, that the Eaja of Cochin concluded a treaty 
with the East India Company, to which he thus became 
a tributary. Since then, as Your Highness has said, the’ 
history of the State has been one of increasing prosperity, 
and I earnestly trust that this happy state of things may 
long continue. It is also my hope that, as material prosperity 


Ist Dccemc 
ber 



46 


Speeches oy Lord Invin. 


State Bancjimi at Cochin, 

^advances, de^velopment of administration may not T^e per- 
mitted to lag behind. Good GoTernment spells happiness 
for the people and prosperity both for ruler and for ruled, 
•and I trust that Your Highness’ first thought as that of 
rail wise rulers will be constantly to preserve the standard 
uf your administration. ‘When Lord Cui^zon visited 
Cochin ^ust 29 years ago he paid a tribute to the tran- 
quillity which the .'State had so long enjoyed and to the 
good management to which that tranquillity was due. 
Since then there have been changes of no small significance* 
The formation of a Legislative Council with an elected 
majority and the institution of elected panchayat courts 
and municipalities show an important constitutional 
advance. The progress in education too has been main- 
tained, and I congratulate Your Highness on the interest 
you have shown in this essential part of your responsibilities 
:as a ruler. I Imow that the rulers of Cochin have deep 
and strong traditions of conservatism and orthodoxy ; it 
is all the more remarhable that Your Highness should have 
allow^ed one of the members of your own family to cross 
the seas in search of western education. 

In material ways too, as Your Highness has indicated, 
the State has seen notable imjprovement, and recently great 
benefit has been conferred upon this town by the action 
'of the Durbar in laying out pipes from the Alwayc River 
and provMing the people with a supply of wholesome 
■water. 

The greatest change however which this State is now 
witnessing is in the construction of the Cochin Harbour 
•works. It is a matter for great satisfaction that vsueh good 
progress has been made with the scheme for the conversion 
of the harbour into a port of real magnitude, and I trust 
that within the next few years the trade of Cochin will 
‘show considerable development, to the benefit not only of 
jthe port itself but to the whole of Your Highness’ State. 

I would only add that, if full advantage is to accrue from 
the heavy capital expenditure which is being incurred on 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


47 


State Banquet at Trivandrum, 

the extension of the harbour, adequate raik^av eommuui- 
cations must be provided by which the produce of the rich 
country wdthin its reach may be broiig-ht to the port, and 
imported goods may in their turn find a ready means of 
distribution. 

I would desire in conclusion, as representative of His 
Majesty the King-Emperor, to acknowledge the assurance 
of continued devotion to the Throne and to the Paramount 
Power to which Your Highness has just given expression. 
It has been a great pleasiue to me to visit the State of 
Cochin and to make the acquaintance of its ruler and its 
people. I trust that the efforts of Your Highness and 
Your Highness’ successors wiU continue to be directed, as 
they have been in the past, towards the happiness of your 
people and the prosperity of your State. 


STATE BANQUET AT TKIYANDEUM, 

H. E. the Viceroy delivered the following speech at the State 
Banquet at Trivandrum on the 7th December ; — 

Jouf Highness, Ladies and Gentlemen , — The kind 
terms in which Your Highness has just proposed the health 
of Lady Irwin and myself are of a piece with the great 
kindness and cordiality with which we have been welcomed 
by so many thousands of Your Highness’ people at every 
stage of our journeying since we set foot in Travancore, 
We have long been awaiting with pleasurable anticipation 
our visit to South India and before we leave Your High- 
ness’ State we shall have achieved our Furthest South 
and stood upon the sacred spot which is. the Land’s End 
of this great country. 

Few parts of India can, I think, be more favoured by 
Nature than Tranvancore, and we have long wished to see 
those beauties of sea and land of which we have often 
heard, and have tried to picture to ourselves its W'ooded 
hills, its evergreen valleys, its rivers and lagoons, which all 
go to make up what I think may be called the Spice-garden 


7th Pecerah 
ber iy29L. 



4'5 


SiKcches hy Lord Irwin. 


State Banquet at Trivandrum, 

of India. W-e liave also pictured to ourselves a people 
happy and contented in their Orcadian surroundings, free 
from the fears of famine or want and from the ills which 
poverty so often brings in its train. I have read that the 
security of life and property in Travancore is proverbial 
and is such tliat people generally prefer to travel by 
night ”, We eamo therefore with high expectations and I 
can truly say that they have been realised. We shai’e to 
the full Your Highness’ pleasure that our visit should have 
come at a time of unexampled prosperity in the State, 
and I know well that, after all due credit is ^iven to the 
bounties of Nature, the basis of that prosperity lies largely 
in the wise and liberal administration directed by Your 
Highness and by those who have ruled Travancore in the 
past. 

I am glad to have this public opportunity of thaninng 
Your Highness foh having invited us to visit your beauti- 
ful State, and for all the hospitality and kindness you have 
shown us while have been here. It is one of my privh 
leges as representative of His Majesty the King-Em])eror 
to visit the Princes of India in their own domains, and to 
receive the most generous hospitality at their hands. It 
is my privilege too to receive unfailing expressions of 
loyalty to the British Crown, such as Your Highness has 
'oftered to-night on behalf of Travancore. Such assurances 
*^re indeed scarcely necessary from a State whose traditions 
of friendship with the English reach back to those stirring 
and unsettled times of the 18th Century, when the repre- 
sentatives of the great Chera dynasty of South India were 
allies of the English arms. It is not far short of a century 
and a half since Travancore was included in the Treaty 
made between the East India Company and (he Sultan of 
Mysore, and those friendly relations have with brief inter- 
missions lasted until to-day. 

As Your Highness has pointed out it is just a genera- 
fiba since Lor5 Curzon, the greatest traveller, I think, 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


40 


State Banquet at Trivandrum, 

among Viceroys, visited your State, and as is natural many 
notable administrative and other changes and progressive 
measures have taken place since then. Your Legislative 
Council, which originated in 1888, has been enlarged and 
reconstituted with an elected majority, and is* based upon 
the equality of the sexes in rights of franchise and election* 
The Eevenue side of the administration, by its separation 
from the Devaswom department, has been thrown open to 
Hindus of every caste, and to Christians as well. Animal 
sacrifice has been abolished in temples. Roads and bridges, 
water-works, electric light and power, have all received in- 
creasing attention. And I think I may safely say that 
during Your Highness’ five years of regency the highest 
proportion of advancement has been seen. Your un- 
flagging devotion to State affairs, your personal attention 
to every detail of the administration, and your constant 
desire to treat all communities in the State alike with 
fairness and impartiality, have borne the richest fruit in 
the contentment of your people. I understand that recent 
years have seen a steady advance made by women in educa- 
tion and in participation in public affairs ; I can well 
believe that this is in no small measure due to the example- 
set by Your Highness, and I cannot deny myself the pleasure 
of congratulating Your Highness once again on receiving 
the coveted distinction of the Crown of India, by which His 
Majesty the King-Einx^erof has been pleased to mark his 
appreciation of your regency. 

Your Highness, there have been other changes since 
Lord Curzon visited Travaneore 29 years ago. Speaking 
on an occasion similar to to-night’s, he congratulated ITi& 
late Highness on the steps he had recently taken by renewed 
adoption for the perpetuation of the ruling line, and it is 
gratifying to know that Travaneore State has through tliat 
adoption a Prince ready to succeed to the ancient and 
honourable traditions of the ruling House. It has been a 
great satisfactioix to hear the good reports of His Higliness’ 
L6P,3V 



50 


ipeecAes- ly Lord Irwin. 


Opening of, the Camery Metwr €aml Bridge. 

progress, of Ms proficiency in riding and his advance in 
education. I canned foretell when a Viceroy will next set 
foot in your State, but it is not improbable that by that time, 
under Providence, His Highooess. will be upoia the? gaddi. 
I wish therefore in conclusion to express to Your Higlmessv 
in the first place, my hope and belief that your regency will 
conclude as happily as it has begun, and to offer to His 
Highness the best of all good fortune when the mantle ha^ 
fallen upon his shoulders. I feel confident tot I toll hear 
©f him in future years asi a Pjrince whose State is his first 
thought, and who finds his own principal happiness and 
reward in devoting himself to the advancement of his 
pbple. 

OPENING OF THE CAUVEKT MBTOK ClNAIi 
EKIDGK 

JlfelbDeeem- In opening the Cauvery Metur Canal Bridge at Tanjore on 

bw? ISfiO- r a 

the 11th Becember H. E. the Viceroy said : — 

Ladm md Gentlemenf—l am very glad to be able to 
open this bridge to-day and I must thanh Mr, Eamaswami 
Ayyar and those on behalf of whom he has spoken for 
having so kindly invited me to do so. Although this bridge 
is only, in itself, a small detail in a larger scheme, that 
scheme is one which is destined, I hope, to bring increased 
prosperity t® a very large area and to he one more example 
of the skill of the Engineer in bringing the gifts of Nature 
to tracts wMch she has chosen to endow less generously than 
others. In giving my name, therefore, to this bridge — 
which I most gladly do — ^I have the pleasure of feeling that 
I shall be associated not only with this bridge but to a 
certain extent with the wider scheme to which I have 
alluded. 

If I may be allowed to digress for a moment from the 
hnmediate purpose of this gathering, I should like to take 
flkis opportunity to give public expression to my gratitude 
for the warmth of the welcome wHeh I have received at the 



Speeches ly Lord Irwm. 51 

Address from the Corporation of Madras, 

■various towns I have visited since I left Calicut. I wish 
that I could have thanked everyone individually, but that, 

I fear, was not possible. I have- now been able to filler 
a long-cherised desire — to traverse both the western and 
the eastern coasts of this Presidency— and I have not been 
disappointed in the high anticipations which I had formed; 

Not the least attractive part of this programme is to see 
Tanjore. I have heard^ much' of its fame as the capital of 
one of the greatest of the ancient dynasties, as one of- the 
chief political, literary and religious centres of the South, 
as the home of beautiful Hindu monuments and as a centre 
of artistic manufactures. I am looking forward to seeing 
as much as I can of its sights and interests in the all locr 
short time before me' here; 

I am afraid that I shall have left India before th(J 
water begins to flow under this bridge. But canals for- 
tunately are more permanent than Viceroys. May the 
canals of this Metur project vie wiMi Tennyson ^s Brook 
which boasted that : 

Men may come and men may go. 

But I go on for ever 

and may they continue to minister to the needs of the* 
thirsty soil through many generations when we are all for^ 
gotten. I shall always remember the Metur project, and,: 
in hearing, as I hope, of its success, shall be' propel that 
my name has, by this evening ceremony, been in some 
way associated with it. And now, if I may, I will pro-* 
ceed to open this bridge, and' formally inaugurate its career 
of public benefit. 

ADDEESS PEOM THE COEPOEATION OF MADEAS; 

in reply to the Address of Welcome presented by the Cor- j[2th Becems- 
poration of Madras on the 12tli December, H. E. the Viceroy her 1929, 
said : — 

Mr, President and' Oentlemenj — Our tour through the 
Madras Presidency, which has- given us the opportunity 



52 


BpttcTies ly Lord Irwin, 


Address from the Co'r^oration of Madras, 

seeing many of its important towns and mueti of its people 
its picturesque scenery, fias now reached its pleasant 
culmination in our arrival at the capital of the Province 
and in the reception which has been accorded to ns here 
this morning. Lady Irwin and I deeply appreciate the 
evidences of friendship and goodwill which we have seen 
on every side, and we thank yon warmly, and throiigli yon 
the people of Madras, for the way in which you have made 
ns welcome. The history of Madras, both past and present, 
and the position its people have achieved in many walks 
of public life, in literature and the arts and sciences, have 
made ns keenly anxious to see for ourselves someth, ing of 
the country and the conditions in which these varied acti- 
vities have had their rise. I can also myself claim a-n 
especial personal interest in this city because here lies- 
buried an immediate ancestor of my own, who was killed 
in a naval engagement with the French Admiral Siiffren 
in the wars of the l^th century. We know therefore that 
in the all too brief time that we shall spend in Madras we 
shall see much that we have long wished to see, and malce 
and renew many valued acquaintances. 

In the concise account which you have just given- ©f 
your responsibilities and problems as a Corporation, you 
have mentioned the possibility of raising funds by the 
imposition of a tei*minal tax. I appreciate your desire to 
reduce the direct burden of taxation on fche residents of 
your city, but, after examining again the reasons which in- 
fluenced the Government of India to decide against a similar 
proposal made by yottr body IS years age, I fear that I 
cannot find any new factors in the situation v/hich could 
lead me to hold out any hope of further reconsideration of 
their previous decision. It is true that the Taxation En- 
quiry Committee expressed the view that a light terminal 
tax on passengers might be appropriate in the ease of large 
and that in Calcutta and Rangoon the levy of such a 
■fex h^ h^en allQwed. But the very speeial reasons which 



speeches iy Lord Irwin* 


m 


Address from the Corporation of Madras* 

^ere held to apply to these two cities do not appear to the 
Oovernment of India to be equally applicable to Madras, nor„ 
to counterbalance the disadvantages we see M the general 
principle of a terminal tax. The chief objections which we 
feel to such a tax are that the collection of such a levy is 
not a legitimate function of the railway comi)anies and that 
the terminal tax tends to operate as a tax on railways by 
reducing either their traffic or the fares they can charge. 
Our contracts with companies do not empower the G-overn- 
Ment of India to force them to render this kind of service 
to municix)alities, and we feel that such a tax is normally 
jiUstihed only for towns which are centres of pilgrimage and 
have to spend a considerable amount of money on sanitation 
«and other purposes for the benefit of strangers who, but 
for a railway tax, would contribute nothing to the cost. I 
^regret therefore that, as at present advised, the Govem- 
ttnent of India feel unable to acquiesce in the proposal you 
have made. 

I can assure you however of the constant interest which 
Government tabes in the affairs of your Corporation, as in 
those of all local bcdies, and I am confident that your needs 
^nd difficulties will always receive sympathetic considera- 
tion at the hands of your Local Government, and of your 
Governor, Sir George Stanley, who is now at the outset of 
what I know will be a successful and distinguished term of 
office. 

Ton have rightly, Sir, made reference to the pride 
which yotir Corporation takes in the discharge of its onerous 
duties. They are duties inherited, as you say, from a 
distant past and you probably remember the old-fashioned 
phrasing of the Charter granted to the original Corpora- 
tion of nearly two and a half centuries ago. Having 
found it ran, by experience that the maldng and 
establishing of Corporations in cities and towns that are 
growm exceeding populous tends more to the well-govern- 
ing of such populous places than the constant use of the 



64 


SpMckes T)y Lord Irwin^ 


Addresses from the Madras Chamber of Commerce and the 
Southern India .Chamber of Commerce. 

Law Martial in trivial concerns, we .constitute the town of 
Fort St. George a .corporation Those were small 
beginnings, but to the JEnglish this fortress, named after 
their patron Saint, was during the next century to become 
a place of growing importance, and it was indeed in these 
surroundings that the die was to be finally east as to which 
of the European nations was at that time to exercise pre- 
dominant influence in India. Since tiren Madras has grown 
apace, and your concerns are now the reverse of trivial. 
They are on the contrary of vital importance to many 
thousands of people whose health and amenities of life are 
committed to your charge. I am always glad to have the 
opportunity of expressing Government’s appreciation of 
the public spirit which induces busy people like yourselves 
to add such responsibilities as these to the burden of their 
other duties, and it has therefore given me great pleasure 
to meet you on my arrival in Madras this morning. I offer 
you my best wishes, gentlemen, in the important task in 
which you are engaged, and trust that this great city may, 
under your guidance, continue to enjoy the proud position 
it now holds. 


ADDRESSES FROM THE MADRAS CHAMBER OP 
COMMERCE AND THE SOUTHERN INDIA 
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 

H. E, the Yiceroy received addresses from the Madras Chem* 
her of Commerce and the Southern India Chambor of CoTfuoeree 
at Madras on the 12th December, to which he made the foIlo^^dng 
’ reply : — 

Gentlemen ^ — ^My first duty and privilege is to thank 
you, as the representative of His Majesty the King-Emperor, 
for your expressions of joy and relief at His Majesty’s 
:recovery--sentiments, which, as the experience of the last 
year has so vividly brought home to me, and, I am sure, to 
you also, are universal throughout India. 



B'pmcTi^s hy Lord Irmn. 


m 

Addresses from the Madras Chamber of Commerce and tire 
Southern India Chamber of Commerce* 

I am very grateful to you for the warm welcome which 
you have extewied to liaidy Irwina aiad laysdf ou our first 
visit to this great city with which is bound up so much of 
the earliest history of the connection between Great Britain 
^nd India, If a ViceTOy eould order his travels according 
only to the dictates of his own predilections, we should not 
be coming beift at comparatively so late a stage in my term 
of office. But unfortunately personal desires have to be 
mibordmated to other considerations. My pleasure at being 
here is, however, the more keen for having been deferred, 
and it is by no means tfee least of my pleasures in Madras 
to be able to meet here to-day the representatives of the 
Mercantile interests in this Presidency. I always welcome 
the opportunity of meeting businessmen — particularly in 
their own surroundings — ^and of hearing from them their 
views on public affairs. One of the secrets of success iii 
business is, as I understand it, the ability to take a correct 
decision quickly, and for this purpose an essential requisite, 
in addition to the necessary technical knowledge of the 
business concerned, is a very large measure of that most 
uncommon quality of commonsense. This quality is no 
less importamt in administration than in business, and its 
possessors in the business world have therefore a very 
strong title to a deferential hearing of their vdews, not only 
*on matters immediately within their province but also in 
the wider sphere of every-day affairs, by those who are 
charged with the administration. 

Both the bodies which have presented addresses to-day 
have exemplified the interest which they take in this wider 
sphere by their references to the problems of agriculture, 
and have been good enough to 'express their appreciation 
of the action taken by my Government in connection there- 
with. The economic progress of India is of necessity 
closely bound up with the prosperity of the cultivator, and 
it is my earnest hope that a greater measure of prosperity 
may aeeruje to him as a result of the measures Which are 



56 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Addresses from the Madras Cliamher of Co>nmcrce and the 
Southern India Chamber of Commerce, 

now being taken on tbe basis o£ the valuable report of the 
Agricultural Commission. As you no doubt know, the 
Council of Agricultural Research has lately been inaugurat- 
ed by the Government of India, while in this Presidency a 
committee of officials and non-officials has been set up and is 
now considering the Commission’s recommendations. Tlie 
Provincial Banking Enquiry Committee is also at work and 
will go into the several questions relating to the financing 
of the agriculturist. I can assure you that the Gove^niucnt 
of India will leave no stone unturned in the cftort to brin v 
to fruition the labours of the Agricultural Commission and 
I am sure that the same can confidently be said of the Govern- 
ment of this Presidency. 

As regards road development and the impiovemeiit of 
rural communications to which the addresses have referred, 
this whole question is now being investigated in pursuance 
of the Road Development Committee’s Report, and I hojie 
that the conclusions when reached and translated into 
practice will be of benefit to the people of this Presidency. 

Mention has been made in the address of the Madras 
Chamber of Commerce of the needs of the Madras Port, I 
have been pleased to observe the exjiansion of trade shown 
hy the Port, and I am very glad that it was possible for my 
Government to supply its immediate needs by j^laciiig 
additional land at its disposal earlier in the year. 1 fidly 
recognise that the provision of adequate facilities to meet 
the needs of expanding trade is essential, and I need hardly 
add that applications for land for further schemes of devel- 
opment will receive the careful consideration of the Gov- 
ernment of India. The last three years have seen a small 
but steady expansion of trade throughout India and I am 
glad to know that Madras has taken her share in it. I see 
that the imports of the Presidency increased from 21 crores 
ia 1926-27 to 24 crores in 1927-28 and 27 crores in 1028-29, 
and that exports increased during the same three years 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. ’ 67 


Addresses frcm the Madras Chamber of Commerce and the 
Southern India Chamber of Commerce. 

from 38 crores to 44 and 46 crores. The expaTision in 
shipping too has been even more marked. The Great War 
caused the total entries and clearances of vessels into and 
from the ports of the Madras Presidency to drop from ap- 
proximately five million to less than three million tons, but 
the leeway has now been made up and I see that last year 
the figures exceeded five million. 

And now I must turn to the question of the Tanning 
trade w’hieh has found a place in both addresses. The Hide 
Cess Committee, “which has recently been appointed, was 
instituted after full consultation wuth all the int(?re^ts 
concerned. It contains two representatives of the Tanning 
industry in Madras — a representative of the JMadras 
Tanners and a representative of the Madras Tani'ccl Hides 
Shippers. This in itself is a guarantee that the interests 
of the Tanning trade in this Presidency will not be dis- 
regarded, and, while it is of course impossible .for me to 
predict the course that will ultimately be adopted, I would 
add that these interests may certainly count upon very 
careful consideration at the hands of the Government of 
India when they come to deal with the Committee’s Ke- 
port. 

I fear, Gentlemen, that, were I to go in detail into all 
the problems which have been mentioned in the address of 
the Southern India Chamber of Commerce, I might he 
led to trespass too far on the limits of your patience. Per- 
haps, however, I may he allowed to touch very briefly upon 
some of them. You have referred to the adjudication of 
claims between Foreign and Indian Shipping companies. 
In my address to the Associated Chamber of Commerce 
last year, I dealt with this question at some length and I 
tried there to present the problem as I see it, not as one 
which should be solved by methods of confiscation hut as 
one which might he solved by an alliance of British and 
Indian industry and commerce, working together for 



68 


Bpemhes hy Lord Irwin. 


'Addresses from the Madras Chamber of Commerce and the 
Southern India Chamber of Commerce, 

India’s commercial and industrial advancement, and for 
the realisation of the ambition that India should have its 
oym mercantile marine, officered as well as manned by- 
Indians. I would also refer you to the statement on the 
subject made in the Legislative Assembly last September 
by the llon’ble Member for Commerce, and it is my earnest 
hope that the conference, foreshadowed in that statement 
and now about to be held between representatives of all 
the interests aifected, may lead to a satisfactory solution 
of this question. I trust that I may rely upon ail tho'^e 
:who are present here to-day to work together for that end. 

The position as regards sterling capital and rupee 
capital was exhaustively dealt with by the Hoh’ble Finance 
Member in his speech introducing the budget for the 
current year. It would appear that misapprehension on 
the subject still exists, and I cannot, I think, do better 
than ask those, who may still harbour doubts on the subject, 
to re-read this very lucid exposition of the. policy of my 
Government, which is, briefly, to have recourse to sterling 
borrowing only in so far as money required cannot be raised 
from the investing public in India. Here too I would ask 
your help in educating the smaller men to invest rather 
than to hoard their savings. 

You have further pressed upon me the necessity of ad- 
judicating the claims between European and Indian com- 
mercial bodies for equal representation on public bodies, 
1 fear, however, that this is a matter which my jurisdiction 
does not embrace. Proposals for the revision of the consti- 
tution will shortly come before His Majesty’s Government 
and, at this stage, I can do no more than assure you that 
whatever claims or suggestions may have been put for- 
ward in this behalf will be carefully examined. 

In conclusion, Gentlemen, I must thank you once 
again for your good wishes to Lady Irwin and myself and 



Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


m 


Address from the United Planters^ Association of Southerr^ 
India* 

for the kind things which you have said. We shall carry 
away with us from Madras the wannest memories of your 
cordial welcome and I shall not fail to bear in mind the 
views and needs which have been expressed in the two 
•addresses to which I have had the pleasure of listening to- 
day. 


ADDRESS PROM THE UNITED PLANTERS^ ASSO- 
CIATION OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

The [Jiiited Planters^ Association of Southern India pre- 12fch Decern? 
sented an Address of Welcome at Madras on the 12th December 
to H. E. the Viceroy, who replied in the following terms : — 

Gentlemen, --^7 fi^^st duty is to express the satisfaction 
which it gives me to be able to meet you here to-day and 
to thank you for the warm welcome which you have ex- 
tended to me. With you, and with ail the people of India, 

I rejoice at the restoration to health of His Majesty the 
King-Emperor, and, as his representative, it is my privilege 
to acknowledge the loyal sentiments to which you have 
given expression. 

My pleasure at being among you is enhanced by the, 
fact that to me, a land-owner like yourselves, the problems 
of the land are of especial interest, for, though the present- 
day difficulties of a British land-owner no doubt differ in 
form from those of a Southern India planter, I suspect 
that there is a strong fundamental similarity between 
them. I am glad to learn that your Association is study- 
ing so closely the report of the Agricultural Commission. 

As you are no doubt aware, its recommendations have al- 
ready borne fruit in the establishment of the Council of 
Agricultural Research which will, I sincerely hope, be a 
powerful factor in the progress of Indian agriculture. 

Many of the recommendations of the Commission are of 
course more directly the concern of the Local Governments 
and are, I know, occupying their attention, but improve- 



60 


Speeches hy Lord Irmn^ 


Address from the United J^lanters^ Association of Southern 

India. 

ments and reforms in the agricultural sj'stem of this 
eountry, whether stimulated by the Central or by a Local 
Government, can only attain a full measure of success if 
they have the support of those who are actively engaged 
in the working of the land. I welcome therefore the 
assurance of co-operation in this direction by so represent- 
ative a body as your Association and also the anxiety, which 
your remarks evince, for the welfare and x>i‘G>«P®i‘ity of the 
cultivators. 

I am also very pleased to know of the keen interest 
taken in the Eoyal Commission on Labour wdiieh will later 
be visiting Southern India — ^judged both by your remarks 
in this connection and by the large numbers among the 
planting community, both employers and employed, who, 
I have noticed, ha^Te offered to furnish evidence. The Gov- 
ernment of India count themselves very fortunate to have 
secured the services of so representative a Commission, and 
its Chairman comes to the task with practical experience of 
achievement in the Labour field. The scope of their en- 
quiries is a wide one and it is my earnest hope that their 
result will conduce to that fuller measure of progresvS and 
contentment which we all desire. 

You have stressed in your address the importance of 
good communications, and I can assure you that my Gov- 
ernment are fully alive to the need for adequate railway 
approaches to the Cochin Harbour, in order that the 
’produce of the country may be brought there and that 
imported goods may he distributed easily and quickly. 
With this object the Local Government have recommended 
the conversion of the Shoranur-Ernakulam line from metre 
gauge to broad gauge, and the matter is now luider the 
consideration of the Railway Board. In this connection. 
I may mention that the Railway Board have also sanctioned 
the traffic survey of a line from Kollengodc to Tricluir. A 



BpeecJm ly Lord Irwin, 


GI 


Addresses presented by the Madras Presidency MasVm Letifiue» 
ef 1908 and 1926 and the Anjumati-e-Mufid-e-Ahhe-lslam 
and the Muhammadan Edmational Association of Southern 
India, Madras^ 

Special report has heen made by the Cochin Port Conser- 
vancy Board about railway facilities to bo afforded as at 
result of the development of the Cochin Harbour, and the^ 
Local Government are, I understand, about to give their 
consideration to the various proposals made therein. As 
regards roads, I can say no more at present than that the 
whole question is being thoroughly investigated in pur- 
suance of the Road Development Committee’s report, and 
1 am sure that action will be taken as expeditiously as'« 
possible on the conclusions; when reached. 

I will not detain you longer except to thank you once* 
again for your cordial welcome and also for your assurance- 
of co-operation with Government, on which I know I can 
confidently rely^ in the difficult tasks, wrhidi lie before 
them. 


ADDRESSES PRESENTED BY THE MADRAS PRE* 
SIDENCY MUSLIM LEAGUES OP 1908 AND 1926 
AND THE ANJUMAN-E4IUPID-E-AHL.E-ISLAM 
AND THE MUHAMMADAN EDUCATIONAL AS- 
SOCIATION OP SOUTHERN INDIA, MADRAS. 

H. E. the Viceroy replied in the follomng terms h the 12th Deceit 
above Addresses of Welcome presented to him at Madl’as on the 
12th December 

Gentlemen ^ — ^Madras with its customary hospitality 
has been more than generous to Lady Irwin and myself in 
the number of addresses with which it has w'eleoiiied us 
this morning. We appreciate them very deeply, and mn& 
more than those offered to us by the Muslims of Madras' 
Presidency. But I have had perforce to be as brief 
possible in return, and this must be my excuse which I kno.wr 
you will accept for answering your three interestiu^sr 
addresses in one reply. 



62 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin* 


Addresses 'presented by the Madras Presidency Muslim Leosym^ 

of 190S and 1926 and the Anfuman-e-Mufid-e-Ahl-e-lsiomr 

and the Muhammadan Educational Association of Southern 

Indiat Madras, 

In thanking you warmly for your welcome, it is in 
the first place my privilege to acknowledge the expression 
of your unfailing loyalty to His Majesty the King- 
Emperor, whose thoughts constantly go out to the people 
of India of every race and creed, and to whose heart ne- 
wish lies more near than that the humblest of his subjects 
may enjoy in growing measure the blessings of health and 
happiness. 

The question which, as it appears from your addresses, 
is most seriously exercising the minds of Madras Muslims,- 
as perhaps of Muslims throughout India, is the position 
of your community under whatever new form of constitu-^ 
tion may be expected, after the present revision has been 
concluded. May I pause here for a moment to thank 
those of you who gave such a warm welcome to Sir J ohn 
Simon and his colleagues when they visited Madras and 
helped them so materially in the prosecution of their all- 
important task. Anxiety, as I was saying, has been 
widely expressed as to the safeguarding of Muslim rights,, 
as to the continuance of communal electorates, and the* 
claim of Muhammadans that they should have ai least a 
proportionate voice in such matters as popular representa- 
tion and Government service. At a time when all suclr 
questions are engaging the anxious thought of the Statutory 
Commission, whose report will shortly be made known, 
you will not, I feel sure, expect me to hazard any fore-^ 
cast of the future. But I will certainly convey — ^as yom 
have asked me to do — ^the purport of your wishes to Ilis- 
Majesty's Government, and you are no doubt aware that 
the Madras Government have recommended the continuancer 
of separate electorates for Muslims in their memorandum 
|o the Statutory Commission. There is however one thing’ 
that I will say, and it is this. Whatever the future may 



Speeches dy Lord Irwin, 


m 


Addresses presented hy the Madras Presidency Muslim Leagues 
of 1908 and 1926 and, the Anjuman-e-Mufid~e~Ahl-e-lslam 
and the Muhammadan Educcdional Association of Southern 
India^ Madras. 

hold in store for India, it must — so far as can achieve 
it — ^be a future in which the just rights and liberties of all 
eommunities and all creeds shall be fairly and equitably 
upheld. And, as rights connote duties, the corollary of 
this must always be that rights secured to any community 
should be the means not merely of benefiting that community 
but of enabling them to take their allotted pait in the wider 
citizenship of India, and make their due contribution to 
the common political life of the whole country. 

On the question of the employment of Muslims in the 
public services, the general policy of Government is well 
known. The aim is to correct any unreasonable prepon- 
derance of particular communities in the services by taking 
special steps to admit duly qualified members of other 
communities. The Local Government have, I understand, 
given the fullest effect to this principle. 

There is the particular question referred to in one 
of your addresses regarding the absence of any Muslim in 
the High Court of Madras. I am aware of the reply given 
in 1926 by Sir C. P. Hamaswami Aiyar as Member of 
Council to the effect that Government would try to recruit 
a suitable Muslim if possible to the Bench. I am also 
aware of the serious disappointment of Muslims that no 
Muslim has been appointed in any subsequent officiating 
vacancy. But, while I am constrained to make it plain that 
appointments of High Court Judges are not and cannot 
be based on racial or communal considerations, I would 
repeat and confirm what the Local Government have pre- 
viously said that the claims of Muslims for such posts, so 
far from being ignored, are most carefully apd scrupulously 
considered on every occasion. 

The ultimate solution of such difficulties as you have 
mentioned lies, as you yourselves recognise, in Muslims 
i^aPSV 


64 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Addresses presented hy the Madras Presidency Muslim Leagues 
of 1908 and 1926 and the Anjuman-e-Miifid-e-AliLe-lslam 
and the Muhammadan Educational Association of ^. ouiUern 
India, Madras. 

making good their claim, by education and otherwise, to 
an adequate share in the public services on the ground of 
merit alone. I am very glad therefore to have the oppor- 
tunity this morning of meeting the representativesS Of two 
educational bodies which have done so much to improve the 
position of Muslims in the Presidency, both by t»--^ehnical 
training and higher education. I listened wuth pleasure 
to the tribute paid to the help given by Government and 
by individual Government officials in furthering these 
laudable objects. 

If it is true that Muslims started late in the race for 
education, there is all the more value in societies such as 
yours in assisting to make up the leeway. And I trust 
that in doing so you will always keep the true function of 
education in your minds, viewing it not as a mere alley- 
way to a University degree and thence to Government ser- 
vice, but as an ever widening vista which, as it expands, 
becomes part of a man’s whole life, and shows him the way 
in which he can best develop his natural gifts for the 
benefit of himself and his community and mankind, I ain 
very glad to see from your address that you realise the 
important part which religion ought to play in the educa- 
tion of your children. The dangers which arise from the 
divorce of education from religion are patent in many parts 
of the world to-day. To exclude religion from the train- 
ing of the youthful mind is as foolish and dangerous a 
pi'oceeding as to build a pretentious house with no secure 
foundations. No doubt the question of what is the most 
appropriate means for fitting this religious teaching into 
your general educational system is one to which the 
answer depends* upon varying circumstances, but, in the 
a^rtion of the general principle of the necessity of reli- 
teaching, I wholly and warm-heartedly associate 
myself with what you have said. 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


m 


Addresses presented by the Madras JPresidency Muslim Leagues 
of J908 and 1926 and the Anjuman’-e-Mufld-e-Ahl-e-Tsh'tm 
and the Muhammadan Educational Association of Southern 
India^ Madras. 

Finally, I wish to refer to the Moplah question which 
has been mentioned this morning. As you know, large 
numbers of Moplahs who were convicted under the 
ordinary law have already been set at liberty before the 
expiry of their sentence, and this principle of premature 
release is being steadily pursued. Of the State prisoner’s 
detained under special laws, those who have hitherto been 
confined in jail are now being released in batches and 
will be kept under surveillance outside Malabar. This 
system of surveillance the Government of India have 
decided, after very careful consideration, it is not at 
present possible to modify. The general question, however, 
of releasing convicts and prisoners has received and will 
continue to receive constant attention by the Local Govern- 
ment, and it 'was, as you laiow, a matter in which your late 
Governor, Lord Gosehen, took a warm and practical 
interest. It is the Local Government's settled policy to 
set at liberty those not concerned in the gravest offences as 
soon as ever they consider that it is safe to do so in the 
interests of the peace and safety of Malabar. 

As regards your request for the repeal of the Moplah 
Outrages Act, it is unfortunately the case that the district 
of Malabar has in the past been subjected to a number of 
dangerous outhreuks, the most recent and the most serious 
of which took place only some seven or eight years ago. 
It would not be reasonable in these circumstances for Gov- 
ernment to deprive themselves of the powers which have 
hitherto been regarded as indispensable for the purpose of 
bringing such outbreaks under control. 

The colonisation scheme in pursuance of which Moplah 
convicts have been sent to the Andamans was very care- 
fully devised in the interests of the convicts themselves 
LCPSV 



Speeches ly Lord 


m 


Addresses presented hy the Madras Presidency Muslim Leagues 
of 1928 and 1926 and the Anjuman-e-Mufid-e-AhUe-Islam 
and the Muhammadan Educational Association of Southern 
Indhtj Madras, 

and, as explained in a resolution issued by the Govern- 
ment of India in October 1926, eannot now be annulled. 
This scheme was deemed by my Government to the most 
humane solution of the problem how to deal with those who,, 
at a time of fanatical excitement,, were led into committing: 
serious crimes against the State by the inflammatory 
utterances of their leaders. My Government have gone as; 
far as it is possible for them to go in the direction you 
suggest by putting the scheme upon a voluntary basis,, and 
giving facilities both for the return to Indian jails of any 
Moplah who wishes to go back, and, in the ease of those 
who prefer to remain, for the conveyance of their wuvea 
end near relatives to the settlement. I would emphasise 
that the Moplah convict settlers in the Andamans live in 
comparative freedom in conditions very similar to those 
obtaining in Malabar ; they are subject to a liberal system 
of remissions giving them a definite hope of release, and 
they enjoy security of tenure in their holdings of land. 
Since the report of the Jail Committee, to which you i*efer,. 
all possible measures have been taken to improve the 
health of the islands ; health statistics show a remarkable 
and steady change for the better, and medical facilities are 
available within a few miles of every village. There is no 
truth whatsoever in the suggestion that these islands are 
unfit for human habitation. On the contrary the islands 
are beginning to attract freer settlers from variou*^ parts: 
of India, 

I must conclude. Gentlemen, by thanking you again 
warmly for your cordial welcome and by offering you all 
mj good wishes for the prosperity of the Muslims of 
liadras^ Presidency, 


Bimclm by Lord Irwin. 


6T 


ADDRESS PROM THE CATHOLIC INDIAN ASSO- 
CIATION OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

In reply to the Address presented by the Catholic Indian isthBeceia- 
Association of Southern India at Madras on the 12th December, 

H. E. the Viceroy said ; — 

Gentlemen , — I thank you for the cordial welcome- ^ 
which you have given to me to-day and, as representative 
of His Majesty the Kiftg-Einperor, it is my ])rivilege to 
acknowledge your expression of loyalty to the Crown and 
your assurance of steadfast co-operation with Govern^ 
ment, to which I have listened with much gratification. 

The history of the rise and spread of Christianity in 
Southern India dates back many centuries and is one of 
absorbing interest, 1 count myself fortunate to have been 
able now to see for myself during my tour so much evidence 
both of its past history and of the continued existence cf 
its great traditions. Among the roll of Christian workers 
in Southern India, the names of Sf. Francis Xavier — of 
whom it has been said that his torn cassock and rough 
cloth cap were symbols of a faith that looked for no earthly 
reward — and of Robert de Nobili are perhaps the most 
famous in the annals of your Church. Neither they nor 
their work can ever he forgotten, and the missionary zeal 
which inspired them is one which continues in these days^ 
to find wgorous and generous expression. You have spoken 
of the services of the Christian commnnities in the field of 
education and social progress. I am glad to be able to 
echo your words in this respect and to add my personal 
testimony, based on what I have seen throughout India, 
to their selfless work in all good causes, and, above all, in 
the care and succour of the sick — a work particularly en- 
joined by the principles of Christianity. I have heard' 
much of the noble and self-sacrificing labours of your own 
priests in South India, of their frugal lives and devotion 
to duty, and I should find it difficult to praise Adequately 



Speeches hj Lord Irwin. 


4.ddress from the Catholic Indiaii Association 'of Soulliern 

India. 

tlie inestimable "^ork they have done and are doing for the 
people of this country. 

Ton have referred in- your Address to a subject wliich 
must be occupying all our minds, the nature of the re- 
* forms to be made in the constitution, and you have made 
particular mention of the question of the representation o£ 
Indian Christians in the Central and Local Legislatures. 
It is not, of course, within my sphere to determine the 
nature oi these reforms, nor would it be proper for me 
at this stage to discuss the considerations and materials 
on which the decisions of those responsible will he based. 
I can, however, assure you that His Majesty’s Government 
tvill, w'hen the time comes for them to consider these 
matters, desire to give the most sympathetic' attention to 
the needs of every community. 

You have also mentioned, in tins connection, that no 
Indian Roman Catholic has been nominated, since the 
system of nomination was introduced, to certain All- 
India Services or to commissioned ranlc in the Army. You 
will realise that, in making such nominations, the first con- 
sideration must be that of the efficiency of the services con- 
cerned.^ and I am confident that, in the interests of the 
country, you would not wish it otherwise. You may how^- 
cver feel satisfied that the case of every candidate for 
such nomination, whether from your or any other com- 
munity, is, and will he, scrutinised with the greatest care,, 
and I trust that before long you may succeed in securing 
the acceptance on their merits of candidates in w^hom you 
are interested. As regards appointments, ta the public 
service made by the Local Government, I am satisfied that 
the question of adequate representation of the varioTO 
atemnnities is a subject of their close and constant atten- 
With this object in view, they haije laid down certain 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


69 


Address from the Catholic Indian Asaoeiation of Sovthcm 

India- 

principles under which, one Appointment in six in eaeli 
service is allotted to Anglo-Indians and Christians (in- 
cluding Europeans), provided always that qualified men 
are available. I do not think that I can say any more on 
this subject except that it is my earnest wish, as much as 
yours, to see members of your community taking llieir full 
part in the public service of this Presidency and of India 
as a whole. 

I am well aware of the impoi'tance of road and railway 
development, both as a means of stimulating trade and 
thereby adding to the prosperity of the people, and also in 
bringing the amenities of modern civilisation within reach 
of a larger proportion of the population. The whole 
question of roads is now being thoroughly investigated by 
the Local Government in pursuance of the report of the 
Road Development Committee and I am sure that they will 
take W’hatever measures in this direction are practicable, 
consistently with their duty as custodians of the public 
funds. Progress in railway development is being main- 
tained. During the year 1928-29, 225 miles of new lines 
were opened, 60 miles have been opened during the current 
year and work is in progress for the opening of another 
175 miles. 

And now, Gentlemen, I must thank you once again 
for your warm welcome and for the loyal sentiments to 
which you have given expression. It has been a great 
pleasure to meet you here to-day and to learn from you 
personally the needs and wishes of your conmiunity. By 
our meeting you have brought these more clearly to my 
mind, and I shall henceforth follow with the greater 
interest and goodwill the work and the fortunes of those 
for whom you have to-day been spokesmen. 




70 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


ADDRESSES FROM THE ARDNDHATIYA MAHA 

SABHA ADI DRAVIDA MAHAJANA CENTRAL 

sabha’ madras, and the madras PROYIN^ 

CIAL depressed CLASSES FEDERATION. 

nth. Decern- H. E. the Vieei*oy replied as follows to the above addresses 
Der 1929, presented to Mm at Madras on the 12th December : 

Gentlemenr-'l Eave been forced by pressure of time to 
adopt the expedient of thanking you for your five addresses 
in one reply, but I should like to offer you severally my 
•warmest thanks, and those of Lady Irwin, for the kind 
way in which you have welcomed us to Madras. 

I can assure you that ever since I came to India I 
have given constant thought to the problem of the De- 
pressed Classes. I have followed with interest the various 
measures employed to improve their condition, such as 
the acquisition of land for houses, burial grounds and cul- 
tivation, the construction of wells, the organisation of co- 
operative societies, and th§ provision of educational faci- 
lities by scholarships and otherwise. The appointment of 
Mr. Rajah to the Indian Central Committee, which co- 
operated with the Statutory Commission, was evidence that 
Oovernment were determined that your case should not go 
unrepresented. Much has been done both by Government 
and by Government officers, by leaders of public opinion 
like Mr. Gandhi, by social reformers and Christian mis- 
sionaries, and I am sure that you appreciate the efforts 
that have been made on your behalf. But you realise no 
doubt that the age-long disabilities from which the depressed 
classes have been suffering cannot he removed in the twink- 
ling of an eye. The process of their alleviation must of 
necessity be gradual, and in this process you yourselves have 
your part to play. The problem is one which neither 
Government nor individual social reformers unaided can 
wholly solve. It is only those who respect themselves lhat 
win obtain respect from others, and this battle a man must 
%Tit for himself. He must learn that habits of thrift will 
improve his standard of life, his general well-being and 



Bpeeches hy Lord Irwin. 


71 


Addresses from the Arundhatiya Malia Sabhdy Adi Dmvida 

Malmjana G-entral Sahhu, Madras, and the Madras Proviti’- 

cial Depressed Classes Federatio^h 

happiness, that *Gleanlmess, both moral and ph.^'sieal, 
endows mind and body with vigour, that temperance will 
save him from many forms of degradation. The existence 
of such societies as I am now addressing leads me to hope 
that you realise how far the salvation of yom community 
lies in your own hands. But above ail things I would 
appeal for unity among the different classes -which compose 
your community. Union is strength, and the assertion of 
your claims for equitable treatment must be seriously de- 
layed if your ranks are weakened by dissension. 

Although it is thus to a certain extent within your 
power to improve your own condition, there are difficult 
obstacles to surmount unless you can find a helping hand 
from those more fortunately placed than yourselves. Life 
is a stern school, and one in which it is not always possible 
to rise from class to class by one’s owm unaided efforts. 
I do not dwell in detail on the particular aspects in \vhieh 
you feel your disabilities, to which you have referred this 
morning. I appreciate of course their importance in 
your daily life, but they are part of a wider question, on 
which through you I may in fact address a wider audience, 
an audience which I hope and believe is ready to listen 
to your appeals and to hold out a hand to assist you in 
raising your status in society. 

The very term depressed classes ” provokes the 
thinking mind to enquire on every ground of justice and 
humanity what the justification may be for such debase- 
ment. Is there, I wonder, a synonym in any other country 
for the term depressed classes ? I doubt it. There 
are social inequalities everywhere, injustices which any one 
with a soul would wish to set right, contrasts between 
poverty and riches which it is difficult to justify. But 
where else in the world is a man by the accident of birth 



72 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


Addresses from the Arundbatiya Maha SahJi'i, Adi Bravlda 
21ahajana Central Sahha, 2£adraSf and the Madras Promn^ 
dal Depressed Classes Federation. 
irrevocably denied the barest possibility of ever sliaring 
vritli his fello’^v men so many of the things that make life 
wrth living ? Few men would think twice about stretch- 
ing out a helping hand to rescue a drowning man, or would 
have it in their hearts to knock away the hand on the boat 
hy which the unfortunate man was clinging to the hope of 
life. And yet I am forced to believe that there are many 
who are able unmoved to watch their fellow human ^beings 
caught in the quicksands of social ostracism, and yet feel 
themselves debarred by a religions and social philosophy 
from stirring a finger on their behalf. I am only relocating 
%vhat many people have said before. Tou may remember 
some memorable words used by a great public man and a 
great speaker, the late Mr. Qokhale. I think he said, 
** all fair-minded persons will have to admit that it is 
absolutely monstrous that a class of human beings, with 
bodies similar to our o’wn, with brains that can think and 
with hearts that can feel, should be perpetually condemned 
to a low life of utter wretchedness, servitude and mental 
and moral degradation, and that permanent barriers should 
be placed in their way, so that it should be impossible for 
them ever to overcome them and improve their lot ”, 

But words too often fall upon deaf ears, and I make 
no excuse for adding my appeal to those which have gone 
before. 

All the world knows the greatness of the Hindu religion, 
its power for good as a religious and a social force, its 
ideals of national and family life, its inspiration in art 
and literature, its vitality and absorbent powers. With 
its roots deep in the soil of antiquity it has produced a 
civilisation which has stood the test of time. In that 
civilisation, barriers of caste are a recognised feature and 
li^ve, no doubt, served a useful purpose in the various 
stages of its pr<^r€ss. But the world never stands still. 



Speeches hj Lord Irwin. 


73 


Address from the Anglo-Indian and Domiciled European Asso^- 
ciation of Southern India* 

and, looking at the ijolitieal, intellectual and economic forces 
by -^vliieii it is to-day being moved, I cannot doubt that a 
tenet which aims at debarring millions of human beings 
from concourse with their fellows must in the end prove 
a grave weakness to Hindu society- 

As I have already said I do not believe that it is by any 
sudden convulsion that reform in these matters will come. 
But, when in so* many other ways I see signs of the stimulat- 
ing of national consciousness in India, I cannot but believe 
that hand in hand with this will come a quickening of 
sympathy with the depressed classes and a desire to see 
them given their proper place in both the social and political 
life of their Motherland. Meanwhile I wish you well in 
your task of so organising and educating opinion both within 
and without your owm^'classes, that in your owm generation 
you may see steady advance made towards the ideal of equal 
opportunity being afforded to all the sons and daughters 
of India to do her service. 


ADDRESS FROM THE ANGLO-INDIAN AND DOMI- 
CILED EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF SOUTH- 
ERN INDIA. 

H. E' the Viceroy made the following reply to the address istL Decem? 
presented to him by the Anglo-Indian and Domiciled Europfan 
Association of Southern India at Madras on the 12tli December : — 

Mr. President and Gentlemen , — ^Let me begin by 
thanking you very warmly for the w^eleome and good 
wishes you have just offered to Lady Irwin and myself 
and by expressing the pleasure I feel at meeting repre- 
sentatives of your community this morning. Sly visit to 
the Presidency would indeed have seemed to me in- 
complete had I lost the opportunity of hearing at first 
.hand the views and problems of the Anglo-Indian and 
Domiciled Community of Southern India. For in this 
oldest of the Presidencies, where the British connection with 



74 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address from the Anglo-Indian and Domiciled European Asso- 
ciation of Southern India^ 

India £rst established itself, it is natural that your com- 
munity should play an important part. And, whether here 
or in other parts of India, the Anglo-Indian and Domiciled 
Community is one with which I feel that all Englishmen 
must have a special sympathy. For my own part I can 
assure you that, since I have been in India, the desirability 
•of finding a solution of the many difficulties which face your 
community to-day has never been far from' my thoughts. 

It is easy to appreciate the anxiety with which you, as 
a small and distinctive minority community, view the 
problems involved in the future government of the country. 
Indeed, among the complicated questions that confront those 
who are endeavouring to devise new forms of iionstitution, 
none is more difficult than the means of ensuring adequate 
protection to the various minorities. I believe that the 
Madras Government in their memorandum to the Statutory 
Commission have recommended that the existing separate 
representation for the Anglo-Indian Community in the 
local Legislative Council may be retained, and I have no 
doubt that this is one of the various important matters to 
which Sir John Simon and his colleagues have given their 
earnest consideration. 

You have also your special difficulties in the effect 
which the tendencies of the present day may have as regards 
the continued employment of members of your community 
on the existing scale in the public services. I can only 
assure you that my Government have given their most 
careful attention to the special problems which have arisen 
in this connection ; for it has to be recognised that changing 
conditions in India and the increased competition of Indians 
for posts in the public service must constantly make the 
question of Anglo-Indian employment more acute. Though 
Government have no easy specific to offer to deal with this 
they have adopted a policy intended to prevent 
toy rapid displacement of Anglo-Indians from the branches, 



SpeeciJies by Lord Irwin. 


75 


State Banquet at Hyderabad. 

of the pnblie service in which they are at present employed 
in considerable numbers, and to give the community time 
to consider their position and adjust themselves to the con- 
ditions of the future. 

Whatever the difficulties facing your conimimity may 
be, your Association has, I am glad to observe, always had 
a clear idea of what is the best way of meeting them. I 
admire the visdom of your founder in foreseeing that the 
advancement of your community would, as India developed, 
depend more and more on its own capacity to organise and 
assist itself. As you have said, your chief acti\ ity has lain 
in the field of education, and there is I think no better way 
in which you could have combined your efforts than in 
joining to provide some at least of your boys and girls with 
a sound school and college education. 

I wish you every success in your endeavours, gentlemen, 
which I am sure are conceived with the single object of 
enabling those you represent to play a part in the con- 
stantly changing life of India worthy of their past and 
worthy of what it may be in their power to give, I under- 
stand that much of your effort is directed to building up 
a fund for the creation of scholarships, and, as it is always 
a pleasure to help, in however small a way, those who help 
themselves, I hope that you will allow me to subscribe a 
sum of Rs. 2,000 to your future endowment of that pur- 
pose. The Slim is not a large one or commensurate with 
your needs, but it is an ear, nest of my warm solicitude for 
the future of your community and of my hope that they 
may continue to find opportunities for service to the great 
country which has become their home. 


STATE BANQUET AT HYDERABAD. 

H. E, the Viceroy delivered the following speech at the State 16th Becem? 
Banquet at Hyderabad on the 16th December : — 

Jour Exalted Highness, Ladies and Gentlemen,--! 
am, as Your Exalted Highness has said, one of a long line 



76 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


SiiJLte Banquet 'at Hyderabad, 

of Yiceroys who have had the privilege of enjoying the 
hospitality of the Ruler of Hyderabad, and it nxust al- 
ways be a memorable event in a Viceroy’s life to have the 
opportunity of visiting this great Muslim State of Southern 
India. Lady Irwin and I feel the keenest pleasure in thus 
renewing our acquaintance with Your Exalted Highness 
in your own State, and we are most grateful to you for 
all the arrangements you and your officials have made for 
our comfort and entertainment. 

On an occasion like this it is tempting to indulge in 
historical retrospect, and to glance down the vistas which 
lead us to the beginnings of Muslim rule in the Deccan at 
the close of the loth century. A splendid record of achieve- 
ment is enshrined in the annals of those early warriors, and 
of their successors who held and developed their conquests* 
The rule of Imperial Delhi soon gave place to the great 
Bhamani Kingdom, which a hundred years later was 
parcelled out into five smaller entities. Of these the best 
known were Bijapur, Goleonda and Ahmadnagar kingdoms, 
which have expressed in rich architecture the spirit of their 
times. The stately mosques, mausoleums and public build- 
ings at Goleonda, Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur stand as 
testimony of a glorious past, and by Your Exalted Pligh- 
ness’s efforts towards the conservation of these interesting 
relics you have evidently realized that a wise administrator 
utilizes what is good from the past and preserves it as an 
inspiration for the future. 

A vision of striking figures moves across the stage of 
history until we come to the era of the great Exnperor 
Aurangazeb and Asafjah, the founder of the xxresent 
dynasty. 

The kingdoms of the Deccan fade into a great Moghul 
Province which in its turn, as the Delhi Empire crumbled, 
became the inheritance of the dynasty of the first Nizam 
Asafjah. Soon after his death the British appeared on the 
scene, and alliances of mutual benefit followed between 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


77 


State Banquet at Hyderabad, 

them and Hyderabad, Few would, I suppose, deny that the 
friendship and support of the British Empire contributed 
materially to stabilising the Nizam’s rule in the troublous 
times which follow’ed the collapse of the Central Power at 
Delhi. 

In th^ 19th century the outstanding period in the 
history of the State commences with the assumption of the 
reins of the administration by Sir Salar Jung, to whose 
wise guidance Hyderabad owes so much. The somewhat 
erratic methods of former days now gave place to firm and 
judicious rule, which must always be regarded as of the 
first importance, both in the interests of India generally 
and of the Hyderabad State itself. Your Exalted Highness^ 
shortly after your succession, took upon your shoulders tJie 
task of governing alone and unaided, and some years later 
you decided to entrust the powers of the Minister to an 
Executive Council. From the language of the Firman by 
which Your Exalted Highness constituted this new adminis- 
trative machine, it is clear that you intended that the 
Council should exercise the powders and authority formerly 
wielded by the Chief Minister, and that it should have ade- 
quate influence and a reasonably free hand to administer 
the country under Your Exalted Highness’s control. At 
the outset these conditions were not completely realized. 
Three years ago, however, Your Exalted Highness decided 
to improve the composition of the Council and to place in 
its hands adequate authority to administer the State iu 
accordance with the spirit of the Firman from which it 
derives its origin. Your Exalted Highness at the same 
time accepted the offer of the loan of the services of three 
British officers to assist in putting the administratioji on a 
sound basis, and, when the Council was reconstituted, Sir 
Kishen Prasad, an old and experienced administrator, was 
appointed its President. Your Exalted Highness has given 
the Council your support and I have much pleasure in con- 
gratulating you on the great improvements in the adminis- 
tration which have followed from tbe reforms you have 



78 


Speeches hy Lord 


State Banquet at Hyderabad, 

introduced. It is a source of gratification to my Govern- 
ment that the Council is developing both efficiency and 
prestige. 

It is hardly necessary for me to say that the British 
Government regard the Council system of administration 
as fully justified by results, and appreciate the wisdom of 
Your Exalted Highness’ step in resorting to it. They 
feel assured that Your Exalted Highness shares the view 
of the British Government that the Council must now be 
regarded as an organic element in the constitution of the 
Hyderabad State, and I need hardly say that its functions- 
and the method of its composition are matters in which 
the British Government will always be closely iiJfeerested. 
Your Exalted Highness in this may count on the full moral 
support of the Government of India, and thej^ look for- 
ward with confidence to a great future for the Hyderabad 
State as a consequence of the measures which Your Exalted 
Highness has adopted. In all parts of the world ex- 
perience has shown that the task of ruling with enlighten- 
ment vast countries and large and varied populations is 
greater than can be undertaken by any single person, how- 
ever assiduous or benevolent he may be in the discharge 
of his responsibilities. The multifarious aspects of modern 
administration demand more than an unaided ruler can 
devote to it either in time or attention, and I have no doubt 
that Your Exalted Highness has experienced the benefit 
which the decision to share the task of Government with 
trusted advisers has brought to you. The Governor of a 
British Indian Province would be indeed a man entitled 
to sympathy if he were obliged to handle unaided the reins 
of the Government with which he is entrusted by His 
Majesty, and I need scarcely say that I myself wmuld view 
with alarm and despondency any suggestion that I should 
be relieved of the valuable advice and assistance which the 
constitution of the Government of India places at my dis- 
posal. It has been a matter of constant gratification to 
me to watch the progress that has thus been made* for the 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


79 


State Banquet at Hyderabad, 

*v^’€lfare of Yotir Exalted Highness and of your State and 
people are nxatters very near to my heart. 

I listened with much pleasure this evening to the 
tribute w^hieh Your Exalted Highness paid to the friendly 
relations which have existed between yourself and Sir 
William Barton, whose solicitude for the welfare of 
Hyderabad State, throughout the period of his present 
high ofiSce, has been constant and sincere. I am glad too 
to know that Your Exalted Highness’ Go\"ernment appre- 
ciates the services of the British officers lent to the State.* 
They are picked men of character and ability, and Your 
Exalted Highness may continue to rely upon their loyal 
co-operation with you in the maintenance of good ad- 
ministration. If and when others are needed, I can assure 
Your Exalted Highness that the Government of India will 
be ready to come to your assistance by lending you their 
services. I would wish also to express my appreciation 
of the' devotion and loyalty to Your Exalted Highness 
which prompted that veteran statesman, Sir Kishen Prasad, 
to take up the onerous and responsible duties of President 
of the Council. His services have been of great value in 
carrying out the changes in the administrative machinery 
inaugurated in recent years by Your Exalted Highness. 

Speaking as I am in the leading Mussalnian State and 
the premier State of all India, I cannot refrain from a 
brief reference to the wider questions which have a bearing 
on the future position and welfare of the Indian States, 
The pronouncement which it was > recently my duty, on 
behalf of His Majesty’s Government, to make Indicated the 
advantages of bringing under one comprehensive review 
the whole problem of the relations of British India and the 
States, as a means towards the fulfilment of what His 
Majesty’s Government consider to be the underlying pur- 
pose of British policy in India. I recognise the force of 
what Your Exalted Highness has said about the historical 
relations of the Indian States with the British Crown, and 



80 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


State Banquet at Hyderabad. 

there is no need for me to emphasise the vitally important 
part which the States must play in India’s future. They are 
partners in an enteiprise which admits of no internal 
jealousies or conflict, and in which all parties must be 
directed by a common desire to see India stroni^ with the 
strength which only unity can give. There is much which 
British India and the States will have the opportunity of 
examining together when the proposed Conference meets 
in London. There is much too that each can do to equip 
themselves for the wider developments that still lie wrapped 
in the folds of the future. It is for the Princes on their 
part, as for British India on hers, to make certain that 
the structure they are each building is set on Arm founda- 
tions. No Prince can, as I am sure Your Exalted High- 
ness will agree, find any surer guarantee of this than in 
an insistence on a high standard of internal administration, 
and I trust that in this respect Hyderabad will uuder the 
guidance of wise rulers always set an example worthy of 
the position of honour that it occupies among Indian 
States, 

Of the work of the various departments of Your 
Exalted Highness’s administration, I need not say 3mieh 
in detail. Finance is in the able hands of Sir Akbar 
Hydari, to whom I have no doubt that Your Exalted High- 
ness is greatly indebted for the strong financial position 
of your State. Education is progressing, and, if your 
Government should succeed in its declared policy of adapt- 
ing rural education to the needs of an agricultural com- 
munity, it would be of inestimable benefit to your people. 
It is a pleasure to know that the Osmania University is 
establishing itself on lasting foundations. It will be the 
task of mature statesmanship so to shape the policy of the 
tiniversity that it may have as strong an appeal to the 
Hindus as to the Muhammadan subjects of Your Exalted 
Higjmess. In railway matters y^eur Government has 
^adopted a progressive policy — the new links with the south 



Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


81 


Address of welcome from the Municipal Gommittee of New Delhi. 

and the north are a definite step in advancement. Your 
Exalted Highness’s Government too are to be congratulated 
on what has been already achieved in the development of 
irrigation and in the Nizam Sagar project, for the pros- 
perity of the agriculturist is the surest foundation of the 
welfare of your State. Your Medical Department is, I am 
glad to hear, in process of reorganization, and I feel con- 
fident that the Judicial Department will in course of time 
be brought to that state of efficiency so indispensable as an 
adjunct of modern administration. 

I have touched on only a few of the many aspects 
which go to make up the whole picture of the government 
of a great State like Hyderabad but I can .assure Your 
Exalted Highness that I take the deepest interest in your 
administration, and shall always be prepared to do any- 
thing in my power to assist Your Exalted Highness to 
make that administration a real instrument for good to all 
your people. 

Your Exalted Highness has started your people on 
the path of constitutional progress. It is my earnest hope 
and prayer that your Government may be held in high 
honour in the Deccan for justice, impartiality and good 
will, and that Your Exalted Highness’ rule will add fresh 
lustre to the distinguished annals of your predecessors. 


ADDRESS OP WELCOME PROM THE MUNICIPAL COM- 
MITTEE OP NEW DELHI 

The following reply was made by H. E. the Viceroy to S3rd Decern- 

her 1020 

the address of Welcome presented to him by the Municipal 
Committee of New Delhi on his arrival at The Viceroy’s 
House ” on the morning of the 23rd December : — 

It is with no ordinary feelings that Lady Irwin, and 
I, on our return from a long and arduous but deeply 


L6PSV 



82 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin^ 


Address of welcome from the Municipal Committee of New Delhi, 

interesting tour in Southern India, now stand on the 
threshold of the house that is to be the home of future 
Viceroys of India, and 1 conceive it to be of happy omen 
that we should enter it in your presence and witli your 
welcome in our ears. For you are the arbiters of much 
that will affect our happiness and comfort during the 
remainder of our time in Delhi, as that of our successors, 
and it has given us genuine pleasure this morning to listen 
to the kind terms in which you have formally bidden us 
welcome to your charge. Though w^e have not been 
strangers to New Delhi these last thr^e years, we have 
necessarily felt the isolation of living cut off from you, not 
indeed by many miles but by the four walls of a great 
city, and, though we cannot but feel a pang of regret on 
leaving the temporary abode which seventeen years ago 
housed His Majesty the King Emperor himself, and since 
then has been the residence of His Majesty's representa- 
tive, it is nevertheless a real pleasure to us to feel that 
from today we can count ourselves as residents — and I may 
say rate-payers — of the Municipality of New Delhi. Much 
of the inspiration which has created this city sprang from 
His Majesty the King-Emperor, and nothing could have 
exceeded the deep and helpful interest taken by Their 
Majesties in everything that concerned the planning and 
growth of the New Capital, and of The Viceroy’s House 
in particular. I shall look forward to the pleasure of 
conveying to them an account of this morning’s ceremony 
which I know they will receive with genuine gratification. 

As you have said, New Delhi was not built in a day, 
and the years which have watched its construction stand 
astride events which have made history and which are even 
now setting the stage for great changes in the future. 
The wheel of time has come round and placed the centre 
of Imperial rule once more in Delhi. The buildings which 
here surround us have sev^ generations of Delhi cities 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


83 


Address of welcome from the MunieipcU Committee of New DelhL 

behind them, and I think I ean pay no higher compliment 
to Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker than to 
say that their work challenges comparison with the greatest 
of the memorials which the architects of ancient Empires 
have here bequeathed to us. It is indeed a worthy setting 
for the labours of those whose task it will be under Pro- 
vidence to achieve the full destiny of India among the 
Dominions of the Empire, and I trust that the qualities of 
unity of design and beauty, joined with vigour in execu- 
tion, may ever be reflected in the work of those who labour 
here in the service of India. 

I have watched with interest the growth of Municipal 
activities in New Delhi, and I appreciate the determina- 
tion which you have voiced in your address this morning 
to leave nothing undone which will assist to make this city 
worthy of her Imperial position. It will be my hope that 
the proposals which are now” before Government will result 
in giving your Committee the powers w”hich will enable 
them to exercise the functions of a full-fledged Municip* 
ality. You may rest assured that, as a citizen of New 
Delhi, I shall follow with close interest and sympathy 
your efforts to control the development of an area w^hich 
has become the visible embodiment of a great concep- 
tion. 


I believe that by some of its detractors New Delhi has 
been named the desert city Its worst enemy miust 
now find some new epithet, for where he prophesied a 
desert he now” finds a smiling garden. This transforma- 
tion has at the same time brought wdth it the problem 
of health, inseparable from the provision of the ample 
supply of water required. I am glad to know that the 
health authorities have successfully grappled with this 
problem and I am confident that you will realise that the 
maintenance of the sucoe^ achieved will be one of the 



84 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


Jann* 

i«y 


Laying of the Foundation-stone of the Central Hospital^ Delhi. 

most important duties of your body. It is a great satis- 
faction to Lady Irwin and to myself to know that sanction 
has been given to the provision of an up-to-date and effi- 
cient hospital, the foundation stone of which I hope shortly 
to lay. But perhaps the most valuable form of health in- 
surance you can have lies in the wide spaces and ameni- 
ties to be found within your limits, in the hockey and foot- 
ball grounds, tennis courts and polo grounds and last but 
not least the golf course which in spite of two bad mou- 
'soons is, I believe, second to none in Northern India. I 
congratulate you warmlj? on the thoroughness with which 
you have carried out this side of your work. 

Gentlemen, an early December morning in Delhi is 
not the time to detain an open air audience, and I will now 
with your permission take leave of you, with renewed 
thanks from Lady Irwin and myself for the welcome you 
have given us, with our sincerest wishes for your success 
in the great task for which you are responsible, and with 
the earnest prayer and belief that under your guidance 
India will have a Capital that may be at once worthy of 
her and the envy of the world. 


LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION-STONE OF THE 
CENTRAL HOSPITAL, DELHI. 

In laying the Foundation-stone of the Central Hospital, 
Delhi, on the 10th January His Excellency the Viceroy said 

Your Excellency, Ladies and Gentlemen , — The cere- 
mony which I am now to have the privilege of performing 
is one which can surely claim the sympathy and goodwill 
of all who have the welfare of Delhi and its citizens at 
heart. Sir John Thompson has just made very clear to 
us the urgent necessity of a hospital of this kind, adequate 
ill size and efficiency, and worthy of a great Imperial 
Capital ~ I have myself, ever since I came to Delhi, been 



Speeches iy Loi^d Irwin, 


85 


Laying of the Foundation-stone of the Central Hospital, Delhi, 
conscious of this need. During the last four years I 
have had opportunities of visiting the various parts of 
Delhi city, including its poorer quarters, and have seen 
something of the difficulties which face the municipal 
administration and of the efforts they have made to improve 
the conditions of life within their charge. Nothing I 
think has struck me more forcibly than the lack of good 
hospital arrangements, and it is a great satisfaction to me 
to know that during my period of office these are now to 
be provided. No one who has listened to Sir John 
Thompson’s speech can doubt that those responsible for 
the present scheme are to be warmly congratulated on the 
thorough and up-to-date lines on which it has been 
conceived, and it is clear that, so far as human skill can 
provide it, everji:hing possible will here be done to ensure 
comfort and alleviation to the sick and injurjed. Indeed, 
after heai-ing what he has said, I fear the danger is that 
once a patient has received treatment here he will always 
feel an irresistible desire to return. 

We shall all agree tliat the site has been admirably 
chosen. There is always a difficulty in satisfactorily 
joining the new to the old without leaving a dividing line 
with elements of weakness or unsightliness. This applies 
to cities no less than to other things, and those who direct 
the affairs of the old and new cities of Delhi have a difficult 
task in merging the two together. A good start has 
already been made in beautifying what was until recently 
a somewhat unlovely no-man’s land, by laying out lawns 
and playing grounds between the walls of the old city 
and Ferozeshah Kotla. It is of good omen for the 
harmonious working of the two bodies that a site should 
have been chosen in these » surroundings for the hospital 
whose foundation stone I am about to lay, and which you 
have been good enough to call by my name. There are 
already other joint enterprises which have been under- 
taken in the interests of the two cities. We have the 
Water Works, the Power House and other public works/ 



86 


Speeches T>y Lord Irwin. 


Laying of the Foundation-stone of the Central Hospitalj Delhi. 
but this hospital is the first great general institution which 
will be housed in buildings of note. A dividing line may 
also be a line of union, and 1 am glad to think that here 
the line of union between the old and new cities will now, 
besides the beautification of the land, have a series of fine 
buildings, whose object will be the relief of the people of 
Delhi from the attacks of mankind's immemorial and 
relentless enemies — disease and suffering. It is an object 
which appeals to the sympathy and highest feelings of 
mankind, of whatever race or creed. You will remember 
that in French towns the central hospital is commonly 
given the name “ Hotel Dieu God's Guest House, to 
signify the sacred character of the purpose to w^hich it 
has been dedicated. 

We need, as I have said, have no anxieties as to the 
quality of the buildings which are to be provided here. 
Nor need we fear for lack of medical and surgical skill, 
when we remember all that the medical services have 
already done for India. But there is a further considera- 
tion of which account must be taken if the hospital is 
fully to achieve its object. To an audience familiar with 
the attention paid to nursing in Western countries, it 
would perhaps seem hardly necessary to emphasise the 
essential part which proper nursing plays in hospital 
treatment. But T am not so confident that this necessity 
is generally recognised in India. Lady Irwin and I 
durii]^ the years we have spent in India have been 
privileged to visit a large number of hospitals in every part 
of the country, and our general impression has been that 
nursing facilities leave much to be desired, especially 
perhaps in the north. Even in this central hospital I 
understand that for each ward of 24 beds it is at present 
calculated that only one nuri^ will be available, whereas 
I believe hospitals in England have four nurses for day 
work and one nurse for night work in a ward of this size. 
Tie need is great for more nurses, both in hospitals and 
(xMMe h^itals for private nursii^ and health work, but 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


87 


Laying of the Foundation-stone of the Central Hospital^ Delhi, 
at present the supply is small. I make no apology there- 
fore for laying emphasis on this subject. When the doctor 
or surgeon has done his work it is the nurse who is 
responsible for the constant care which must subsequently 
be given to the patient, and it is he or she alone who must 
be ready to do the hundred and one little things which 
make all the difference between the comfort and discomfort 
of the sick. At the same time she must be qualified to 
note and report on symptoms or on any change in the 
patient’s condition. She is, or should be, the doctor’s 
eyes and ears. For such duties an intelligent, educated, 
trustworthy and well-trained woman, with all a woman’s 
instincts, is required, and for this reason nursing is 
regarded, and rightly regarded, as one of the most 
honourable professions in all countries. 

I feel strongly that the development of the nursing 
profession is a matter to which social reformers might well 
turn their attention, and I would trust that the general 
public wdll always regard nurses as honoured sisters whom 
it is their duty to protect and reverence. The system of 
purdah is gradually disappearing, the education of women 
is spreading, and I look forward to the time tvhen the 
rising generation of young educated women in India will 
come forward in their numbers and join this profession, 
than which there is none more noble, for the alleviation 
of the suffering and afflicted. 

I am accordingly very glad to learn that you anticipate 
an increase in the nursing staff for this hospital as soon 
as the personnel is available, and that you have wisely 
left yourselves scope for increasing the accommodation for 
the staff as circumstances may require. 

I will now, with your permission, lay the foundation 
stone of this building. I shall watch its progress with 
constant sympathy and interest, and I hope that before 
I leave India I may see it far on the road towards comple- 
tion. Let us carry in our thoughts those who will minister 
and be ministered to within its walls, and wish continuing 
godspeed to all its enterprise. 




88 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


ADDKESS FROM THE ALL-INDIA MUSLIM 
FEDERATION AT BOMBAY. 

17th January In replying to the address presented by the All-India 
1930. Muslim Federation at Bombay on the 17th January, H, E. the 
Viceroy said 

Gentlemen, 

The welcome whicli you have extended to me and 
through me to Lady Irwin this morning on behalf of the 
Muslim community has added considerably to the pleasure 
which I have felt in visiting Bombay and meeting so many 
of its representative citizens. I thank you warmly for all 
that you have said and for the condemnation to which you 
have given utterance of the attempt which was recently 
made upon my train near Delhi. It is needless to say that 
such actions will not alter one whit the policy which the 
Government has set before itself, and during the last 
three weeks ample proof has been provided of the detesta- 
tion in which the country at large holds such insensate out- 
rages. 

It has given me great pleasure to listen to your appre- 
ciation of the announcement which it was my duty to make 
on October 31st. The object of the conference in England 
will be, as you recognise, to explore the means by which 
the widest measure of gener^ assent from all parties and 
interests concerned may be secured for the proposals it 
win later be the duty of His Majesty’s Government to sub- 
mit to Parliament, and I cordially welcome the assurance 
you have given me that your community is determined to 
rfiow further proof of its loyalty and wisdom by promising 
their whole-hearted support to the conference. It is natural 
at a time like this, when the whole future development of 
India is under consideration, that minority communities 
should examine with some anxiety the position they are 
likely to occupy under any revision of the present consti- 
tution. Ton will not expect me to pronounce any view 
Etage cm the particular safegu^ds of your position 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


89 


Address from the All-India Muslim Federation at Bombay* 

which you have in mind ; but, as you realise, the Round 
Table Conference will provide the opportunity for 
thorough discussion of all difficulties and apprehensions, 
and it will be the earnest hope of His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment that as a result of those deliberations it may be possible 
to reach conclusions which will prove acceptable to the 
Muslim community as to all other communities and in- 
terests. For that purpose it is essential that the various 
interests should be represented at the Conference by those 
who are in a position to speak with authority on their be- 
half, and who 'will therefore be best fitted to adjust the 
claims of the several communities to the achievement of 
the wider purpose of Indian unity. 

I would take this opportunity of thanking you for Ihe 
assistance which your body and other Muslim Associations 
rendered to Sir John Simon and his colleagues by laying 
before them the 'views and aspirations of the great Muslim 
community in India. The resolution adopted by your 
Council in January 1928, condemning hartals and demon- 
strations against the Commission, gave a valuable lead to 
Muhammadans in India and was warmly appreciated by 
,my Government. 

You have mentioned the resentment which to my 
regret has been aroused in the Muslim community by 
the Marriage Restraint Act. You are rightly jealous of 
spiritual liberty and freedom in matters of religious 
faith and practice, and my Government are earnestly 
desirous that no legitimate cause of offence may arise to 
the conscience and religious scruples of any individual 
or community. On the other hand, I am confident that 
the Muslim community as a whole would not wish to 
stand aloof from a social reform which has for its object 
the promotion of the physical and moral well-being 
of the people, and I trust it may be possible that on a 
fuller consideration of the problem the doubts now felt 
by some of them may be resolved. 




90 - 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


State Banquet at Baroda. 

It is not, as you will realise, within my province to 
express any opinion on the situation in Palestine, but 
I can assure you that I have kept His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment fully apprised at every sta^e of the sentiments of 
Indian Muslims on the situation in that country. His 
Majesty’s Government have laid it down that they will 
do all in their power to secure that the interests, religious 
and material, of each section of the population in Palestine 
are duly respected, and you may rest convinced that His 
Majesty’s Government are determined to hold the scales 
even in that country as elsewhere between the different 
communities and interests. I shall of course be glad 
to communicate to the Secretary of State the views which 
you have expressed this morning. 

Your Federation is still in its infancy, but, after study^ 
ing the objects it has set before itself and the list of office- 
bearers in whose hands its direction lies, I feel confident 
that it has a great and useful future before it. It is 
difficult to exaggerate the value of bodies such as yours 
which, apart from the service they can render to their 
own community, work for the removal of misunder- 
standings between Muslims and Government and for 
the maintenance of peace and order in India. Both 
of these are objects worthy of our supreme endeavour, 
and they find their best guarantee in a continuance of 
those cordial relations which have existed in the past 
between your community and the Government, and 
which I earnestly trust may last unbroken for many years 
to come. 


STATE BANQUET AT BARODA. 

The following speech was delivered by H. E. the Viceroy 
at the State Banquet at Baroda on the 21st January 

Your HighmsSj Ladies and Gentlemen ^ — I must begin 
by expressing the great pleasure which Lady Irwin and 



Speeches hp Lord Irwin. 


91 


State Banquet at Baroda, 

I feel in visiting this important State of Western India, a 
visit to which we have long looked forward. We have now 
spent two days, full of interest, in Your Highness’ State, 
and vre are deeply grateful to Your Highness for all the 
hospitality you have shown us and the personal trouble you 
have taken to make our stay in Baroda so comfortable. 
We have to thank you too for the very kind way in which 
you have to-night bidden us welcome. The value of that 
welcome has been enhanced by the friendliness which during 
the last two days has been shown to us on all sides by Your 
Highness’ people. 

I echo all that Your Highness has said in condemna- 
tion of those methods of violence, of which we lately had an 
example in the attempt upon our train. Your Highness 
may remember that, by a curious coincidence, when Lord 
Minto visited your State in 1909, Your Highness on an 
occasion similar to the present expressed your detestation 
of an attack which had been made the day before upon 
Lord Minto ’s life. The reprobation evoked by the recent 
outrage has made it abundantly clear that every class and 
creed in India share Your Highness’ horror of such attempts. 
The real tragedy is that there should be persons so misguided 
as to think that any cause can be advanced by such sense- 
less deeds, which can never succeed in the object i^hich their 
perpetrators have presumably in view, and only stain the 
fair name of India. 

It is now close on 50 years since Your Highness was 
installed as ruler of this State and first entered on that 
career of wise and vigorous administration which has meant 
so much to the people of Baroda. Indeed, to anyone who 
reads the history of this State since the beginnings of 
Mahratta rule in the early years of the 18th century, the 
last half century seems like a new era of enlightenment. 
There is no department of Government which does not bear 
proof of Your Highness’ interest in the administration, 



92 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


State Banquet at Baroda* 

whether it concerns the economic growth of the State, 
education, social legislation, or the development of local 
self-governing institutions. Eailways have steadily in- 
creased, and your port at Okha has a promising future. 
The advance of education is seen in a system which embraces 
free and compulsory primary education, a large number 
of secondary schools, a first-grade college and a fully 
developed technical institute. I am particularly glad to 
know that a feature of Your Highness’ educational policy is 
the provision of over 200 schools for the depressed classes. 
Yesterday afternoon I had the opportunity of paying a 
visit to the Central Library which I believe is one of the 
largest institutions of its kind in India. The scheme where- 
by it supports a system of travelling libraries and spreads a 
network of subsidiary libraries over the villages of the 
State is I understand peculiar to Baroda and must be a 
valuable asset to the educational system of the State. A 
pleasant feature too of that system is the progress made 
in female education, and I should like to pay a high tribute 
to the work which Her Highness the Maharani has done 
in these matters and the constant interest she has displayed 
in the welfare of the women of the State. 

Your Highness has spoken to-night of the position of 
the Indian States in the future structure of the Indian 
polity. As regards the observance of Treaties, both in the 
letter and in the spirit, I would only repeat what I have 
said on previous occasions that it is the declared policy, of 
His Majesty’s Government to maintain intact the rights 
and privil^es of the Prances. Your Highness has also 
spoken of the establishment of an independent Court of 
Arbitration. In this matter Your Highness shares the 
desire of most of the Princes for a free resort to arbitration 
in cases where they differ from the Government of India. 
This, as you know, is one of the subjects dealt with in the 
report of the Butler Committee, who attached great im- 
portance to the free adoption of the procedure laid down 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


93 


State Banquet at Baroda. 

by the Government of India in 1920 for employment in 
such cases. The Committee's report however is still 
under the examination of the Government of India and 
I can only say that the whole matter will receive the full 
consideration it deserves. Another point which Your 
Highness considered vital to the welfare of the States was 
the devising of some means whereby they can speak with 
equal voice on matters of common interest to themselves 
and the rest of British India. This also is a matter to 
which the Butler Committee paid particular attention, 
and, if the machinery contemplated by their rjeport to 
provide for Committees in matters of common concern 
takes practical shape, there can I think be no doubt that 
any arrangement arrived at will provide that the views of 
the States should be given consideration commensurate 
with the important relations they bear; to the affairs of 
India as a whole. 


As Your Highness has said we stand on the threshold 
of an era fraught with possibilities of the greatest conse- 
quence to the future history of India. Those who have 
the moulding of her future can afford to neglect no single 
aspect of the field, and the importance of including the 
Indian States in the constitutional review, which is now 
taking x>laee, was recognised and emphasised in the state- 
ment which it was my duty to make on my recent return 
from England. The response to that announcement has 
shown the strength of Indian opinion, whether in British 
India or in the States, which is determined to lend all its 
weight to the discovery of a fair and harmonious solution 
of the difScult problem which now confronts us. It is of 
good omen that on the main issues agreement should be so 
generally apparent, and my earnest hope is — as indeed it 
is the hope of all those who have India's true interests at 
heart — that the deliberations which will in due course 



94 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly. 

ensue 'will point the way towards the framing of a con- 
stitution which may bring to India contentment and 
prosperity within her own borders and secure for her the 
place she deserves among the great nations of the world. 


ADDRESS AT THE DELHI SESSION OF THE 
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 

25th January His Excellency the Viceroy delivered the following 
1930, Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly on the 
25j:h January 

Gentlemen of the Assembly, — 

I was unable, owing to my absence from Delhi, to 
greet you at the opening of your Session, but I desire now 
to offer you a cordial welcome to your labours and to 
express the hope that harmony and goodwill may attend 
your deliberations. 

I regret that it was not possible for me to address both 
Houses of the Legislature this morning. That however 
would have involved either inconvenience to Hon'ble Mem- 
bers of the Council of State by summoning them to Delhi 
earlier than was justified by circumstances, or undue 
postponement of the opportunity of speaking in this place. 
I do not propose to make detailed reference to the pro- 
gramme of work that lies before you. Your attention this 
Session will be directed chiefly to the Budget, and the only 
preface I would wish to make to my more general observa- 
tions is a brief allusion to matters that do not immediately 
concern the internal affairs of India. 

Peace reigns on our borders. But for two of our 
neighbours the past year has been eventful. Nepal has 
suffered the loss of her distinguished Prime Minister, His 
Highness Sir Shumshere Jung, whose fame as a wise and 
progressive statesman had travelled far beyond the con- 
fine of his own country. India shares NepaPs sorrow in 



Speeches by Lord Irmn, 


05 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly, 

her bereavement, but shares also her gratification that the 
reins of office have fallen into the hands of so sagacious 
and well-tried an administrator as Sir Bhim Shumshere 
Jung, to whom we wish all success in the high duties which 
he now finds himself called upon to discharge. 

It is a great satisfaction to India that Afghanistan 
has found a happy issue out of her recent calamities in the 
accession of His Majesty King Muhammad Nadir Shah. 
His Majesty carries with him our warmest wishes and good- 
will, and I have every confidence that under his wise 
guidance Afghanistan will speedily enter upon a newr era 
of prosperity, and that the ties of friendship which unite 
our two neighbouring countries will be maintained with 
ever-increasing strength and mutual trust. 

The question of the future Government of Eastern 
Africa is now being considered by His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment, on whom my Government have impressed the keen 
interest evinced in this question by all communities in 
India, and the importance of having due regard in their 
treatment of this matter to legitimate Indian feeling. I 
am glad to acknowdedge publicly the valuable help which 
the Government of India have received from the Indian 
Legislature in this connection, and to give the assurance 
that it will always be our endeavour to champion the just 
cause of Indians overseas by all constitutional means open 
to us and in harmony with enlightened Indian opinion. 

I much regret that sudden and serious illness has com- 
pelled Sir Kurma Venkata Reddi, our Agent in South 
Africa, to return to India. During the time he has held 
his post, Sir Kurma has amply justified his selection to 
this important office, and the House will, I am sure, join 
me in hoping that a speedy recovery may enable him 
belfore long to resume his work. 




96 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assemhly, 

I must now deal with some features of the political 
situation, which has lately been engaging public atten- 
tion. 


On my return to this country from England, it was 
my duty to make a statement on behalf of His Majesty’s 
Government. That statement stands as I made it and 
indeed in the light of the appreciation which I had formed 
of the principal elements of the problem with which we 
all have to deal, and with a full knowledge of tlie weight 
that must necessarily attach to the considered opinion 
of anyone holding my present office, I should have felt 
that I had failed in my duty both to India and Great 
Ilritain, if I had tendered any diiferent advice to Hh 
Majesty’s Government, and, when His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment saw fit, as they did, to enjoin me to make an an- 
nouncement on their behalf, I could have chosen no different 
language in which to make it. 

The intention of my statement, of which I believe the 
purport to have been unmistakeable, and which carried 
the full authority of His Majesty’s Government, was to 
focus attentio-n on three salient points. Firstly, while 
saying that obviously no British Government could pre- 
judge the policy which it would recommend to Parliament 
after the report of the Statutory Commission had been 
considered, it re-stated in unequivocal terms the goal to 
which British policy in regard to India was directed. 
Secondly, it emphasised Sir John Simon’s assertion that 
the facts of the situation compel us to make a constructive 
attempt to face the problem of the Indian States, with due 
regard to the Treaties which regulate their relations with the 
British Grown ; and, lastly, it intimated the intention of 
His Majesty’s Government to convene a Conference on 
these matters before they themselves prejudged them by 
fonnulation of even draff conclusions. 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


97 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly. 

I have never sought to delude Indian .opinion into the 
belief that a definition of purpose, however plainly stated, 
would of itself, by the enunciation of a phrase, provide 
a solution for the problems which have to be solved, before 
that purpose is fully realised. The assertion of a goal, 
however precise its terms, is of necessity a difierent thing 
from the goal’s attainment. No sensible traveller would 
feel that the clear definition of his destination was the 
same thing as the completion of his journey. But it is an 
assurance of direction, and in this case I believe it to be 
something of tangible value to India that those who demand 
full equality with the other self-governing units of the 
British Commonwealth on her behalf should know that 
Great Britain on her side also desires to lend her assist- 
ance to India in attaining to that position. Tiie desire of 
most responsible opinion in India and that of His Majesty’s 
Government is thus the same, and where unity of purpose 
is so assured we ought surely to be prepared to approach 
the practical difficulties with greater hopefulness. For 
my own part, if I am satisfied that someone with whom I 
have business to transact desires the same ejid as mjrself, 
I feel the better able to discuss any honest difference that 
may emerge between us, as to' the means of its complete 
attainment, with a feeling of confidence that on the main 
purpose we do not differ. 

Although it is true that in her external relations with 
other parts of the Empire India exhibits already several of 
t^ie attributes of a self-governing Dominion, it is also 
true that Indian political opinion is not at present disposed 
to attach full value to these attributes of status, for the 
reason that their practical exercise is for the most part sub- 
ject to the control or concurrence of His Majesty’s Gov- 
ernment. The demand for Dominion Status that is now 
nade on behalf of India is based upon the general claim to 
be free from that control, more especially in those tileds 
L6PSV 




98 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly, 

that are regarded as of predominantly domestic interest. 
And here, as is generally recognised, there are real diffl- 
enlties internal to India, and peculiar to her circumstances 
and world position, that have to be faced, and in regard 
to which there may be sharp variation of opinion both in 
India and in Great Britain. The existence of these diffi- 
culties cannot be seriously disputed, and the whole object 
of the Conference now proposed is to afford opportunity 
to His Majesty’s Government of examining in free con- 
sultation with Indian leaders how they may best, most 
rapidly, and most surely be surmounted. 

The Conference which His Majesty’s Government will 
convene is not indeed the Conference that those have 
demanded, who claimed that its duty should be to proceed 
by way of majority vote to the fashioninig of an Indian 
Constitution which should thereafter be accepted un- 
changed by Parliament. It is evident that any such pro- 
cedure would be impracticable and impossible of recon- 
ciliation with the constitutional responsibility that must 
rest both on His Majesty’s Government and upon Parlia- 
ment. But, though the Conference cannot assume the 
duty that appertains to His Majesty’s Government, it will 
be convened for the purpose hardly less important of elu- 
cidating and harmonising opinion, and so affording guid- 
ance to His Majesty’s Government on whom the respons- 
ibility must subsequently devolve of drafting proposals 
for the consideration of Parliament. It is thus evident 
that the intrinsic soundness of any particular proposals 
made, and the manner in which the argument for them is 
presented, will be more important factors in the Confer- 
ence than the exact numerical representation enjoyed by 
any of the different sections of opinion that will participate 
in the proceedings. 

I do not now pronounce between the alternative 
methods by which the British Indian Delegation to the 



Speeches iy Lordf Irwin, 


69 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly, 

Conference might be selected. It is safe to assume that 
the only desire of His Majesty ^s Government will be that 
this body should, so far as it may, be honestly and fairly 
representative of all opinion in India which can legiti- 
mately claim to be heard. In discussions where Central 
and Provincial issues must interact closely upon one an- 
other, many will no dolibt be anxious that effective voice 
should be given to the Pro^dneial, as well as to the All- 
India, point of view. There is no lack of men well equip- 
ped to deal with these several aspects of the problem, 
but, while those who attend the Conference should cleady 
be men who command the full confidence of those they re- 
present, I trust that they will also be men of wide vision, 
strong judgment and imbued with the single desire of 
utilising the occasion for the common good of all the 
people of India. I have as yet tendered no advice to His 
Majesty^s Government on this matter of composition of the 
Conference, and before doing so I shall welcome any in- 
formal intimation of their views that Hon’ble Members 
of the Legislature, or spokesmen of different interests in 
che country, may be willing to place before me. 


Nor has it yet been possible to decide upon a date for 
the Conference, for this must depend upon certain factors 
which are still indefinite. It appears probable that the 
Imperial Conference will be held in the autumn of this 
year, and this no doubt will have to be one of the consider- 
ations present to the mind of His Majesty’s Government 
when they fix the date for the Indian Conference. And, 
as I stated in my announcement, after the publication of 
the Report of the Statuto*ry Commission, it will be neces- 
sary to give His Majesty ^s Government, the Government 
of India, Local Governments, the Princes and general 
public opinion reasonable time to study the complicated 
questions with which .the Report will, deal.- Subjeet to' 



100 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly, 

these practical necessities of fact, His Majesty’s G-overn- 
ment will desire to hold the Indian Conference as early as 
possible, and so far as they are concerned will interpose no 
avoidable delay. It is further the wish of His Majesty’s 
Government to meet, in so far as it is possible, the wishes 
and convenience of the Indian representatives themselves 
in this matter, and it will therefore be valuable to me to 
have the views of Hon’ble Members and others on this 
point also. 

That brings me to another subject which is closely 
connected with the time-table of the Conference. Hon’ble 
Members will recall that I announced my intention last 
May of extending the life of the Assembly, because ac- 
cording to our expectations at that time it seemed likely 
that the elections would otherwise be held on the eve of 
the publication of the Reports of the Statutory Commission 
and of the Indian Central Commitxee, and I considered that 
the uncertainty which must result from the speculation as 
to the possible recommendations of these bodies could not 
fail to be embarrassing both to candidates and voters. At 
the same time I have never thought that it would be right 
to deny the electorate all opportunity of expressing its 
views on these matters during the period, necessarily pro- 
tracted, that must elapse before the final establishment of 
a new constitution. I have accordingly decided that elec- 
tions should be held so as to permit the meeting of a new 
Assembly for the next Delhi session, and my recent order 
extending the life of the present Assembly to July 31st of 
this year was determined by the desire to leave it open 
to decide finally upon the date of the elections as may 
subsequently be found to be generally convenient, having 
regard to the date ultimately fixed for the Conference in 
London. 

Let us now picture to ourselves a Conference, such as 
we may hope to see established, in actual operation. It 



Speeches ly Lord Irwin, 


101 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly, 

will be an assemblage of men of varying race, religion and 
political thought ; it will, by the inclusion of the Indian 
States, be both an expression of the practical links at 
present uniting the two parts of India, and, as we may 
trust, an augury of the greater unity that future days may 
come to witness. At the Conference table, along with all 
those representatives of India, will be those who represent 
Great Britain, and in view of the unique character of the 
gathering I would hope that, when his other preoccupations 
may permit, it might be possible for the Prime Minister 
to preside in person over its deliberations. Those taking 
part in the proceedings will be completely free to advocate 
any proposals for the realisation of Great Britain's pro- 
fessed policy that they may desire to advance. They will 
do this, if I may repeat the words of my announcement, 
in the light of all the material then available — a defin- 
ition purposely drawn wide enough to ensure to the 
Conference every latitude and assistance in the responsible 
task upon which it will be engaged. It is surely no small 
thing that the claim of India to take a constructive part, 
without restriction and without prejudice, in the evolution 
of the new constitution should have been thus recognised 
by those on whom the final constitutional obligation must 
rest. The action of His Majesty Government may in- 
deed fairly be said to have created a new situation. If 
the fundamental problem remains the same, their action 
affords to India, as it does to Great Britain, the occasion 
of making a new approach to it, under conditions honour- 
able to all, and in such form as should permit every type 
of opinion to contribute to its solution. 

I had greatly hoped that leaders of Indian opinion would 
have been unanimous in accepting the hand of friendship 
preferred by His Majesty’s Government, and so taken 
advantage of an opportunity unprecedented in India’s 
history. All history is the tale of opportunities seized or 
lost, and it is one of its chief functions to teach us with 



1^2 


Speeches iy Lo7xl Irwin. 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly. 

-what fatal frequency men have allowed opportunities to 
pass them by, because it may be that the opportunity pre- 
sented itself in a form different from that which they had 
expected or desired. And history, it seems, is in danger 
of repeating itself to-day in certain quarters of India. 
There are some who have accustomed themselves to believe 
that the only thing necessary to place India in the position 
they long to see her fill is some simple action by Great 
Britain, and who are therefore tempted to regard Great 
"Britain' as the only obstacle to the full and immediate 
Tealisation of their hopes. Yet, without undervaluing the 
part Great Britain has to play in these matters, I believe 
that at this moment the future well-being of India, as . 
also the rate of her political progress, depends far more 
profoundly upon what her public men can achieve for her 
in the welding into true unity the different elements that 
compose her being and represent the sum of her political 
thought, than upon anything that His Majesty’s Govern- 
ment or anybody else outside India may be able to do. 

' . I am not careful to analyse the purpose of those who, 
at a critical stage in India’s history, would counsel her 
to reject the way of reason which may persuade and con- 
vince in favour of destructive methods, the danger and 
futility of which she has already experienced in operation. 
But I am bound to make two things very clear. The first 
is this. I have striven hard, not I think without result, 
to secure recognition of what I felt to be the just claims of 
India at the hands of Great Britain, and at the same time 
to pursue a policy of day-to-day administration in India 
.that might not needlessly imperil any chance there might 
be of guiding the ship carrying a precious freight of India’s 
future into smoother waters. It has not therefore been 
the, policy of my Government that prosecutions for sedi- 
tious speech should be extended beyond those cases where 
the language used, or the circumstances of its employ- 
ment^ constituted an incitement to violence^ or made it 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


103 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly, 

necessary to regard the speech as incidental to a move- 
ment directed to the subversion of law and of the authority 
of Government. It has however recently been announced 
that the immediate goal of some who claim to represent 
India is repudiation of the allegiance to the British Crown. 
It has further been made clear that those who desire to 
achieve that goal contemplate resort to the unconstitutional 
and unlawful methods of civil disobedience, and wdth 
reckless disregard of consequences public profession has 
been made of the intention to refuse recognition of India’s 
financial obligations, to which her credit has been pledged. 
I am confident that the great preponderance of Indian 
opinion, which is both loyal and sane, will, when it under- 
stands its implications, condemn decisively a programme, 
which could only be accomplished through the subversion 
of the Government by law established, and which would 
strike a fatal blow at India’s economic life. It is evident 
that there are already some who regard violence, whether 
of individuals or of mobs, as the speediest and most effective 
solvent of political problems. Between such persons and 
all who believe in ordered society based upon the sanctity 
of life and respect for property and other lawful rights 
and interests, there can be no composition and no truce. 
And, although the very authors of the present policy depre- 
cate, some on grounds of principle and some on grounds of 
expediency, resort to \uolenee, they can hardly be so lack- 
ing in either imagination or recollection of jpast events in 
India as not to be able to picture the results in this direc- 
tion which must follow, as they have always followed, from 
the adoption of the policy they recommend. It remains 
my firm desire, as it is that of His Majesty’s Government, 
following the recently professed wish of the British House 
of Commons, to do everything that is possible for con- 
ciliation in order that Great Britain and India may colla- 
borate together in finding the solution of our present diffi- 
culties. But it is no less incumbent upon me to make it 



104 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address at the Delhi Session of the Legislative Assembly, 

plain that I shall discharge to the full the responsibility 
resting upon myself and upon my Q-overnment for the 
effective maintenance of the law’s authority and for the 
preservation of peace and order. And in the fulfilment 
of this duty I do not doubt that I should have the full 
support of all sober citizens. 

The second thing I would point out is that in any case 
the Conference will be formed. The fact that some decline 
to take any part in deliberations so closely affecting their 
country’s future only throws greater responsibility upon, 
and, I would add, gives wider opportunity to, those who are 
prepared to face and solve difficulties in constructive spirit. 
It is certainly no reason why His Majesty’s Government 
should be deflected from their declared intention to call 
representatives of India to their counsels. 

I entertain no doubt but that those who will go to 
the Conference from British India will be men who can 
speak authoritatively for the several component parts of 
the great volume of Indian public opinion which they will 
represent. To all that body of opinion I would say that, 
if India’s case is to have full weight at the Conference, it 
is of the utmost importance that no efforts should be spared 
to enable it to find expression with something like un- 
animity. I do not apologise for dwelling upon this im- 
perative necessity. From the time I first came to India, 
now nearly four years ago, I have laboured in public and 
in private to use such influence as I might possess in the 
way of assisting British India to win true peace among 
her own people, and so strengthen herself immeasurably 
before the eyes of the world. I would accordingly hope 
most earnestly that the leaders of all those who will be 
represented at the Conference may realise that no duty to 
which love of their motherland may impel them can 
transcend in dignity or worth this call to unity, and that 
they may utilise wisely the interval before the Conference 
in training the ears of their countrymen to hear it, 



Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


105 


ADDRESS FROM THE MUNICIPAL BOARD OP 
LUCKNOW. 

In replying to the Address presented at Lueknow by the Cth Pebniary 
Municipal Board of Lucknow on the 5th February His Excellency 
the Viceroy said : — 

Mr. Chairman and OentUnien , — I have to thank you 
cordially for the kind terms in which you have welcomed 
Lady Irwin and myself to your great and historic city, 
and for the congratulations you have offered to us and 
to our Staff on the failure of the recent attempt upon 
our train. 

A period of ten years, as you have said, has elapsed 
since the visit of Lord Chelmsford to Lucknow, ten years 
of progress and development here as elsewhere throughout 
India. I congratulate you on the fulfilment of the 
hopes you then expressed for the establishment of a 
University and a Chief Court for Oudh by which the 
importance and prestige of your city has been materially 
enhanced. 

You may well feel pride in the buildings to which 
you have alluded in your address. The new railway 
station at Charbagh forms a fitting approach to the 
capital of Oudh, and the Council Chamber of the 
Proracial Legislature, with its ample proportions and 
striking design, can challenge comparison with any 
building of its kind in India. Your new zoological garden 
has done much to increase the attractions of the Wingfield 
Park, and to stimulate a healthy interest in natural history 
among your residents. Much again has been done to 
adorn and ameliorate conditions in your city during the 
last ten years by the Improvement Trust, your debt to 
which you have fittingly acknowledged. I have learnt with 
pleasure of the businesslike capacity and energy displayed 
by the Trustees in tackling the difficult problems of 
extension, expansion and sanitation presented by an old 
and congested city, and I hope before I leave to see some 
of the fruits of their successful labours. 



106 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address from the Municipal Board of Lucknow, 

As for your own achievements in the sphere of 
mimieipal administration, the outlay you have incurred 
in converting- some ten miles of your main thoroughfares 
into modern tar-coated roads is money well spent, not 
only from the viewpoint of the motorist and pedestrian, 
but of the health of those who live or work in these 
surroundings. I am glad to hear that the extension and 
re-organisation of your water works is nearing com- 
pletion, and that not only has the volume of water 
available been greatly increased but also that its distribu- 
tion has been much improved. I may also be allowed to 
congratulate you on the improvement shown in the 
collections of water tax during the past three years* 
You have acted wisely too in providing yourselves with 
a new municipal ofliee and hall, which enable you to 
concentrate all your clerks and officials under a single 
roof, and add greatly to the efficiency of your supervision 
and disposal of the work of a large municipality. 

You have referred to your interest in child welfare 
and education, two of the most important duties which 
fall to the lot of local authorities in a modern state. It 
is a pleasure to learn that the number of scholars, both 
boys and girls, attending your schools continues steadily 
to increase and that the' proportion of scholars to children 
of school-going age has now reached the respectable figure 
of 43 per cent, for boys and nearly nine per cent, for 
girls. Much progress has still to be made however and 
the recent extension of compulsory primary education to 
five out of the eight wards into w'hich your city is divided 
is a welcome step in advance, which I daresay may ere' 
long be followed throughout the whole area committed 
to your charge. 

But not alone by numbers under instruction can 
educational efficiency be judged, for this vitally depends 
upon the quality of the education given, which in turn 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


107 


Address from the Munieipal Board of Luehnow. 

depends mainly on the quality of the teaching staff and 
the period over v^hich. mth the support of parents, 
education can be consecutively extended. I am certain 
that in all your schemes of progress you will keep 
these two fundamental points of supply of teachers and 
convinced support of parents constantly in mind. 

It is also a satisfaction to know that the record of 
the Board as now constituted has not been marred by 
communal divergences in the fulfilment of your public 
duties, and that your relations with the local district 
authorities have alwa3^s been cordial so that you have 
never been slow to help each other when occasion arose. 
You are fortunate, too, in having as head of your Province 
a Governor to whose judgment you may safely trust in 
matters of local administration, and of whose practical 
sympathy in all matters that affect their welfare the 
people of this Province are at all times assured. 

So far, gentlemen, I have been able to reply to your 
address in terms of appreciation. But one important 
point remains on which I feel bound to offer you some 
friendly advice. You have alluded to your financial 
difficulties and the crisis which has resulted from the 
change recently made in your system of taxation, from 
octroi to a terminal tax. Pew of us are at some time or 
other without our financial troubles, whether we are 
individuals or Governments or local bodies. But it is our 
dut}" so far as is possible to foresee and guard against 
them and, when they come, to meet them squarely and 
overcome them by our own efforts. I would earnestly 
advise you to take action to meet this emergency from 
your own resources and not to rely, as your address 
suggests, on assistance from the Provincial Government 
towards the relief of burdens which must rightly be 
accounted yonr own. May I recall to you a sentence 
used by Lord Chelmsford ten years ago in replying to 
your predecessors : The basis of true municipal 



108 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


Address from tie Tahiqdars of OudTi. 

development lies in the readiness and ability of the 
citizens to bear the burden of local taxation Those 
words are truer than ever today when India is training 
herself to undertake her own Government over an ever- 
increasing sphere. You would hardly plead that in 
Lucknow taxation is already excessive, for I understand 
that the average incidence of municipal taxation for the 
last four years is decidedly lower here than it is in 
Allahabad, Benares or Cawnpore. In those three cities 
there has been a progressive increase in taxation, while 
here the incidence for 1929 is practically the same as it 
was in 1925. Those who are entrusted with the destinies 
of this city are, I feel confident, no less proud of their 
charge, than the other local authorities of this Province, 
and I suggest that it is part of your duty as local leaders 
and formers of opinion to impress on your constituents 
that they can only have the modern amenities of life for 
which they ask by paying for them themselves. The 
many improvements that you have made in recent years 
sho-^v that their interests are in safe hands, and are their 
guarantee that self-sacrifice on their part will not be a 
wasted effort, but will bring as its reward the enhance- 
ment of the standards of civic life in the city of which 
they are rightly proud and in the advancement of which 
they have so vital an interest. 


ADDRESS PROM THE TALTJQDARS OF OUDH. 

Sth Pebroary . His Excellency the Yiceroy in replying to the Address 
presented by the Taluqdars of Oudh at Lucknow on the 5th 
February said : — 

Gentlemen,— 1 thank you warmly on Lady Irwin’s 
behalf and on my own for your kindness and hospitality 
in entertaining us here this evening in these appropriate 
surroundings, which recall the magnificence of Asaf-ud- 
daula and ttie days of the Nawabi, and which are so rich 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


109 


Address from the Taluqdars of Oudh, 

in historic associations for the old landed aristocracy 
whom you represent. We have been deeply touched by 
the cordiality of your welcome and the friendly feeling 
shown to us by the terms of your address. It is a 
privilege I highly appreciate that I should be permitted 
to acknowledge, as His Majesty the King-Emperor’s 
representative, the sentiments of loyalty to the Crown to 
which you have given heartfelt expression this evening 
and which are shared by the many millions of your 
compatriots throughout the length and breadth of India. 

No serious student of afitairs, nor any one charged 
with the governance of this great Province, can afford 
to ignore the important position which the Taluqdai’s of 
Oudh have acquired by their history and social position. 
Nor can he fail to recognise the generous benefactions 
which they have made to various forms of public service. 
The statues and i)ortraits of many distinguished bene- 
factors from among your Order look upon us from the 
walls of this building to-night. The Canning College, 
the King George’s Medical Hospital, the Lucknow Univers- 
ity are monuments of your enlightened munificence. 
You have helped to make Lucknow a centre of education 
and western culture, and you have contributed on a 
noble scale to every institution affecting the life of the 
whole Province, You possess in a high degree the quality 
of remembering your friends and commemorating their 
services. As a body, you stand in special relation to the 
British Government as owners of estates which have been 
formally conferred on you by the Covenant of 1859, and 
regulated and protected by special legislation peculiar to 
your Order. 

In your address you have expressed anxiety as to 
the preservation of the rights and privileges you have 
hitherto enjoyed, based on Sanads granted to you by the 
British Government. I trust that there may never be 
occasion to charge the Government with the breach^ of 



110 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Address from the Taluqdars of Oudh. 

undertakings, written or unwritten, which they have 
given in the past. Your apprehension is, I take it, that 
with the grov/th of democratic ideas you anticipate a 
rapid expansion of the authority of legislative institutions 
elected on a popular basis, with w'hich India has hitherto 
been unfamiliar. But here, if you use your opportunities 
boldly and wdsely, it does not seem to me that you should 
have anything to fear. In a country whose chief industry 
is, and must ever be, agriculture, political power will 
depend to a great degree on those who are able to guide 
and organise opinion among the rural population. An 
Order such as yours has therefore great opportunities and 
great responsibilities. The extent to which you will be 
in a position to influence the course of legislation must 
depend largely on your own efforts, on your adaptability 
to new ways, on your capacity for organisation, for leader- 
ship and for concerted political action. Many of you are 
the owners of large estates ; many of you are the scions of 
historic families, tracing your ancestry far back into the 
centuries.’ But in these times of stress and change no one 
can rest only upon the heritage of the past ; all must take 
their share in the day-to-day work which imperceptibly 
shapes tha destinies of a great country. Organisation, 
education, close touch with the land and with your tenantry, 
sustained and enlightened interest in public affairs, seem 
to be some of the means by w»hich you will take the place 
to which your position naturally calls you in the future 
government of the country. 

The better the landlord, the more he will be trusted 
by his tenantry and the more influence will he find “him- 
self exercising over them, in that they will naturally look 
to him for guidance. For this reason, among others, I 
am glad to know that many of you are already taking 
one of the most effective ways of improving the husbandry 
i)f the cpuntryside by ; developing agriculture on modem 
and maintaining for this purpose large farms in 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Ill 


Address from the Taliiqdars of Oudli. 

wMcli the latest agricultural improvements are demon- 
strated. You no doubt readily recognise that much yet 
remains to be done before our agricultural methods can 
compare favourably with those of other countries, but 
the landowner can do more if he will than anyone else 
in this direction, and you as owners of large estates are 
particularly well placed to further the efforts of the 
Provincial Agricultural Department to improve and 
increase the produce of the land. 

You have referred in appreciative terms to the 
>settlement legislation of 1928. The United Provinces 
Government was the first to enact the main principles 
of settlement legislation and I am glad to think that this 
was done with the support of the landlords in the Legis- 
lative Council. The purpose of the legislation in question 
was to hold the scales even between the interests of tenants 
and ownei's, and it is satisfactory to know" that this 
purpose may be generally held to have been fairly 
achieved. In this, as in all matters affecting the welfare 
of your Order, you have been fortunate in being able 
to rely upon the wise advice and sympathy’- of the 
Governors of this Province, both present and past. I 
believe indeed that on one of them, Sir Harcourt Butler, 
who was himself an Oudh Taluqdar at heart, you con- 
ferred the honour of an extraordinary Membership of 
your Order, and in Sir Malcolm Hailey you have a friend 
in whom your confidence will never be misplaced. 

Your address drew attention to ..the question of the 
representation to be acceded to the landed aristocracy of 
India at the Conference which is to take place in London. 
I have made it plain on more than one occasion that it 
is His Majesty’s Government’s intention that the Con- 
ference should be fully and fairly representative of all 
the varying interests in India, and, although no final 
decision as to the method of selecting its personnel has 
yet been reached, I would think no Coi^erence fully 



112 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin, 


Address from the Members of the "Eix-Royal Family of Oudh. 

representative of India that did not include among its 
members some qualified by their own knowledge to speak 
on behalf of the great agricultural interests in this 
country. For those interests depend perhaps more than 
any other upon peaceful and orderly administration and 
it is obvious that full and careful consideration is due 
to the views of those whose welfare and contentment is 
tlie surest guarantee of the stability of any Government. 

You have spoken of your devoted loyalty to the 
Throne and the Person of our Sovereign, of your deter- 
mination to maintain the partnership of Great Britain 
and India, and of your resolve to combat all disruptive 
propaganda and doctrine. I need no such assurance from 
a body whose past record bears ample testimony to the 
willing assistance they have given in times of crisis. 
There are some in India today who think that the way 
to political salvation lies through a desert of anarchy and 
chaos, in which ordered society as India has hitherto 
known it would be destroyed to be remodelled on a pattern 
alien alike to her instinct and to her tradition. If ever 
an attempt were made to translate this wild creed into 
practical form, it would of course be the evident duty of 
Government to protect society from so disastrous and 
disruptive an attack. And in this, as in any of the other 
of the complex political problems that now confront us, 
I am glad to think that Government can count with 
assurance upon the wise counsel and co-operation of the 
Taluqdars of Oudh, 


ADDRESS FROM THE MEMBERS OF THE Fa;-ROYAL 
FAMILY OF OUDH. 

SfehEebraary The Members of the &-Royal Family of Oudh presented 
an Address to the Yiceroy at Lucknow on the 6th February, 
to which His Excellency made the following reply : — 

(}entlemen , — thank you on my own behalf and 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


113 


Address from the Members of the ^x-Boyal Family of Oudh^ 

on behalf of Lady Irwin for your cordial address, and 
for the kindly terms in which you have bidden ns 
welcome to Lucknow. India has perhaps seen in greater 
measure than most countries the rise and fall of thrones 
and the growth and decline of great families. The 
remains of famous cities, and the surviving names and 
memorials of a vanished past, claim the frequent interest 
and sympathy of those who traverse the historic areas 
scattered through the length and breadth of India. You 
yourselves are the representatives of a family which in 
the past held the highest position in Oudh. In recent 
times the circumstances of your family have undergone 
great change, and it is greatly to your credit that, tried 
though you have been by fortune, you have never wavered 
in your loyalty to the British Crown, nor failed to show 
every desire to support the administration by any means 
in your power. In your address you refer to your sense 
of gratitude for the protection and assistance which has 
been given to you ; I can assure you on my part that my 
Government have every desire to continue to the members 
of your family the consideration which they have deserved 
and enjoyed in the past. 

You have given voice to some anxiety that future 
constitutional changes may imperil your religious 
liberties, and in this connection you have made a refer- 
ence to the Marriage Restraint Act. It is a matter of 
great regret both to myself and to my Government that 
this measure, conceived solely with the object of promot- 
ing a higher standard of physical and moral well-being 
among the people, has met with opposition from certain 
quarters. I need hardly say that I fully sympathise with 
your jealousy to maintain intact your spiritual freedom 
in matters of religion ; and it has been, and will always 
be, the policy of my Government scrupulously to safeguard 
the interests and claims of every religious community, 
in so far as these do not conflict with the general in- 
L6PSV 



114 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Address from the Members of the ‘Eix-Boyal Family of Oudh. 

terests of the people at large. But, as I had occasion to 
say only a short time ago, I am confident that the 
Muslim community as a whole would not wish to dissociate 
itself from the furtherance of these general interests, 
toAvards which the measure we are now discussing is aimed, 
and it is my earnest hope that the doubts which are now 
felt will be dispelled with the passage of time and the 
fuller consideration which this will allow. As to the 
apprehension you have expressed for the future on the 
adequacy of the security to be afforded to the religious and 
other needs of the Muslims under any new constitution 
that may be devised, I would reiterate the assurance which 
I have given elsewhere — ^that I shall make it my duty to 
acquaint those, who may now or later have special 
responsibility in these matters, with the views you have 
laid before me. 

You have referred in your address to the buildings 
which commemorate so much of the history of the Oudh 
dynasty and which add so greatly to the beauty and 
interest of Lucknow. Many of these are, I understand, 
already protected under the Ancient Monuments Preserva- 
tion Act. The majority of them, however, including the 
great Imambara of Asaf-ud-Daula are in private possession. 
Unless, therefore, the Trustees are prepared to enter into 
an agreement with the Secretary of State for India under 
section 5 of that Act, it is as things stand today not legally 
possible for the Government of India to assume respons- 
ibility for their maintenance. I would commend this 
course of action to the consideration of the Trustees, 

I would say something too with regard to the question 
you have mentioned of the financial assistance which 
Government affords for the education of the boys of your 
family. You will remember that between 1911 and 1923 
the mm of money allotted by the Government of India 
for this purpose was increased by more than three times 
tjke original amount, but the results of the facilities 



Speeches iy Lord Irmn, 


116 


Durhar at Lucknow. 

provided in this way were not altogether satisfactory, for 
a small percentage only of scholars have sueceeded so far 
as to obtain suitable employment. The question of this 
grant and of its adequacy will be reviewed a year or two 
hence, and I would urge upon you all the necessity of 
proving that you merit a continuance, or even an 
augmentation, of Government's assistance by showing that 
you have utilised to the full the opportunities placed 
before you. 

In conclusion it is my privilege to acknowledge your 
expressions of ioj^alty to His Majesty the King-Emperor 
and your congratulations on his recovery. I have received 
assurances similar to yours from all over India and there 
can be no stronger bond than this common loyalty to help 
forward together the people of this vast country along the' 
path of progress in which their feet are set. By con- 
tinuing as I know you will to give practical shape in. daily 
life to your old traditions of loyalty, you will be making 
the best contribution that lies in the power of any in- 
dividual or class to the further evolution of your native 
land. 


DUBBAE AT LUCKNOW. 

The following speech was delivered by His Excellency the 7th Felaniaty 
Viceroy at the Burbar held at Lucknow on the 7th February : — 

Gentlemen , — It gives me the greatest pleasure to 
welcome to this Durbar so large and representative a 
gathering of the leading residents of this Province. I 
have no doubt that to you, as it is to me, a Durbar of this 
character is an event of no small significance. India has 
never been slow to pay due homage to her Kings and 
Emperors or to show respect to those on whom the duties 
of the King's Government devolves. Her ioyaMy has been 



116 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Durbar at LmJcnow, 

wont to find expression in diverse ways, by fidelity of 
service in days of stress, by support of the administration 
in normal times, and by assurances and proofs of devotion 
at all seasons. For centuries past the ceremony of a 
Durbar has been expressive of the people’s instinct for 
doing formal honour to the representative of the monarchy 
and for offering assurances of their allegiance to the King 
or his Viceregent. Such outward acts, interpreting in 
traditional form thoughts that lie deep in the hearts of 
men, are a more potent influence in life than is always 
recognised, and it is good that their practice should be 
preserved. Modern life, under pressure of its own develop- 
ment, has dispensed with some of the ceremony that had 
survived to it from more leisurely and spacious times. 
But India has saved more than many countries of her 
ancient pageantry. And I am glad to think that the time- 
honoured function of a Durbar still remains to atford His 
Majesty’s faithful subjects an opportunity of reaffirming 
in customary fashion their continued loyalty to the King- 
Emperor. 

Such, I am sure, is the underlying thought in all our 
minds this morning. And as His Majesty’s representative 
it is my privilege to assure you once again of the close 
and constant concern with which His Majesty follows the 
fortunes of each part of his great dominions and each 
section of his people. 

Good and ill-fortune in a country, whose wealth is 
chiefly in the fruits of its soil, is generally synonymous 
with favourable and unfavourable seasons, and my 
Government has seen with growing anxiety the partial 
failure of five harvests ending with the kharif crop of 
last year. Drought and untimely cold, and in some 
districts the onslaught of locusts, have caused shortage in 
most quarters of the Province, and in some places con- 
ditions of actual famine. Good organisation, helped by 
modern communication, has however minimised the 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


117 


Durbar at Lucknow. 

suffering which inevitably follows on a series of such 
disasters, and which affects most sharply a closely popu- 
lated country like the Province of Oudh w^here I believe 
the rural population is more dense than in any equal area 
in the world. Government has also helped to meet the 
situation by recourse to large remissions and suspensions 
of revenue, which of necessity react adversely upon the 
finances of the Province, and by extensive loans for the 
purchase of seed and cattle. It is a cause of great relief 
to me and to my Government to know that the prospects 
of the present crop are good, and that unless anything 
untoward occurs in the next few -weeks the Province as 
a whole is assured of a satisfactory harvest. 

The spectre of serious famine has now lost its terrors 
for those areas of the Province which have been provided 
with irrigation, and it is gratifying that this area should 
have recently been very greatly increased by the com- 
pletion of the Sarda Canal, after eight years of devoted 
work by its engineering staff. The heroic efforts they 
made to overcome the difficulties presented by physical 
obstacles and by the malarious nature of the forest area, 
through which the canal had to pass, have been amply 
rewarded by the knowledge that the canal has already 
brought the blessing of water to half a' million acres of 
land, and will before long have extended its beneficent 
influence to nearly three times that area. Thanks to the 
energy of the Agricultural Department, Java sugarcane 
has already been introduced into the country commanded 
by the canal, and this area is rapidly expanding. Cultiva- 
tors will, I trust, not be slow to realise the advantages of 
growing the better classes of rice, cotton and other crops 
on irrigated areas, and thus bring to full fruition this 
great scheme for the development of the countryside. 

In the Council Chamber, too, rural questions have 
claimed a large share of attention during recent years. 
The year 1926 will for long remain an important one in 



118 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Durbar at Lucknow. 

the annals of the Province of Agra on account of the 
changes brought about in the relations of landlord and 
tenant by the Tenancy Act passed in that year. The 
important provisions of that Act are well known to you. 
As in all compromises, each party had to forego something 
it desired, but it is all the more creditable that through 
considerable differences of opinion a solution has been 
reached. The acquisition of occupancy rights by tenants 
has been curtailed, J|iri:'on*the pther hand those who were 
non-occupancy t^ants — and they of course constitute 
the greater projfortion of the tejmnts -in-nihe Province- 
have gained materially by receiving • statutory of 
possession for life.' As a qorollary’ to this again IditdlolKis 
have their extended righls-of acquisition for 
specified purposes. I trii€.t that the new machinery: 
the determination of- fair ’^nd equitable 'rents will imbud-^ 
both landlords and tenantsi Vith that feeling of confidence 
and stability which is essential for the proper (ievelop-'' 
ment of the Province’s agricuftucak^ssets. My- .Goveiijj- 
ment will watch with the closest mterest the^pract^iJ^ 
results of this measure, which marks a 3efilih;irad^mnee 
in agrarian legislation and which I am glad to know is 
already proving beneficial to the rural population as a 
whole. 

Of equal importance with the Tenancy Act is the 
Land Revenue Act, passed the year before last. This 
Act was the first in India to carry out the suggestion 
made by the Joint Select Committee on the Government 
of Imiia Bill in 1919 that the time had come to embody 
in the law the main principles by which the land revenue 
is determined. It has a t-wo-fold importance. It has 
placed settlement procedure on a statutory basis. It 
has also made important changes in that procedure 
favourable to the owner of land. It has reduced the 
percentage of net assets to be taken as land revenue, it 
ii^ extanled the period of settlement, it has limited the 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


119 


Durbar at Lucknow. 

enhancement of revenue on individual holdings, and has 
given the Legislative Council the right to discuss both 
the more important operations at each stage of a settle- 
ment and also any changes proposed in the settlement 
rules. It may well be claimed that this Act of your 
Legislative Council emphasises the constant desire of 
Government to promote the welfare of the land-owning 
classes, and to give to the people themselves as wide a 
measure of responsibility as possible for the right adjust- 
ment of the interests of all parties. 

Other notable changes affecting the welfare of the 
inhabitants of this Province have taken place since a 
Viceregal Durbar was last held in Lucknow. A Chief 
Court has been established in ’Oudh, to wdiich has been 
entrusted original civil jurisdiction in cases of high 
valuation, thus recognising the importance of the large 
1'’aluqdari estates and of the complicated litigation which 
often arises in connection with them. A new affiliating 
University has been founded at Agra which comprises 
the old colleges associated with Allahabad University. 
Though a University of this kind has not all the merits 
of residential and teaching Universities, it is difficult to 
conceive that in the present condition of higher education 
in India it will be possible for this Province to do without 
one affiliating University, and I feel confident that this 
role will be efficiently discharged by the University at 
Agra. 

But it is not necessary for me to refer particularly 
to all the directions in which steady expansion and 
progress can be observed. Your Council House in this 
City, providing a worthy setting for the deliberations of 
those in whose hands the fortunes of the Province now 
largely rest, your road communications, the hydro- 
electric scheme which will bring light and power for 
agricultural and other industries to a large part of the 
Prgvippe at which I believe are lower than in any 



120 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Durbar at Lucknow. 

towns of similar size in the north of India, these are 
circumstantial evidence of the manner in ^vhich all who 
are concerned with the prosperity of the Province are 
working together for its greater good. 

Your Province has long been fortunate in having at 
the head of its administration a succession of distinguish- 
ed men whose first thoughts have always been directed 
to its welfare, and who have given unsparingly of their 
experience and labour in the interests of the people 
committed to their charge. Of those with whom I have 
had the privilege of personal acquaintance in India, Sir 
Harcourt Butler’s memory is still fresh among you, and 
as Viceroy I have watched with confidence the adminis- 
tration of three Governors, Sir William Harris, Sir 
Alexander Muddiman — ^whose untimely death robbed 
India and Indians of one of the best friends they ever 
had — and now Sir Malcolm Hailey. Sir Malcolm brings 
rare gifts to the discharge of his responsibilities, and you 
yourselves, I doubt not, have had time to learn that the 
United Provinces will alAvays find in him a strong 
champion and a wise counsellor. 

I have spoken hitherto, gentlemen, of matters that 
affect particularly your own Province. You are also 
however vitally interested in those events that are now 
being enacted upon the wider stage of India, in regard 
to which a clear pronouncement has now been made 
defining the purpose of British policy. There can no 
longer be any doubt that, whatever the means by which 
that policy is brought to fruition. Great Britain can never 
have any other purpose for India than to bring her to 
a place of equal partnership with the other self-governing 
Dominions. As a step towards the achievement of this 
purpose His Majesty’s Government, on whom along 
with Parliament the ultimate responsibility rests, have 
.solicited the counsel of representatives drawn from the 
of life apd. thought in Indig^ that desire 



Speechei^ hy Lord Irwin, 


121 


Durbar at Lucknow, 

and deserve to have the opportunity of resxjonding to 
His Majesty’s Government’s invitation. There will, I 
fancy, be none among my audience this morning who will 
be insensible to what this may mean for India, or who 
will not be eager to lend their willing co-operation in 
the solution of the problems which lie before us. There 
are some unhappily who seem determined to tread a 
different path and w’ho have proclaimed a policy which, 
if it might ever succeed, could not fail to involve India 
in irreparable misfortune and disaster. The sinister 
possibilities of civil disobedience are not such as to be 
controlled by any formula however patiently pondered 
or cunningly devised. As well might the mountaineer 
seek to stem an avalanche by tracing a line with his 
ice-axe athwart its course. It is impossible to suppose 
that people can be incited to break the law without such 
incitement culminating, whether its authors so desire 
or not, in violent action. Government w’’ould clearly 
never be justified in permitting the development of any 
such situation, so heavily fraught with danger to the 
whole body-politic, and there can therefore be no question 
but that law and order must without reservation be 
maintained. 

The whole country can plainly judge the alternative 
destinies that lie before it. On the one side is free 
membership in the British Commonwealth, where the 
diverse gifts of each constituent part may be linked for 
the common betterment of the whole society and of the 
human race. On the other lies independence, for which 
India is invited to destroy that influence for unity which 
springs from a common loyalty to the person of the 
Crown, in order that when the flames of anarchy have 
exhausted their destructive force she may perhaps at last 
achieve a state of precarious and powerless isolation. 

Your very presence here this morning, gentlemen, 
is an indication of your judgment upon these issues. I 



122 


Speeches by Lora Irwin. 


I Uh Febru- 
ary 1930. 


Banquet at Malerkotla, 

mentioned a few minutes ago the significance of a Durbar 
such as this, and I believe the spirit of this gathering to 
be typical of the loyalty of the great mass of the King- 
Emperor’s Indian subjects. For I feel little doubt that 
all stable opinion in this country will refuse to be misled 
by specious wxirds, but will rather decide to go forward 
with courage, trust and faith towards the achievement 
of Great Britain’s declared purpose of giving India her 
true place among the great Dominions. You yourselves, 
gentlemen, have your part to play in this great construct- 
ive effort, and that you will play it w^orthily I am 
confident. It will mean that you must be prepared to 
throw all your energies into the task of guiding aright 
the judgment of your fellows, but if you are ready so 
to act you will surely find that you have indeed achieved 
something for India greater than anything hitherto 
recorded upon the pages of her history. 

BANQUET AT MALERKOTLA. 

His Excellency the Yiceroy delivered the following speech 
at the Banquet at Malerkotla on the 11th February 

Yo^ir Highness, Ladies and Gentlemen , — My first duty 
is to thank Your Highness for the very kind manner 
in which you have proposed the toast of Lady Irwin and 
myself and for the friendly terms in w^hich you have 
welcomed us to your State. Our visit to Maler Kotla 
has of necessity been briefer than we would have wished, 
but by Your Highness’ kindness we have been able to 
see a good deal of your capital and its people and have 
been able this afternoon to pay a most interesting visit 
to the mint and the exhibition of the industries of Your 
Highness’ State. 

This evening we have listened to Your Highness’ 
fascinating account of the history of Maler Kotla State 
frm its earlier days until the present time. The 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


123 


Banquet at Malerkotla. 

friendship of ilaler Kotla with the British Government 
began, as Your Highness has reminded us, in the first 
year or two of the last century, and, in return for the 
assistance which the Nawab then gave to the British 
army against the Mahratta forces, the British were a few 
years later able to repay their debt by supporting the 
Naw^ab in his efforts to maintain the independence of his 
State. J am glad to think that since those days cordial 
relations have constantly been maintained between the 
British Government and Maler Kotla and, as Your 
Highness has said, ample proof of the State’s unfailing 
loyalty has bee i given on more than one occasion by 
your State forces. The services which the Maler Kotla 
Sappers rendered to Great Britain during the Great War 
and the part they played in the second battle of Ypres, 
and the battles of Neuve Chapelle, Loos and La Bassee, 
can never be forgotten. From 1914 to the last days of 
the War this force was constantly on active service and 
suffered heavy casualties which were made good by 
reinforcements from the State. I believe that the total 
number of Your Highness’ subjects who served during 
the War was over 31 per cent, of the eligible male 
population of Maler Kotla, a figure which w^as, I under- 
stand, surpassed only by two British Districts and by 
no other Indian State. The generous contributions more- 
over which the State made towards the various war funds 
earned the grateful thanks of Government in those times 
of stress. I am glad to know that the military traditions 
of your State are being worthily upheld by your third 
son, who has recently entered Sandhurst and is now 
receiving training as an Honorary Cadet. 

Your Highness has touched on the financial aspect 
of your administration to which I understand Your 
Highness rightly attaches importance. I have no doubt 
that the measures' in this regard which Your Highness 
has in contemplation will secure a firm foundation for 
the development of the State. ^ 



124 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Banquet at Malerkotla, 

Your Highness has spoken of the progress made in 
the matter of irrigation, education and in other direct- 
ions, both in the town of Maler Kotla and in the other 
parts of the State. New grain markets and bazars for 
Your Highness’ capital will undoubtedly add to the 
convenience of its inhabitants, and I have no doubt that 
in the organisation of such projects Your Highness will 
guard against the tendency to encourage development by 
means of unhealthy speculation, which stifles legitimate 
trade and in the long run produces disastrous social and 
economic e^dls. 

I have listened with much gratification to the 
acknowledgment made by Your Highness of the assistance 
and advice which you have received from Mr. Fitzpatrick 
and his predecessors, and I can assure Your Highness 
that it is Government’s earnest hope that the same 
relations which have existed between your State and the 
political authorities over many years may long continue. 
Your Highness has also shown wisdom in your policy 
of securing the services of experienced retired officers 
of the Punjab Government such as Khan Bahadur 
Chaudhri Muhammad Din and Khan Bahadur Munshi 
Rahim Rakhsh, and I feel sure that you will derive the 
maximum benefit from this policy by giving these officers 
the fullest measure of your confidence. 

I have to thanli Your Highness for what you have 
said regarding the failure of the attempt upon my train 
last December. Both the Indian Princes and the people 
of British India have expressed in rCo uncertain manner 
their horror of outrages such as this, and Your Highness 
has echoed what I know is felt by the vast majority of 
the Indian people when you offer your whole-hearted 
co-operation to Government in the suppression of move- 
ments which can in the end lead only to a country’s ruin 
and disgrace. Your Highness is also at one with your 
brother Princes and the preponderance of the people of 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


126 


Annual Session of the Federation of Indian Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry. 

India in giving voice to your approval of the Conference 
which is before long to take place in London. One of 
the conditions of the success of the Conference will, as 
Your Highness has suggested, be that it should be 
representative of every point of view, and, though the 
method of choice of its personnel has not yet been decided, 
I recognise to the full the importance of satisfying the 
general body of the States that their ease will be 
examined in all its aspects. The Conference itself will 
give an opportunity, which I trust may be seized by all 
those who claim a share in fashioning India’s future, of 
seeing together, as it were, in a single panoramic picture, 
the varying interests and problems of this vast country. 
To these deliberations the Princes will have their own 
peculiar contribution to make, and I earnestly trust that 
on the part of none may that goodwill and breadth of 
vision be lacking to which Your Highness has given 
utterance tonight and which are the essential conditions 
of a satisfactory solution of the problems which face 
India today. 


ANNUAL SESSION OF THE FEDERATION OP INDIAN 

CHAMBERS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. 

The following is His Excellency the Viceroy’s Address to 14tlil*ebru- 
the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, 
which held its Annual Session at Delhi on the 14th February : — 

Mr, President and Gentlemen ^ — I would begin by 
thanking all the members of the Federation for the kind 
welcome they have given me, and in particular your Presi- 
dent, Mr. Birla, for the terms in which he has given ex- 
pression to it. I need scarcely say that it is a great pleasure 
to find myself once more taking part in the annual meeting 
of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and 
Industry, and I know that the same pleasure is felt by 
the members of my Government, though the occasion has 



126 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Annual Session of the Federation of Indian Chambers of 
Comynerce and Industry, 

found them in the middle of a busy session of the 
Assembly and it has therefore been difficult for them to 
devote as much of their time as they would have wished 
to your proceedings. 

I should like, gentlemen, to associate myself with 
what your President has said, deploring the death of 
Mr. B. P. Madoii and Mr. Narottain Morarjee. The 
industrial life of Bombay and of India, and perhaps more 
particularly those enterprises with which they were 
intimately concerned, have suffered a loss which they 
will find it hard to fill. 

At the beginning of Mr. Birla’s interesting address 
to which w^e have just had the pleasure of listening, he 
referred in appreciative terms to the admission of Indian 
firms to commercial organisations in London, and I would 
warmly echo the satisfaction he expressed. Such a spirit 
of co-operation between British and Indian commercial 
interests is essential to the further development of Indian 
commerce and industry, and I am glad that I should 
have been able to play some small part in this matter. 

Your President went on to speak of the unsatisfact- 
ory position of trade in general throughout the country. 
A year ago there seemed to be good ground for hope 
that trade was definitely recovering fi’om the depression 
it has felt since the Great War, for the figures both of 
imports and exports in 1928-29, as calculated on the 
]>asis of pre-war prices, vras for the first time higher 
than the corresponding figures for 1913-14. Another 
interesting feature of the trade of the year 1928-29 was 
that it marked the return to what fc- all practical 
purposes may be described as pre-war conditions of the 
relative general level of prices of India’s imports and 
exports. A discouraging sign of India’s post-war trade 
was that, relative to pre-war prices, the general level 
of prices for imported articles was considerably higher 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


127 


Annual Session of the Federation of Indkin Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry. 

than that for exported articles ; in other words, India 
was paying more for her imports than she was getting 
for her exports. Index Numbers prepared in the Depart- 
ment of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics show that 
in 1920-21 the general level of prices for imports stood 
at 237 and for exports at only 140 on the basis of 100 
for both import and export prices in 1913-14. This 
represented a difference of 97 points — a difference which 
interfered considerably with the overseas trade of India. 
In 1924-25 the difference still stood at 26 points, but 
by 1928-29 it had fallen to only 6. 

Unfortunately however, although the position up to 
the end of the year 1928-29 gave good ground for sober 
optimism, the tide of progress has slackened, forces 
world-wide in character have exercised a depressing efiPeet 
on trade in general, and the outlook for Indian trade 
and commerce is at prjesent less favourable than it was 
a year ago. I can only express the fervent hope that 
the set-back will prove to be temporary, and that your 
Federation at its next meeting wdll be able to record a 
return to improved conditions of trade and commerce. 

There is however one exception to the present rome- 
what unfavourable outlook. Recently conditions in the 
coal trade have exhibited a marked improvement and at 
present the industry is more prosperous than it has been 
for some years past. The success attained by the Coal 
Grading Board has probably contributed to this welcome 
change. The Board was constituted at the begiiining 
of 1926 on the recommendation of Sir Frank Noyce's 
Committee, and since then the total shipments of coal 
from Kidderpore Docks for cargo and bunkers have 
risen steadily from 1| million tons in 1924-25 to nearly 
3f million tons in 1928-29. It is hoped that the organisa- 
tion created by the Indian Soft Coke Cess Act, which 
was passed during the last Simla Sessiorw of the Legisla- 
ture, will also be of value to the coal industry. The 



128 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Annual Sessio7i of the Federatio^i of hidian Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry. 

Committee be financed by a cess of 2 annas a ton 
on soft coke despatched by rail from collieries in Bengal 
and Bihar and Orissa, and will be charged with the 
promotion of the sale and improving the methods of the 
manufacture of soft coke. 

I welcome the interest taken by your Federation in 
the development of an overseas trade organisation as 
indicated in one of the resolutions on your agenda dealing 
with the appointment of Trade Commissioners. It will 
interest you to know that a scheme has been prepared 
for the appointment of Indian Trade Commissioners at 
Hamburg, Milan, New York, Durban, Mombasa and 
i^lexandria. As a coroUary to the establishment of 
Trade Commissioners in Africa and the Near East, it 
is also proposed to appoint a Deputy Director of Com- 
mercial Intelligence at Bombay. For it is expected that 
the work of these Trade Commissioners will centre chiefly 
round the expansion of India’s export trade in cotton 
piece-goods, and, if we are to reap the full beneflt of 
their labour, it is essential that we should have a Com- 
mercial Intelligence OfScer at Bombay who will be in 
direct contact both with the exporting houses and the 
Trade Commissioners. I feel little doubt that this 
overseas trade organisation will be of material assistance 
in the development of India’s export trade. 

In this connection it is gratifying to know that the 
new India House is now nearing completion, and will I 
hope be opened in the early summer of this year. The 
ofBces of the High Commissioner for India are, as you 
know, at present situated in inadequate premises and in 
an inconvenient locality, and the new site in Aldwych, 
next to Bush House and not far from Australia House 
and within reasonable distance of the City, is a great 
improvement on the old arrangements. The new building 
provides, in addition to the usual office accommodation, 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


129 


Annual Session of the Federation of Indian Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry. 

a large show room with exhibition windows for the Trade 
Commissioner's Department and a Bureau on the 
Aldwych front for the Kailway Department. It is our 
hope that India House will be treated as a centre in 
London for visitors from India, and with this object in 
view it has been equipped with a good reference library 
and adequate facilities for reading| and writing. A 
feature in %vhich I was greatly interested, when I visited 
the building in September last, is the use that has been 
made of Indian timber. It has been possible to provide 
for the display of a full range of Indian decorative woods 
by using them for the panelling and flooring of the more 
important rooms, and Indian utility timber has been 
used for all the ordinary joinery work. I think that 
there is every hope that this will have a very considerable 
advertising value, and will assist the efforts now being 
made to further the sale of Indian woods in European 
markets. 

You may remember that on the last occasion on 
which I had the pleasure of addressing your Federation 
I referred to the formation of an Indian Accountancy 
Board, and I hope that during the present session of the 
Assembly legislation may be passed to give effect to the 
scheme. The ultimate aim of Government is to build 
up in India an Association or Associations of Accountants 
of the same standing and reputation as the principal 
Institutes and Societies of Accountants in the United 
Kingdom, and it is hoped that the constitution of an Indian 
Accountancy Board will prepare the way for the establish- 
ment of an Association or Associations of this nature. 

Another piece of legislation which must be of parti- 
cular interest to commercial and shipping interests is 
the Indian Lighthouse Act which, with other legislation 
aimed at centralising the Mercantile Marine Administra- 
tion, was brought into force from the 1st of April 
jyi round the co€^ of Ihdia are mm 

Lerey 



130 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Annual Session of the Federation of Indian Chambers of 
Commerce atid Industry, 

under the direct control of the Government of India^ 
assisted by a Lighthouse Advisory Committee consisting 
of repr^entatives of Indian and British shipping and 
commercial interests. It has for some time been re- 
cognised that the lights along the west coast of India 
are not up to modern requirements, and the first fruits 
of the centralisation of the administration will be improve- 
ment in the lighting of this coast, including the provision 
of a light of the first order at Vengurla Eocks, an 
important turning point for ships voyaging along the 
west coast of Indi?. I would take the opportunity here 
of acknowledging tiie great assistance which Government 
have received from the Advisory Committee both in the 
preliminary arrangements preceding the introduction of 
the Act and in the administration of the Act since it 
came into force. 

On the important question of the relations between 
employers and labour you have rightly felt, Mr. President, 
that your position as a member of the Royal Commission 
on Labour precluded you from dwelling at any length. 
It is satisfactory to know that in the prosecution of their 
task the Royal Commission, to whom we confidently look 
for guidance in helping towards the eradication of some 
of the causes of present discontent, should have the 
assistance of your experience and practical knowledge of 
Indian industrial conditions. If industry is to prosper, 
not only must labour be happy and contented, but the 
relations prevailing between employers and employed 
must be above suspicion. Workmen on their side must 
I’ecognise the difficulties of their employers and realise 
that the most effective way of raising their own standards 
of living is to bring greater efficiency to the performance 
of their tasks. It is essential on the other hand that the 
employers diould understand and sympathise with all 
the heal&y aspirations, of their employees, and should 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


131 


Annuul Session of the Federation of Indian Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry, 

recognise as one of the first charges on industry the 
payment not merely of a minimum wage but of a wage 
which will enable a workman to take pride in his work 
and lead a life w^hich is something fuller than the mere 
completion of his daily task in mill or workshop. In 
this way we may hope that the idea of opposition between 
the claims of employers and their labour wull gradually 
be replaced by a sense of partnership and identity of 
interest w’hich will ensure the further development and 
the greater prosperity of India’s industry. 

You have drawn a picture, Mr. President, of the 
Report of the Royal Commission on Agriculture which 
I think is perhaps unduly pessimistic. The statements 
we have received from Local Governments on the progress 
they have made in giving effect to the recommendations 
in that Report show that it has furnished a most valuable 
stimulus to agricultural development in all directions. 
The main lesson w^hich the Report strove to impress upon 
India was that there is no short-cut to the improvement 
of agricultural conditions in this country, and that this 
can only be attained by patient and co-ordinated research 
into the main problems, by steady development of agri- 
cultural propaganda and by the demonstration in the 
villages of improvements of established value. It also 
urged that a sustained effort should be made to assist 
cultivators to organise themselves for the betterment of 
their conditions of life. It was because the Commission 
realised the necessity for a comprehensive grasp of these 
questions that it recommended the establishment of an 
Imperial Council of Agricultural Research. That recom- 
mendation my Government immediately and whole- 
heartedly accepted. The Council has entered upon its 
duties with zeal, and it is a most hopeful augury for its 
future that it should be receiving as it is the warm co- 
operation of Provincial Governments in matters where 



132 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


Annual Session of the Federation of Indian Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry, 

Provincial experience and resources can be profitably 
pooled with those of the Government of India for the 
common good. 

Another canvas you have painted in sombre colours 
today is that of the general financial situation in India. 
I do not propose to examine in detail the figures which 
Mr. Birla has put forward, but I would take this oppor- 
tunity of correcting what I believe to be certain mis- 
apprehensions on his part. No one can deny that India 
has large foreign liabilities, but such foreign liabilities 
are no evidence of weakness in the financial position of 
a country in the early stages of development. With 
the assistance of imported capital India has acquired 
assets in the shape of railways, irrigation works, factories 
and other enterprises, of which the value is considerably 
in excess of her liabilities. I am convinced that, if it 
were possible to draw up a balance sheet exhibiting the 
financial ' condition of India, it would show that, as a 
result of the development which has taken place during 
the last hundred years, there is an enormous surplus of 
assets, representing the gain to India which has accrued 
on account of developments made possible by the use of 
foreign capital. I will mention only one fact to indicate 
that the real resources of India are not so inadequate as 
has been suggested by your President. Since 1900 the 
value of Indians net imports of gold has been nearly 400 
million pounds and of silver 350 million pounds, and 
India is still importing gold at the rate of about 15 
million pounds per annum and silver at the rate of 
million pounds. It is surely unreasonable to suggest 
that a country which has an enormous stock of gold and 
silver, and which is still drawing gold and silver in 
considerable quantities from the rest of the world, is in 
so weak a financial position as to be unable to meet its 
foreign liabilities. In the President's view our failure 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


133 


Annual Session of the Federation of Indian Chambers of 
Commerce and Industry. 

to discharge our annual obligations is having the effect 
of causing Indians debt to increase at an undesirable rate. 
So far as I can learn this conclusion is not supported 

statistical data, and on all available evidence appears 
to be contrary to the actual facts. There is, I believe, 
no evidence that a large amount of capital is at present 
being brought into India hj private agencies ; in fact, 
the indications are that a certain amount of private 
capital is being exported. The external borrowings of 
Government were examined in detail by Sir George 
Schuster in his last budget speech in which he stated that 
during the six years ending the 31st March 1929 the 
Government capital expenditure abroad amounted to 
£60 millions, whereas the amount of foreign money which 
India had to raise to finance this expenditure amounted 
to £17 millions. In other words, the surplus resources 
available for meeting India’s foreign liabilities amounted 
to £43 millions, and it was possible to invest this surplus 
in further enterprises which will increase the produc- 
tivity of India. I would maintain therefore that the 
financial position of India is sound, and that there are 
no substantial grounds for the President’s anxiety. 

I would go further and appeal to all those who hold 
responsible public positions in India to endeavour to 
allay, rather than to use language which may have the 
effect of encouraging, feelings of disquiet at a time when 
she especially needs the confidence of the rest of the 
world. It is right that Indians should strive to make 
their country, as it can be made, economically strong 
and independent. But I believe that the leaders of 
economic opinion in India can best do this, and can best 
encourage productive enterprise, not by exaggerating 
difficulties but by witnessing to the solid grounds which 
exist for reasonable optimism. 



134 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


20th Fehra* 
ary 1930, 


Opening of the Delhi Fine Arts Exhibition. 

It remains only to declare your proceedings open. 
In doing so I thank you once more for having given me 
this opportunity of inaugurating your deliberations, and 
of assuring you again of the interest and concern >vith 
which I shall continue to watch the development^ of 
India's trade and commerce. 


OPENING OF THE DELHI PINE ARTS EXHIBITION. 

The following speech was delivered by H. E. the Viceroy 
when he opened the Delhi Fine Arts Exhibition on the 20th 
February : — 

Sir John Thompson^ Ladies and Oentlemen , — ^It has 
given me very great pleasure to be able to be present here 
to-day and to open this the third Exhibition of the Delhi 
Pine Arts Exhibition Society. In 1928 I understand 
there were only 217 exhibits and in 1929 there -were 254. 
This year over 1,300 exhibits have been received from some 
250 artists. This large increase is very encouraging not 
only to the Delhi Pine Arts Exhibition Society, and all 
who are interested in Indian art, but also to those of us 
who are concerned with the questions of decorating the 
large Government buildings that are now nearing comi)le- 
tion both in India and in England. 

The art of a people is the expression of their character 
and genius, J. A. Symonds once said— ‘ Painters are 
but the hands, and poets but the voices, whereby peoples 
express their accumulated thoughts and permanent 
emotions. Behind them crowd the generations of the 
myth-makers ; arid around them floats the vital atmosphere 
of enthusiasms on which their own souls and the souls of 
their brethern have been nourished.” There can therefore 
be no more fascinating or profitable study for those who 
have to do with the administration of a country than the 
study of its art. It is a book which lies open to be read by 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


1S5 


Opening of the Delhi Fine Arts Exhibition, 

all who will take the trouble to understand the characters 
in %vhich it is written. The reader from another country 
will find not only a whole range of subjects which is new 
to him, but a method of treatment which compels him to 
revise and widen his whole conception of what art may 
mean. 

An exhibition like the present one affords a great 
opportunity for such a study. The last thirty years have 
seen a wonderful renaissance of Indian art, due not so 
much to the impact of western art on eastern thought, as 
to the general ferment of ideas caused by the spread of 
education, the reaction against the domination of the West 
in the field of thought and feeling, and the set of the tide 
in the direction of a separate national consciousness. Indian 
art, standing firmly on its own feet, is now in a position to 
make a deliberate choice of such elements as the West has 
to offer it, and to decide which it will adopt and which it 
will reject. And we may be content to leave it to exercise 
its choice, confident that, W’hile its new acquisitions may 
give it a wider appeal to those who are unfamiliar with its 
traditions and its methods, it will do nothing to detract 
from its essentially Indian characteristics. The modem 
school of Indian artists show such amazing skill in their 
own technique that there is no reason to suppose that they 
will not master with equal facility any features of foreign 
technique which they may desire to adopt. 

The work of decoration of The Viceroy's House is 
a larger task than we can hope to undertake in the 
immediate future, and I fear I shall not see it veiy far 
advanced during my Vieeroyalty. But in the meanwhile 
I am endeavouring gradually to collect suitable pictures 
for the House, and Government wish to select Indian artists 
who will go to England this summer to copy the J^yal 
Portraits which His Majesty the King-Emperor has 
selected to be hung there in one of the State Drawing Rooms, 



136 


Speeches ly Lord Irvm. 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi, 

As you all know, the Delhi Fine Arts Exhibition Society 
lias been kind enough to help us in this matter by giving 
a special prize for a portrait done in European style by an 
Indian artist, and I am very pleased to know that the 
effect has been to bring so much work here to public notice. 

As miniaturists, Indian artists, both Hindus and 
Muhammadans, showed wonderful power in days gone by 
and they are now making rapid strides in the field of oil- 
portraiture in large, which is to them I suppose a com- 
paratively new departure both in manner and in technique. 
In this new field there is less scope for development on 
purely Indian lines, for here there is no Indian tradition 
to guide us, and Indian artists who have taken up portraiture 
in the manner of the West are working in a medium and 
a style which is new to them. But, as I have, said before, 
their mastery of their own technique is such as to inspire 
confidence among those who are best qualified to judge 
that they will display equal mastery in any new technique 
they feel impelled to adopt. 

I am sure you are all eager to see the Exhibition, and 
I will not detain you longer, but you would wish me on 
your behalf as on my own to tell Sir John Thompson, 
Mr. Sen, and all the Committee who have worked so Lard 
in connection with this Exhibition how grateful we are to 
them for what they have done. The success of this yearns 
Exhibition will be a great encouragement to them, and we 
may anticipate that the Exhibition will continue to j)rosper 
and henceforth taken leading place as one of the principal 
^j>niial events in Imperial Delhi. I have now much 
pleasure in declaring the Exhibition open. 

OPENING OF THE CHAMBER OP PRINCES AT DELHI. 

SiSfehPdlwis His Excellency the Viceroy pr<isided over the Ninth Session 
the Chamber of Princes at Delhi on the 25th February and 
opened the Proceedings with the following Address 

Mighnessesj — ^I welcome Your Highnesses with 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 




opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi, 

great pleasure to this the ninth Session of the Chamber 
of Princes- It is hardly necessary for me to refer to 
those preoccupations which have tended during the past 
mouths, and which will tend still more in the near future, 
to absorb our thoughts. They eoneern matters of great 
moment in the future of the States as part and partners 
of the Indian Empire. I have no doubt that Your 
Highnesses share with me the feeling that much of the 
work done during the post few years has been the prelude 
to even more important deliberations in which we must 
shortly engage. No one of us, I fancy, would be bold 
enough to claim that we could clearly foresee the future, 
but with prudence, courage, and joint consultation I see 
no cause to fear that we should fail to find a way through 
most of our present doubts and difficulties. It is in 
this spirit of reasoned optimism and hope that I am^ 
sure Your Highnesses will approach the business of this 
Session. 

When I met Your Highnesses here last year we 
were all oppressed with anxiety at the illness of our 
beloved King-Emperor, and Your Highnesses will re- 
collect that our first business on that occasion was to 
refer to a telegram of sympathy which on your behalf 
the Standing Committee had sent to His Majesty, and 
for w’hieh Her Gracious Majesty the Queen-Empress had 
subsequently expressed her grateful thanks. On this 
occasion I have to make another and more happy refer- 
ence to His Majesty’s recovery, and to the telegram of 
congratulation sent to His Majesty by the unanimous 
wish of Their Highnesses of the Standing Committee at 
their meeting on October the 24th last. The telegram 
was in the following terms ; — 

“ At the meeting of the Standing Committ^ of the 
Chamber of Princes held on 24th October 1929 His 
Highness the Maharaja of Patiala, ChanceEor of the 




138 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi, 

Chamber, announced that it was the unanimous wish of 
Their Highnesses of the Standing Committee, at their 
first meeting after His Majesty the King-Emperor’s 
recovery from a serious and protracted illness, that the 
sincere gratification of the Members of the Committee 
should be recorded, and that His Excellency the Viceroy 
should be asked to convey to His Majesty and to the 
Boyal Family an expression of their devoted and loyal 
greetings upon the occasion.” 

To that telegram a reply was received from His 
Majesty as follows : — 

I have received with much pleasure and apprecia- 
tion the message which you have conveyed to me from 
the Standing Committee of the Chamber of Princes. 
Please assure the Chancellor and Their Highnesses of 
the Standing Committee of my heartfelt thanks for their 
kind greetings on my recovery from a long and serious 
illness.” 

Since our last session the Chamber has lost by death 
His Highness the Maharaja of Bharatpur, His Highness 
the Maharaj Rana of Jhalawar, His Highness the Raja 
of Lunawada and the Thakor Sahib of Rajkot. Succeed- 
ing to his inheritance in 1900 His late Highness of 
Bharatpur died before reaching the prime of manhood 
at the early age of 29. He had been in indifferent health 
for some time and his illness was a source of much anxiety 
to me. The attraction of His Highness^ personality, as 
a Member of this Chamber and of Your Highnesses’ 
Order, was well known to all of us, and his loss was felt 
acutely by his friends. His Highness the Maharaj Rana 
of Jhalawar was one of the original Members who 
attended the inaugural session of the Chamber in 
Pebnmry 1921. Born with a natural taste for literature 
and learning, His Highness was one of those who found 
particular pleasure in the simpler joys of life, and his 
death has deprived Tour Highnesses^ Order of one of 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


139 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi. 

its most cultivated members. His Highness the Eaja of 
Lunawada was unknown to many of us. Having been 
created a Knight Commander of the Most Eminent Order 
of the Indian Empire so long ago as 1889, his death last 
year at the ripe age of 68 has left a great void in the 
State of which he had so long been Euler. The Thakor 
Sahib of Rajkot whose sudden and untimely death at 
the age of 45 took place within the last month was a 
broad-minded and progressive Ruler, keenly interested in 
the social and economic advancement of all classes of 
his subjects, by whom he wdll be greatly missed. Your 
Highnesses will no doubt desire to associate yourselves in 
an expression of sympathy for the bereaved families of 
these four Members of your Order, and to extend wishes 
of happiness and prosperity to those succeeding them in 
the responsibilities connected with their respective States. 

Shortly after I last met Your Highnesses in this 
house the Report of Sir Harcourt Butler ^s Committee 
was published and has been hitherto considered mainly 
in connection with the procedure to be followed for the 
most effective examination of its recommendations and 
proposals. It is too early yet to enlarge upon these, and 
indeed a minute and detailed consideration of them must 
await receipt of the Report of that other body, which 
has been concerned with the consideration of constitutional 
changes in British India. Meanwhile the views of Your 
Highnesses will be tentatively expressed during the 
present session in a series of Resolutions which are 
contained in a general item on the Agenda dealing 
specifically with the Report. 

With respect to these Resolutions there is one in 
particular upon which I would like here to make certain 
general observations. There are few of Your Highnesses 
who would not agree with me in saying that the rare 
occasions upon which the British Government has been 



140 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Chamher of Princes at Delhi, 

obliged to intervene in the affairs of individual States 
during the past decade create a record in which all of 
ns must feel some degree of pride. One cracked bell in 
a peal of bells can prejudice and often destroy the 
harmony of the whole. In these days of publicity the 
shortcomings of one unit in the body-politic almost 
inevitably have the effect of prejudicing the reputation 
of all the other units composing that body. The good 
repute of Tour Highness^ Order is a matter \vhich I, 
no less than all my predecessors, have regarded as a 
peculiar trust. It has been the consistent endeavour of 
ns, who have enjoyed the privilege of friendship with 
many of Your Highnesses’ Order, to enhance the reputa- 
tion of those States who occupy a distinguished position 
within the fabric of the Empire, and it is in pursuance 
of these sentiments that intervention has been resorted 
to in recent years in the few’ eases to w^hich I have 
referred. To define the degree of discretion vested in 
the Viceroy in such delicate matters would be a matter 
of extreme difiBculty. Intervention consists normally in 
an expression of views tending to relieve the effect of 
abuse of power. These views are generally expressed 
at a personal interview between the Ruler and either the 
Viceroy or his local representative, which in my ex- 
perience is always of most friendly character. Speaking 
for myself I have to aelmowledge the invariable readiness 
with which Rulers have listened to any advice I have 
felt it my duty as a friend to offer, and the generous 
thanks with which it has frequently been received. In 
its more important aspect intervention will be resorted 
to only in cases where, in the interests of Tour Highnesses, 
of Your Highnesses’ subjects, of India, and of the 
Empire as a whole, no other, course seems possible. I 
feel confident that in the future the occasions upon which 
the Viceroy will be called upon to exercise his discretion, 
with regard to intervention will gradually grow more 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


141 


Opening of the Chamber of ’Princes at Delhi. 

rai’e. It is the co-operation ot* the Rulers of States in 
the interests of good government and of their common 
good repute which have conduced in the past, and will 
conduce still more in the future, to this result. 

It gives me great satisfaction that Your Highnesses 
have viewed favourably the proposal for the Round 
Table Conference made by Sir John Simon to His 
Majesty’s Government, and accepted by them, which 
was referred to in announcement of October 31st, 
1929, and which is to form the subject of a Resolution 
by His Highness the Chancellor. As Your Highnesses 
are aware, it will be the duty of the Conference to consider 
the views and opinions of all who take part in it upon 
the future constitution of India. Among other material 
that may be before them to assist their deliberations will 
be the Report of Sir John Simon’s Commission, publica- 
tion of which may shortly be expected, and also that of 
Sir Harcourt Butler’s Committee. As I had occasion 
to say two or three weeks ago it is too early yet to predict 
with certainty when the Conference will meet or how 
it will be composed. I hope that all important interests 
will there be heard and that from its discussions and 
mutual interchange of views the way will be paved for 
agi^ement between the States and British India in 
measures considered to be desirable for the further 
advance of India as a whole towards closer unity. I 
am assured, both from the conversations W'hich I had 
with certain of Your Highnesses on the eve of my visit 
to England last summer and from the manner in which 
Your Highnesses received the statement that it was my 
duty to make on my return, that Your Highnesses share 
this hope. It is scarcely necessary to emphasise the fact 
that the importance of the Indian States in the body 
,politie of the country demands that any decisions witl 
which they might be concerned should receive from 
them a full measure of support. 



142 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi. 

Your Highnesses will recollect that at our Session 
of February 11th last year I referred to the Report of 
the Road Committee and to the possibilities which might 
emerge from it. I fear that anticipations which have 
been aroused in connection with this important subject 
have been in part disappointed by reason of the fact 
that it has not yet been found possible for my Govern- 
ment to adopt the Report and to proceed to carry out 
such proposals in it as may secure acceptance. In these 
circumstances there is little that I can add to my remarks 
of last year beyond assuring Your Highnesses that the 
subject is engaging the earnest attention of Government, 
and I trust that a settlement may be reached before 
long. 

At the last Session of the Chamber I referred also 
to the question of the future of the Chief ^s Colleges, and 
informed Your Highnesses that my Government were 
expecting the views of the Governing Bodies of the 
Colleges and of the local authorities on the draft scheme 
prepared for their future governance. Those views have 
since been received, and I hope that before we next meet 
in this Chamber decisions wiU have been reached satis- 
factory to aU concerned with this important subject. 
The good work resulting from the inauguration of the 
Chiefs’ Colleges is a lasting tribute to the foresight of 
their founders and can scarcely be over-estimated. The 
need for such Colleges in the middle and latter years 
of the past century was great and urgent and they have 
worthily fulfilled their purpose. Nor could such 
fortunate results have been possible without the active 
and sustained assistance of the Princes and Chiefs. The 
Colleges have exercised an important influence in 
moulding the minds and characters of young Princes, 
of whom many of Your Highnesses are notable examples, 
and from the time of their foundation the co-operation 
of a large number of Princely houses with the governing 



Speeches hy Lord Irioin, 


143 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi, 

and teaching staft*s has been one of the many happy 
aspects of the relationship existing between the Educa- 
tional and Political Officers of Government and the great 
body of States with whom their activities have been so 
closely and happily allied. Thus I cannot help experienc- 
ing a certain feeling of regret — which I trust will soon 
be dispelled — ^that the Colleges appear to have suffered 
some decline in Your Highnesses' esteem, and it is my 
earnest hope that the phase is but a passing one and that 
your old regard for them will be revived in its former 
strength. It is a platitude to say that no human under- 
taking can be beyond the sphere or need of criticism, 
and criticism of a constructive nature is always valuable 
for the working of any corporate institutions — educational 
or other. Changing times bring changing requirements 
and it is my earnest wish to do everything possible to 
ensure the continued existence of the Colleges as a 
medium for giving a sound and useful education to those 
whom they were built to serve. We all alike should be 
concerned in striving to consolidate, and when necessary 
to improve, where others before us have laboured with 
such devotion and success. 

In his closing speech at our Session of February 
1929 His Highness the Chancellor drew my attention to 
the question of bringing those States whose political 
relations are at present conducted by Provincial Govern- 
ments into direct relations with my Government, and, in 
the case of other States, simplifying their relations 
through a single intermediary. I have made a careful 
examination of the position and have come to the con- 
clusion that, while future constitutional developments in 
the Government of India and in the Provinces may lead 
to the necessity for a re-examination of the position of 
those larger States whose relations with the Government 
of India are still conducted through Provincial Govern- 
ments, further changes are not practicable at the present 
moment. 




144 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi. 

The question of Yonr Highnesses' co-operation in 
measures of humanitarian endeavour, which the Govern- 
ment of India has by virtue of its Membership of the 
League of Nations pledged itself to pursue, has previously 
found expression in this House, notably during the 
meetings of November 1926 and February 1928. On 
both these occasions His Highness the Chancellor assured 
me of your effective assistance. It is therefore gratifying 
to me to observe that those assurances have during the 
past year been translated into practice, in connection 
with the obligations undertaken by the Government of 
India under the International Convention of 1921 for 
the suppression of the traffic in women and children. 
A large number of States have expressed readiness to 
co-operate and to undertake the necessary legislation to 
make co-operation effective. I congratulate Your High- 
nesses on this evidence of a desire to join with those who 
are working together throughout the world in the cause 
of social progress and eradication of vice. 

There is a matter of some importance engaging the- 
attention of the Government of India which I would 
like to mention briefly to Your Highnesses. The Imperial 
Council of Agricultural Research recently appointed a 
Committee for the purpose of formulating co-ordinated 
measures to deal with the problem of locusts which have 
been taking serious toll of crops in certain areas. The 
Committee has issued an interim report in which they 
have declared that locusts are now breeding in Northern 
India, and that, unless adequate measures of control are 
taken within the next six weeks, there is grave danger 
of further damage, especially in Western and Northern 
India. The Committee have suggested that the co- 
operation of the Indian States within their territories 
with regard to measures for dealing with this serious 
menace would be of great value, and Political Officers are 
being directed to ask those of Tour Highnesses comerned 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


145 


Opening of ike Chamber of Princes at Delhi. 

to render snch assistance as may be possible in fighting 
the plague. I am confident that the request will not be 
made in vain, and I need hardly say that your active 
co-operation in these important measures will be much 
appreciated by my Government. 

Another matter that I would wish to mention relates 
to the assessment of compensation for land required in 
British India and in Indian States for irrigation, naviga- 
tion, embankment and drainage Works, and works con- 
nected with, or subsidiary to, them. The question has 
been under discussion since 1925, and a summary approved 
by the Standing Committee of the Chamber of Princes 
was accepted by Your Highnesses at your Session of 
February 1928, Since then it has been considered 
necessary, as a result of consultation with Local Govern* 
ments, Political Officers and Durbars, to modify the 
summary in two respects. In the first place, clause IV 
of the summary provided for the appointment, in the 
first instance, of Political Oncers as arbiters — ^if both 
parties signified in writing their consent to such a 
course — ^in cases in which there might be a difference of 
opinion between the State authorities and the Local 
Government concerned as to the compensation payable. 
It was thought, however, that this arrangement might 
put States in the invidious position of appearing to lack 
confidence in the arbiters, and it was accordingly proposed 
to amend clauses IV and V of the summary so as to 
provide for the appointment of a Board of Arbitration 
in all such cases. In the second place, it was proposed 
to include a provision in clause VI of the summary to 
the effect that, in cases where rates of royalty for quarry- 
ing stone or excavating material are levied in British 
India, arbitration will be resorted to in the manner 
provided in clause TV, in the event of agreement as to 
the rates payable not being reached. 

L6PSV 




146 


Speeches by Lord Irwin^ 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi. 

These modifications were recently discussed with the 
Standing Committee of the Chamber of Princes and have 
received their concurrence. It now only remains for the 
Government of India to issue a Eesolution on the subject, 
and this will in due course be done. 

In December last the Indian Historical Records 
Commission held a Session at Gwalior to which certain 
other States sent representatives as co-opted members. 
The interest thus evinced in India’s history by the 
descendants of those who have in the past played an 
important part in its making is of the utmost value. 
There is still much room for historical research, and I 
believe I am right in saying that the Archives of many 
States contain a wealth of documents of historical interest 
which still remain to be explored. No nation can afford 
to ignore the story of its past. No people can properly 
develop without knowledge of the factors which have 
gone to make them what they are. The great men of 
India have been primarily soldiers, law-givers, philosophers, 
and men whose saintly lives have won them a place of 
honour in the regard of their compatriots. Indigenous 
literature and the arts which have hitherto reached their 
highest levels under the stimulus of Kingly and Princely 
patronage have in more recent times received less attent- 
ion than formerly under pressure of those influences 
which are continually operating in the progress of 
civilisation. This is now being recognised and patrons 
of the arts are more numerous than before. There can 
be few better ways in which Indian Princes and the 
leaders of Indian society and opinion can contribute to 
her future than by cultivating and assisting the arts of 
peace, which constitute so formative an influence upon 
national character. 

Your Highnesses will recollect having moved a 
Resolution in the Chamber of Princes on the 24 th 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


147 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi, 

February 1928, recommeuding that for the purposes of 
section 75 of the Indian Penal Code, previous convictions 
by Courts of Indian States should be recognised by the 
Government of India, and vice versa. 

As the question involved matters of administrative 
importance, which concerned various Local Governments 
and Political Officers, I was unable at that stage to say 
more than that the matter TOuld be considered with 
every desire to meet the wish expressed by Your High- 
nesses in the Kesolution. I regret that the result of 
examination of the proposal is that the more important 
Governments are ox3posed to it, w^hile others do not view 
it wholly with favour. The Courts have already a wide 
discretion in the infliction of sentences, and few practical 
inconveniences are ajyparent in the present condition of 
the law. It seems, therefore, that no useful purpose will 
be served by further of the question, and I 

accordingly anticipate that Your Highnesses may be 
willing to let the proposal stand in abeyance. 

As is customary at our meetings, among the subjects 
to be considered by Your Highnesses is that dealing with 
the work of Ilis Highness the Maharaja of Kapurthala 
as a Representative of India at the Meeting of the League 
of Nations last year at Geneva. The Report which His 
Highness will read to us will be no less interesting than 
have been those presented by His Highness himself on 
two previous occasions and by other members of your 
Order who have there represented India. We owe a 
debt of gratitude to His Highness for having undertaken 
for the third time this weighty task and I can assure 
him that we shall all follow with interest what he will 
have to tell us. 

Two resolutions upon the Agenda, one by pis High- 
ness the Chancellor and one by His Highn^ the Nawab 
of Maler Kotla, are concerned with the election of the 
Chancellor and Pro-Chancellor and with the amendment 



148 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes at Delhi, 

of Riile 3 of the Rules of Business concerning the proposal 
of subjects for inclusion in the Agenda. As I have 
mentioned before in this House, I deprecate alterations 
in the constitution and Rules of Business except when 
necessity has been clearly shown, but I think both these 
proposals are deserving of Your Highnesses’ careful 
consideration. 

The Resolution regarding dealings between Indian 
States and Capitalists and Financial Agents has already 
been before the Legislative Assembly and received in a 
slightly different form Your Highnesses’ approval. As 
a result of further consideration it is now formally to 
be placed before you, and I may have further remarks 
to make upon this subject when that stage is reached. 

Before the Session ends Your Highnesses will proceed 
to elect the Chancellor and Pro-Chancellor and the 
Standing Committee for the ensuing year and I desire 
to acknowledge, as also, I am sure, will Your Highnesses, 
the hard work performed by His Highness the Chancellor 
and by the Members of the present Standing Committee 
during the period of their activities. We have been 
occupied with many difScult and important questions, 
the counsel which I have received from those whom you 
have chosen to represent you has been of the greatest 
assistance to me, and I know that I have only to ask for 
the help of your chosen representatives in order to obtain 
it in full measure. 

I must now bring my remarks introducing this 
Session to a close. I would do so by again giving 
expression to my continued sympathy and interest in 
Your Highnesses’ deliberations and to my assured con- 
■fidence that the result of them will be to forward the 
welfare of Your Highnesses’ subjects, and those of that 
greater entity of India in which they occupy such an 
important place. 


Speeches by Lord Irmn, 


149 


LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION STONE OF THE RED 
CROSS BUILDING, NEW DELHI. 

His Excellency the Viceroy laid the foundation stone of 27th Febm* 
the Red Cross Building in New Delhi on the 27th February 
and delivered the following speech on that occasion : — 

Your Highness, Sir Henry Monerieff Smith, Ladies and 
Genlkmen, — We are all greatly indebted to Sir Henry 
Monerieff Smith for the interesting account he has given 
as of the foundation and development of the Indian Red 
Cross Society and of its admission to membership of the 
League of Red Cross Societies, a league which embraces 
50 nations of the world and has today more than 20 
million members on its roll. It is well, on an occasion 
like this, that we should be reminded of the greatness 
of the organisation of which we in India form a part, 
and of the objects and ideals which it sets before itself. 

And, as a step towards the achievement of those objects 
and towards the fulfilment of Indians obligations as a 
signatory to the Covenant of the League of Nations, the 
eoiistruction of a Central Red Cross building in the new 
Capital of India is an event of no small significance. 

Not only will the requirements of the Society itself be 
adequately met, but the building which is to rise on this 
site will accommodate the Headquarters of other kindred 
associations, and will thus be of great service in co- 
ordinating philanthropic endeavour. Such co-ordination 
is the best guarantee against wastage of effort, and its 
importance has been recognised in many countries. I 
believe that in Carnegie House in London as many as 
17 societies and associations have been gathered together, 
and a kind of clearing house has thus been established 
which has been found to be of the greatest mutual 
benefit to all. The establishment of a building for the 
Central Headquarters of the Red Cross, St. John’s 
Ambulance, the Chelmsford League and kindred associ- 
ations will, I trust, prove to be of equal value to India. 

Provincial Branches of the Red Cro^ have, as you know, 



IdO 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Zidyi^Q of th€ FouTiddiiofi sto%6 of the Msd Cross JBuilding^ 
New Delhi, 

b6cn giv6ii a frc6 liand in, and. financial iiclp towards, 
tkeir own development as best suits their local conditions, 
and it is gratifying to hear how well many of them have 
utilised and are utilising their opportunity. But the 
need of establishing the closest relations not only between 
the Eed Cross and sister Societies but also on the one 
hand between the various parts of India and on the 
other between India and the other countries of the world 
requires no emphasis. The Red Cross is, in the truest 
sense, a national and an international Society. 

You may well congratulate yourselves on obtaining 
this excellent site. New Delhi is already rich in build- 
ings in which the life of India is centred, and it is 
fitting' that the capital should provide a worthy home for 
an organisation whose beneficent activities radiate into 
every corner of India and bring health and physical 
betterment to so many of its people. "When the question 
of providing suitable quarters first arose, finance seemed 
likely to be a serious difficulty. Fortunately a fairy 
prince arrived upon the scene and by a wave of his pen 
altered the situation. Thanks to the princely generosity 
of His Highness the Nawab of Junagadh, whom we are 
glad to see among us this afternoon, it has been possible 
to proceed forthwith with the scheme, and plans for a 
handsome building, worthy of the Society and of the 
purposes it sets before itsClf, have been prepared. I 
know that aU those who are here today or who' take an 
inter^t in Red Cross w^ork will echo the gratitude which 
I would now wish to express to His Highness not only 
for his generosity in providing this building but for the 
openhanded and practical support which, as we have 
heard, he has always given to the Society both within 
and outside his State. I am confident that his latest 
gift will mark a distinct stage in the development of 
philanthropic work for the benefit of the people of India. 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


161 


Address from the Ajmer Municipal Committee, 

Your Chairman has reminded us that we are within 
a month of the completion of the first decade of the life 
of the Indian Red Cross Society. These ten years have 
been years of pioneer work and have seen great changes 
and a great advance. Ten years ago Child Welfare 
Centres, schemes for villages uplift and Social Service 
Leagues, which are now household w^ords, were hardly 
known. Now there are few of the larger centres in India 
where activities of this kind are not in being, and it is 
a source of great gratification to know that Indians arc 
coming forward in increasing numbers to play their part 
in these endeavours. The seed that has been sown is 
bearing fruit and, with willing labourers in the field, 
gives promise of a rich harvest. But the need of helpers 
grows with the progress of our task, and I appeal again, 
as I have appealed before, for the assistance of those 
who are ready to give of their time and labour in this 
great cause. I feel little doubt that such a call will 
derive greater strength and meaning from the building 
whose inauguration we are celebrating today and whose 
foundation stone I will now, with your permission, 
proceed to lay. 


ADDRESS FROM THE AJMER MUNICIPAL COMMITTEE. 

In replying to the Address presented by the Ajmer 
Municipal Committee on 7th March, His Excellency the Viceroy 
said 

Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen , — ^Lady Irwin and I 
are deeply grateful to you for the kind way in which 
you have welcomed us to Ajmer this morning. It is a 
very great pleasure to us to he able to realise a desire 
we have long felt to visit a city which holds so unique 
a place among the cities of India both for the historit^l 
and religious associations, to which you have alluded, and 
for the natural beauty of its surroundii^s. Were tiiere 



152 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address from the Ajmer Municipal Committee, 

nothing else of interest or beauty, the panorama of hills 
and lake, which ;^tretches before us here and provides so 
magnificent a setting for its marble pavilions, would 
alone amply repay a visitor to Ajmer. 

The citizens of a town so richly endowed by Nature 
and so renowned in History must feel that they can sx>are 
no effort to make it worthy of its environment and of its 
past. I am glad to know that you are conscious of the 
responsibility that rests on you in your representative 
capacity as Members of the Municipal Committee and 
that you are making a real effort to solve the problems 
that confront you, the most urgent of 'which are those 
relating to sanitation and water-supply. The prosperity 
of your town and the health of the present and future 
generations of its citizens must depend in a very large 
measure on the success which attends your efforts. I 
know that you have difficulties to overcome and that your 
progress in giving effect to the schemes you have worked 
out is largely a question of finance. I am not in a 
position to say at this moment to what extent my Govern- 
ment will be able to assist you, but I can assure you that 
they will view with sympathy any effort you may make 
to develop your resources and to provide the funds 
needed for your projects, and will give every considera- 
tion to your needs in carrying your proposals into effect. 

To you as Members of the Ajmer Municipal Com- 
mittee is entrusted the task of administering the affairs 
of a large and important city. It is a privilege of which 
you may well be proud and at the same time a duty 
which calls for earnest and anxious endeavour. I 
realise that your path is not always easy and that criticism 
does not always make sufficient allowance for your 
difficulties or accord the credit due to those who devote 
their time to public service. At the same time, efficiency 
of municipal administration will at all times depend 
pn the spirit of impartial co-operation displayed 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


m 


Address to Istimrardars of Ajmer. 

by those set in authority, and I would therefore hope 
that in the performance of your task you will ever work 
together harmoniously and with single purpose for the 
public welfare, unhampered by distinctions of caste and 
creed and remembering only that you are fellow-citizens 
of a great city and the chosen custodians of its interests. 
Thus will you prove yourselves worthy of the trust 
reposed in you and deserve the gratitude of the people 
of Ajmer. 

In the tasK before jmu, you have my sincere good 
wishes for your success. It is my earnest hope that 
under your guidance the people of this city may enjoy 
increasing prosperity and happiness. 


ADDRESS TO ISTIMRARDARS OP AJMER. 

While at Ajmer His Excellency the Viceroy met the 
Istimrardars, whom he addressed in the following terms : — 

[A. R. — This address was not published.] 

Istimrardars of Ajmer , — ^I am very glad to have this 
opportunity of meeting you in the headquarters of the 
district of which your estates form m large and important 
a part. 

The position which you enjoy is one of which you 
may well be proud, and the Government of India have 
in the past given ample evidence of their appreciation 
of your loyalty and their desire to maintain unimpaired 
your dignity and your cherished privileges. Since the 
last occasion on which an Istimrardars' Durbar was 
held — ^when Lord Chelmsford visited Ajmer in 1916 — a 
further proof of Government's solicitude for your in- 
terests has been furnished by the decision to abolish the 
levy of nazrana on successions in Istimrari estates. 

I am confident that, as you rely on Government to 
respect your privileges, so you bn your side recognise 
that you have obligations which it is your bounden duty 
to discharge. Proud, and rightly proud, as you are of 


7th March 
1930. 




154 


Speeches "by Lord Irwin, 


Address to Istimrardars of Ajmer. 

your ancient lineage and history, you cannot afford to 
disregard the changing conditions of the modern world. 
As leading land-owners and as the chief representatives 
of the agricultural interests of this district, your place 
is in the forefront of progress. Many of you have had 
the benefit of an education at the Mayo College, which 
is now celebrating its Jubilee. Some of you are being 
educated there now. The motto of the College reminds 
us, if reminder is needed, that the spread of enlighten- 
ment is the mission to which its sons are pledged. 

As members of the District Board, you can, if you 
are active and not merely nominal members, do much 
for the general welfare of the district. And in your 
own estates especially you have wide opportunities for 
promoting the benefit of your tenants. Their interests 
are your interests, and their prosperity will be reflected 
in the prosperity of your estates. I am told that in some 
of the Istimrari estates the harmonious relations that 
should exist between tenants and landlords have from 
time to time been marred by a recurrence of disputes to 
the disadvantage of both. Discontent among tenants is 
engendered by insecurity of tenure and by uncertainty 
of rights and obligations. In some cases tenants have 
resented demands which they regard as exactions and 
for which the Istimrardar has claimed the sanction of 
ancient custom. Customs are not imm.utable. We live 
in days of progress and reform, and where ancient 
customs are not in consonance with modern ideals and 
conditions they can and should be modified. 

Some of you have already shown a desire to introduce 
changes which benefit their cultivators. Others will, I 
am confident, follow their example, remembering that a 
pro^rous and contented tenantiy is the .only sure 
foundation on which they can build up the lasting 
:fertoQes-of their own estate. 



Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


166 


Pme-giving at the Mayo College, and Address from the Old 
Boys’ Association of the Mayo College, Ajmer. 

In solving the problem of adjusting the traditions 
of the past to the requirements of the present you can 
rely on the readiness of the Chief Commissioner and the 
district officers to give you their advice and assistance, 
and I for my part can assure you of the constant interest 
I take, and shall continue to take, in the welfare of your 
estates and of the people of this district. 


PRIZE-GIVING AT THE MAYO COLLEGE, AND ADDRESS 

PROM THE OLD BOYS’ ASSOCIATION OP THE MAYO 

COLLEGE, AJMER. 

His Excellency the Viceroy delivered the following speech 7th March 
at the Prize-giving at the Mayo College and in reply to the 
Address presented by the Old Boys’ Association of the Mayo 
College at Ajmer on the 7th March : — 

Your Highnesses, Mr. Madden, Ladies and Gentle- 
men , — I should like to begin by thanking you most 
warmly for the cordial welcome you have extended to 
Lady Ir^vin and myself, and for the privilege you have 
allowed me of presiding over such a distinguished 
gathering on this memorable occasion. It marks perhaps 
the most important event in the history of the College 
since Lord Mayo in 1870 first propounded to the Ruling 
Princes assembled in Durbar at Ajmer the idea of 
establishing an institution, where their sons and those 
of their nobles could receive an education suited to their 
high position and responsibilities. This idea materialised 
a few years later in the construction of these beautiful 
buildings and the foundation of this College, now so well 
known as the Mayo College. As you, Mr. Principal, 
have reminded us no Viceroy since the College was opened 
has failed to attend one of your annual prize-givings. 

That, I think, is sufficient proof of the inter^t and 
eoncern which the Viceroy naturally takes in the pros- 
perity and welfare of the Chiefs^ CoHeges and in the 



156 


SpeecJie^ hy Lord Irwin* 


Prize-giving at the Mayo College y and Address from the Old 
Boy^ Association of the Mayo Collegey Ajmer. 

training of the future Rulers and nobles of the Indian 
States, T\dth whom he is in specially intimate and personal 
relations. I therefore deem mj^self peculiarly fortunate 
that it should have fallen to my lot to be present at 
these Jubilee celebrations, which have added greatly to 
the pleasure of memories I shall always retain. I wish 
that the many preoccupations of a Viceroy did not 
prevent me from paying more frequent visits and so 
seeing for myself more of what the boys are doing here 
and what is being done for them. For I feel that it 
would only be by obtaining at first-hand a knowledge 
of school-life here and its surroundings that a Viceroy 
could wholly expect to discharge the responsibility which 
lies upon him in connection with the future of the Chiefs* 
Colleges. 

My anxiety in their behalf is deepened because I 
am conscious that in some quarters there is a tendency 
to disparage their work, and even to suggest their 
abolition, on the ground that they have failed to achieve 
the purpose for which they were created. I am tempted 
therefore to look back and briefly to examine the position 
as it was in 1903 when the reorganisation took place to 
which you, Mr. Principal, have alluded. 

I believe that at that time a spirit of indiflference 
and even of hostility to the Colleges was not uncommon, 
and was due mainly, perhaps, to three causes, to the 
traditional conservatism of the States, to a belief that 
the education given at the Colleges was too costly, and, 
thirdly, a feeling of dissatisfaction with the class and 
quality of the education which the Colleges provided. 

Energetic measures were taken to remove such 
defects as were found to exist. The constitution of the 
College was modified so as to associate the Ruling Princes 
closely with its management. The staff was 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


157 


Prize-giving at the Mayo College^ and Address from the Old 
Boys^ Association of the Mayo College^ Ajmer. 

materially strengthened, and the curriculum was revised 
with the object of securing a more practical education 
suited to the role which the pupils of the College were 
expected to play in after-life. The Government of India 
substantially increased their financial assistance, while 
the Princes themselves made generous grants to the 
College endowment fund and valuable additions to the 
College buildings. Over a quarter of a century has 
elapsed since these far-reaching reforms were introduced. 
Let us glance at the results, and ask ourselves whether 
in view of our experience since then the College has been 
a success or a failure. If by failure its critics mean that 
it has fallen short of its ideal, I am not concerned to 
contradict them. For I doubt whether there is any 
school in this or indeed in any country which could claim 
fully to have realised the object which it had set out to 
achieve. As a tree is judged by the general character 
of the fruit w'hich it produces and not by selected 
specimens whether good or bad, so must it be with an 
Educational Institution, and this test may be fairly 
applied to the Mayo College. Isolated instances of 
failure, scholastic or otherwise, should not be allowed to 
warp our judgment on the main question. Rather let 
us see whether the College is justified by the character 
and conduct in after-life of the pupils as a whole, and 
let us remember that the raw material on which the 
College works is of various quality, and that home 
influence must always be a factor of great importance, 
in the field both of study and discipline. It is therefore 
most encouraging that you, Mr, Principal, should be able 
to claim that few schools can point to so many pupils 
who have achieved distinction in later life. I confess 
when I look round this hall and see the number of 
distinguished old boys present here this * afternoon, who 
owe to this place their early training and education, X 




158 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Prize-giving at the Mayo College^ and Address from the Old 
Boys^ Association of the Mayo College, Ajmer. 

find proof not of failure but of a large measure of 
success. The youth of no less than twelve, I believe, of 
the present Ruling Princes of Rajputana was spent within 
these grounds. Those who were at the College in the 
earlier days of its existence will not require me to remind 
them how much they owe to Colonel Loch, who filled the 
responsible post of Principal for many years ; others in 
later times will remember with gratitude the kindly 
interest and care with which Mr. Waddington and 
Mr. Leslie Jones supervised their early training. 

The devoted work which your present Principal, 
Mr. Madden, has given to the College, is well known to 
you all, and I need not recount it here today. But I am 
glad to say that, in recognition of his services and in 
token of the deep interest which His Majesty the King- 
Emperor takes in the Chiefs’ Colleges, I have been 
authorised today to announce that His Majesty has been 
pleased to confer on Mr. Madden the honour of a Com- 
panionship of the Order of the Indian Empire. 

Looking then to the history of the past 25 years I 
think it can be asserted with justice and with pride that, 
though there may have been tares among the wheat, the 
harvest on the whole has been good. With such a record 
I was disquieted to learn that the College does hot inspire 
the confidence which it should, and that there are 
misgivings as to the future. As in 1903 so in 1930 some 
complain that the education is too costly, others d^ire 
that the curriculum should be modified so as to correspond 
more nearly to that prescribed for secondary schools 
and coUfigesi, others again consider that the time has 
to make the College less exclusive. Time will not 
permit me to deal as I should like with all these criticisms. 
I am not convinced that the cost of education at the Mayo 
Collie, which is already far below that of the average 
public sefeool in England, is beyond the means of tho^ 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


169 


Frize-giving at the Mayo College, and Address from the Old 
Boys* Association of the Mayo 0 allege , Ajmer, 
for whom it is intended. Further economy could not 
but have a disastrous effect on the efSciency and character 
of the Colleges. Nor am I in sympathy with those who 
desire to change the traditional character of these 
institutions and to convert them into secondary schools 
of the ordinary type. Success in the examination room 
has its value, but it is not and should never be the sole 
or indeed the main aim to which those responsible for 
the Chiefs’ Colleges ought to direct their attention. It 
has not been in the past, and I hope will not be in the 
future, the object of the curriculum by a mechanical 
routine to produce a standard type, but rather to develop 
the general qualities that go to make up personality and 
to offer a sound general education on which, if necessary, 
a more specialised course of study suited to the career 
which the pupil may choose in after-life can be based. 
I would ask those who desire to change the special 
character of these Colleges to pause and look around 
them.. In many parts of the WTOld today we see wide- 
spread agitation and unrest due to men having cut 
themselves adrift from their old moorings of religion, 
custom and tradition, and few thinking persons would 
deny the dangers to which this process has exposed 
society. The foundation of the social fabric of most of 
the States and especially of Rajputana is still pre- 
dominantly traditional and conservative, though old 
customs and old beliefs are slowly broadening to suit 
the changing conditions of the times. It is necessary 
therefore to proceed with caution and to hesitate before 
adopting mea^res likely to spell too rapid a subversion 
of ancient faith and custom, which would imperil much 
of good along with those elements we may desire to see 
reformed. The landed aristocracy has still as important 
and useful a part as ever to play in the body-politic; 
and in future the position of the Ruling Prince will be 
the stronger if it is associated witii an arii^ocrax^ endowed 



160 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Prize-giving at the Mayo College, and Address from the Old 
Boy^ Association of the Mayo College, Ajmer. 

with solid moral character, intellectually alert, capable 
of realising the duties and responsibilities of their 
privileged position, and determined to use it not for 
selfish ends but to promote the enlightenment and 
happiness of all their fellow-creatures. If such is their 
goal, the Colleges are travelling on no purposeless errand 
and deserve the confidence and support of the Ruling 
Princes. I earnestly hope therefore that it will be the 
determination of all Ruling Princes not to imperil the 
future of the Colleges by apathy and indifference, but 
to ensure their success, both by manifesting a personal 
interest in their concerns and by providing such funds 
as may be necessary to maintain them at a high standard 
of efficiency. On no point vrould I lay more stress than 
on the supreme necessity for obtaining for these Colleges 
masters of high qualifications and of the right stamp, 
men who without fear for the future and animated by 
high ideals will be ready to devote whole-heartedly their 
time and their ability to the College service. Assured 
of such a staff and relying on the continued support and 
v^ympathy of the Princes, I have no misgiving that the 
Colleges will not be able to face the future with confidence 
and equanimity. 

You here can, as you know, at all times safely rely 
on the goodwill and wise counsel of the Agent to the 
Governor-General, Mr. Reynolds, in all matters such as 
this that affect the present or future welfare of Rajputana. 

I should like here to thank the Old Boys most 
warmly for the kindly allusions to Lady Irwin and 
myself which they have made in their address and for 
the very handsome casket in which it is contained. I 
appreciate their desire to maintain the Higher Diploma 
Course and to extend its duration so as to receive for it 
recc^ition of the Universities, but I understand that the 
solution, of the problem as of so ’many others depends on 



Speeches by Lord Irwin* 


161 


Frhe-gmng at the Mayo College^ and Address from the Old 
Boy^ Assoeiation of the Mayo College, Ajmer, 
funds. The requests which they have made will, I can 
assure them, receive sympathetic consideration by my 
Government in the scheme for the reorganisation of the 
Colleges, which is now under consideration. My anxiety 
for the future of this institution is lessened -when I see 
the keen interest taken in it by the Old Boys and their 
loyalty to its traditions. No College can have a more 
precious asset than this or a more eloquent testimony to 
the value of the education they have received. 

And now^ a word to the pupils of the College. First 
of all I must congratulate most heartily all those who 
have won prizes in this year of Jubilee, and I feel that 
a special wwd of praise is due to Maharaj Kumar Bhim 
Singh of Kotah for his success in the Higher Diploma 
Examination. It is indeed a fitting reward for the 
anxious solicitude with w^hich my friend His Highness 
the Maharao of Kotah has watched over his education. 

I notice that ’ speaking in this hall in 1902 Lord Curzon 
referred to His Highness as one of the best of the 
Collegers pupils. It is a happy coincidence that 28 years 
later I should be able to refer to the Maharaj Kumar in 
terms of similar praise. 

I have to congratulate also another Kotah boy, Apji 
Eandhir Singh of Koila, and the Chief of Patna, both 
of whom are, I am glad to say, present here this after- 
noon. 

I share your regret, Mr. Principal, that I am unable 
to congratulate personally His Highness the Maharaja of 
Jaipur on winning the Viceroy's medal for the best all- 
round athlete. We shall all I know watch with interest 
the future of a career so full of promise. 

It is customary for speakers at prize-givings to include 
in their remarks some words of consolation to thc^ wjio 
Ifaye not won prizes, and my eonclq^ing ^or4s you 

L6PSV 



162 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


8th March 
1930 . 


Banquet at the Mayo College^ Ajmer. 

will be that I hope every boy here today, whether in the 
rest of his time at Mayo College or in his life after he 
leaves, will prove to the satisfaction of even the most 
obstinate examiner that at least he ought to have been 
given a prize on this occasion. What you learn here will 
show itself in many ways besides proficiency in learning 
or in games. It will show itself in manners, in truthful- 
ness and courage in standing up for what you believe to 
be right, in good sportsmanship, in chivalry towards those 
who are weaker than yourselves, and I hope that in 
everything you do you will remember that the good name 
of the College is in your keeping and depends upon what 
you are, so that you may ever give it cause to be as proud 
of you as I hope you yourselves will always be proud of 
the Mayo College. 

BANQUET AT THE MAYO COLLEGE, AJMER. 

The following is His Excellency the Viceroy^s speech at the 
Banquet at the Mayo College, Ajmer, on 8th March : — 

Your Highness and Mr, Yice-President , — I thank you 
most warmly for the cordial welcome you have accorded 
to Lady Irwin and myself this evening. It was a happy 
inspiration which prompted our hosts to entertain us in 
this stately hall, for it is here that the traditions of the 
College are enshrined and here have taken place all 
memorable ceremonies in its history. For the old boys 
of Mayo College, many of whom I am glad to see around 
me, this hall must be rich with memories ; for those now 
at the College, it must be pregnant with hopes and 
aspirations for the future. 

Those who are interested in education have long 
recognised the influence of beautiful surroundings and 
beautiful buildings in forming the impressions of early 
life, and it was therefore with keen interest that I looked 
forward to my visit to Ajmep and to seeing the spot 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


163 


Banquet at the Mayo College, Ajmer, 

which had been chosen for the location of the Mayo 
College. I need hardly say that I have not been dis- 
appointed. The scene which gi eeted me on arrival at 
the Residency yesterday morning surpassed my liveliest 
expectation. Below me lay the placid expanse of the 
Ana Sugar lake guarded by its encircling hills. Above 
me rose the frowning massif of Taragarh, the crumbling 
walls of its ancient fort lit up by the rays of the morning 
sun. My eye w’andered over the city spread like a mosaic 
on the slopes beneath, until in the far distance it rested 
on the tower of the central building of this College 
nestling under the shelter of the Madar Hill. Surely 
no College could have a finer setting or one more 
calculated to stimulate the intellect or fire the imagination. 

But beautiful surroundings alone cannot ensure 
success. If there is truth in the old saying that ‘‘ men 
not walls make a city ’’ it is equally true that it is not 
by buildings but by the boys and specially by the old 
boys that a college lives and must be judged. I am very 
glad to have had the opportunity during the last two 
days of seeing something of the boys at present at the 
College. Two days is a short time in which to form a 
judgment, but I could not fail to be impressed by their 
tone and discipline and by their excellent manners. The 
latter quality is, as the Principal reminded me yesterday, 
one on which the College specially prides itself and it 
is indeed one in which no Rajput is likely to be found 
Jacking. 

I shall be forgiven, I know, if I decline to attempt 
to pronounce judgment on the Old Boys. I feel that 
here I am perhaps on surer but on more delicate ground 
and I must spare the blushes of the many eminent Old 
Boys who are assembled here this evening. But this, at 
any rate, I can say with safety that there are many here 


164 


Speeches l)y Lord Irwin, 


Banquet at the Mayo College, Ajmer, 

to-nigM, who are proud of their College and of whom 
the College is rightly proud. There are many here too, 
who regard the College with affection and who are 
sensible of the debt they owe to it and to the staff for 
the success that has been theirs in later life. 

In my two days’ experience of Mayo College I have 
been able, I think, to trace at any rate part of the 
explanation of some of the qualities which I have learnt 
to admire in the many Princes whom I am privileged to 
number among my friends — ^their culture and linguistic 
facility, their skill in games and their good sportsmanship, 
aiid — ^last but not least, having presided over their 
deliberations for a whole week — ^their powers of oratory. 
I think it is not too much to say that some of the battles 
on the floor of the Chamber of Princes were won in the 
class-rooms of the Mayo College. 

The number of Old Boys who have gathered for 
these celebrations bears testimony to the feeling of 
esprit de corps which the College inspires. Prom 
Maharaj Fateh Singh of Jodhpur who joined the College 
in 1876 to those who only left last term, there is hardly 
a year of the College history which has not its representa- 
tive. I could quote many instances of family faith in 
the efficiency of the College, but I will content myself 
with one. Baj Bijai Singh of Kunadi in the Kotah 
State joined the College in 1881 and since then six of 
his sons and six grandsons have been educated at the 
College ending with Bhanwar Gulab Singh in 1929. So 
long as this spirit prevails I share the optimism of Sis 
Highness the Maharaja of Jodhpur and with him I 
believe that the College will, in the future as it has done 
in the past, shed light in dark places and send forth its 
sons fitted to play with honour and distinction the part 
th^t their station in life expects of them. 

Jt will give great pleasure to all who have the 
jpipipto of ijie College at heart to learn that, to celebrate 



Speeches dy Lord Irwin. 


m 


Convocation of the Delhi University, 

its Jubilee, His Highness the Maharaja of Kashmir has 
presented a scholarship of £300 a year for 3 years for 
study in England. The holder will be selected by the 
Principal from among those boys who have passed the 
Diploma or Higher Diploma Examination. I should 
like to express on my own behalf as on that of very many 
others our real gratitude to His Highness for his 
generosity. 

Before I sit down I must again thank all the Old 
Boys for the kindly feeling which prompted them to 
entertain Her Excellency and myself this afternoon and 
you, members of the College Council, for your very 
generous hospitality to us this evening. 

It has been a great pleasure to us both to be privileged 
to take part in these Jubilee celebrations, and we shali 
alw’ays wish the Mayo College and its inmates well. 


CONVOCATION OF THE DELHI UNIVERSITY. 

The following address was delivered by His Excellency 2l8t March 
the Viceroy at the Convocation of the Delhi University on 1030. 
the 21st March 

Oenilemen , — ^It has given me great pleasure to 
attend once more the Convocation of Delhi University. 

Apart from the opportunity that it affords of associating 
myself with what is perhaps the most important function 
of the University's Academic year, it has permitted me 
to be one of the audience privileged this afternoon to 
listen to our Vice-Chancellor's thoughtful and inspiring 
address. In the course of it he mentioned the critical 
stage at which the University of Delhi now finds itself, 
and I would take this opportunity of explaining Lriefiy 
the position of Government in the matter,. The Com- 
mittee, which was appointed to enquire inlo c>e!rtain 
qu^tions affecting the future of the UniTO^sfty mi tts 
cmistituent colleges, st^ested an iuTest^tion inte 



166 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Convocation of the Delhi University. 

financial resources of the Degree Colleges of the Univer- 
sity. This investigation has just been completed and 
the question is now being examined by my Government. 
I have every hope that they will shortly be in a position 
to formulate their conclusions, and that these will assist 
the University and its Colleges to adopt a definite pro- 
gramme of development. The measure of support which 
Government can give to the furthering of that develop- 
ment must of course, as you will realise, be determined 
by financial considerations and by the relative claims 
of other projects. 

Prior to the establishment of the University of 
Delhi, the Colleges in this city were associated v/ith the 
University of the Punjab — a University of the affiliating 
type — ^whereas the ideal of those who founded this 
University was a University of the teaching and residen- 
tial type. It has naturally taken time for the Colleges 
in Delhi to readjust their outlook from that of separate 
units, situated hundreds of miles from the centre of the 
University with which they were associated and there- 
fore possessing a very large measure of independence, 
to that of constituent Colleges, themselves forming a 
University which without their co-operation and active 
help could not exist. It is upon the correct balancing of 
the ideals of the Colleges with those of the University, 
and upon the satisfactory adjustment of the relations 
not only between the Colleges and the University but 
between the Colleges themselves, that the success of 
higher education in this Province will depend, and it is 
much to be hoped that a decision as to the permanent 
location of the University, which should not now be long 
delayed, will make readjustment easier. 

Your Vice-Chancellor quoted a passage from an 
address delivered by Lord Beading on an occasion 
similar to the present. Some of you may remember that 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


167 


Convocation of the Delhi University, 

Lord Reading went on in that address to emphasise the 
part which the citizens of Delhi themselves can play, by 
financial help and otherwise, in assisting in the develop* 
naent of the University. With him I believe that few 
more worthy objects for their philanthrophy can be found, 
and I am happy to be able today to announce a generous 
benefaction from one who, though not a citizen of Delhi, 
is a resident here for two or three very busy months 
each year. Mr. Kikabhai Premchand has just handed 
over to the University all the allowances he has received 
as a Member of the Assembly and of the Indian Central 
Committee, amounting to Rs. 22,000, to be devoted to the 
establishment of a part-time Readership in Economies. 
To benefactors such as Mr. Kikabhai Premchand Uni- 
versities and culture in all lands and in all ages have 
owed an inestimable debt. I know that you would wish 
to join me in expressing to him our cordial thanks for 
this spontaneous gift, and I trust that his generosity may 
inspire others to follow his example. 

The Vice-Chancellor has touched on other important 
matters this afternoon. His analysis of the present posi- 
tion of affairs and his counsel for the future have been 
sanely and clearly put to us and reserve the deep consi- 
deration of all who have the interests of the people of 
India at heart. To the youth of India he has given sound 
advice, which I am sure, in this hall at any rate, has 
fallen on receptive ears. 

It is one of the penalties of youth — as you may sup- 
pose — ^to be given sound advice, and it is perhaps — ^some 
of you may also say — one of their privileges to disregard 
it. But youth will have its turn, and I meanwhile offer 
no excuse for venturing to add my quota of advice to 
the Vice-Chancellor ^s address, though on different, and 
I fear less profound, lines than his. 




108 


Spet^ches Lord %rwirt» 


Convocation of the Delhi University, 

I suppose that, whenever one, who has himself had 
the .privilege of going through a University course, is 
again brought into passing contact with University life, 
he naturally looks hack to what for many University men 
will always remain the happiest time of their lives. Our 
recollections will vary according to temperament or to 
the difference in character of our Universities, or in our 
teachers or in the accidents of our environment. We all 
have our regrets, our tale of opportunities lost. If we 
had our time over again, we might have done more with 
it. But in these very regrets lies much of our affection 
for our old University, and herein perhaps to a great 
extent lies the secret of the hold it retains on our minds 
in after years. But, if there are some things that we 
cannot recapture, let us be thankful that much remains. 
Many unforgettable things survive — some small successes 
here or there, friendships which have ripened with the 
years, some growing perception of the dignity of true 
learning and the many-sidedness of truth, teaching a 
larger tolerance of other men’s views, and last, but sure- 
ly not least, the introduction to the companionship of 
great thinkers and great writers through our teachers or 
through books. 

This last, the joy of good books and the pleasure 
of reading, dates for many of us from our University 
days. Our early taste was no doubt crude and imma- 
ture. Our canons of criticism were, unformed. But if 
we were fortunate we felt the influence, whether of 
tutors or of our own contemporaries, which trained our 
raw judgment and gave us our first taste of those things 
on which the mind may browse and rest content. And, 
if to some University student reading may sometimes 
still conjure up the beckoning ghost of an examiner, let 
him comfort himself with the thought that many things 
which begin as a task end by being pure pleasure and 


Sjreeehes by Lofd Irwin, 


m 


Convocation of the Delhi University, 

recreation. For a few minutes then this afternoon 
I would invite you to think with me of books ; of what 
they are and %vhat they can be ; and of the place that if 
we are wise we may seek to give them in our general 
scheme of life. For such illustration as I may need, 
however much I deplore my inability to quote from your 
own Indian literature, I am perforce comi^elled to de- 
pend upon English writers. But the conclusions that 
emerge are not governed by language, and are of 
general application. 

Let us begin by the elementary enquiry of why we 
desire to read, and ask what are the advantages that we 
derive from reading. I do not here speak of the more 
laborious kind of reading which we all know too well, 
and which in the case of the young, I suppose, at times 
involves reading rather uninspiring text books, and in 
my own consists in reading through even less inspiring 
official files. It may be that for us both the principal 
value of such study is that of a moral discipline, of 
training our mind to work with resolution and persever- 
ance upon subjects that make no powerful appeal to 
our feelings at the particular moment when our task has 
to be performed. And it is perhaps the more necessary 
for those, who are constrained to devote a good deal 
of their time to this kind of reading, to seek refreshment 
when they may by recourse to reading of more general 
character. Such wider reading is the means by which 
we may at once increase our knowledge and, even more 
important, supply an often much needed stimulus to 
a torpid imagination. We are able at any moment to 
take our place upon the magic carpet and fly where 
fancy wills, acquiring new experience, hearing and seeing 
new things, so that, as our reading leads ns through fields 
hitherto unexplored, we find that our vision widens, and 
all the things of life assume for us new meaning and 




170 


Speeches iy Lord Irwm. 


Convocation of the Delhi University. 

significance. It is througli books and through reading 
them that we are able to give satisfaction to one of the 
most instinctive impulses of human nature. Man 
naturally craves for companionship, and society largely 
reposes upon this human quality. Companionship is 
essential to the free development of our personality, and 
we are thus naturally led to the attempt to make contact 
with other minds, and with minds greater than our own. 
Books are the ready avenue to this haven of our desire. 
Indeed it might truly be said that as religion satisfies 
the yearning of man’s heart to make approach to the 
Divine, so in the lower sphere reading is one of the ways 
by which we can most easily place ourselves in fellow- 
ship with those of our kind who from the vantage-point 
they have reached can see further than ourselves. A 
good book wrote Milton, ‘‘ is the precious life blood 
of a master spirit embalmed, and treasured up on purpose 
to a life beyond life We do well therefore as often 
as we can to enrich the quality of our own thought by 
allov/ing to flow into it the higher thought of men who 
have in their generation been the interpreters of the 
deeper things of human feeling. 

For many people this presentment in form of their 
own inarticulate emotions is the great charm of all writ- 
ing whether poetry or prose. How often are we not 
brought up sharp, as we read, by a passage or a line — 
“ a jewel five words long ” — ^in which we are almost 
startled to see, crystallised in language some dumb sen- 
sation of our own, which we had never succeeded in 
bringing to such precise definition. In sheer joy how 
we read and re-read, until we know by heart the lines 
that so wonderfully as it seems reflect or bring to light 
something of our very selves, of which we had scarcely 
been aware. For those to whom music speaks clearly 
the sensation obtained through hearing must be analog- 
ous to that which I have described. And, even- if we are 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


171 


Convocation of the Delhi University, 

not musical, there is much for us all to gain and enjoy 
from observance of language and style. We had not 
perhaps been accustomed to pay much heed to this sort 
of thing, until one day as we read our ear was caugnt by 
the rhythm and sound of words ; we suddenly detected 
a design for which we were not prepared, and, once 
had the clue, we saw how the author chose language, 
now majestic, deliberate, restrained and calm, now rapid, 
impetuous, rushing like a mountain stream in spate, 
according to his subject and the effect he was seeking 
to create. 

As the years pass, much of the pleasure of our 
reading will lie in association ; we meet our old friends 
repeatedly, and, though we like to make new ones, most 
people are intellectually conservative enough to keep 
a specially warm corner for those which were our first 
comrades and helped us to grow up. 

And one of the precious qualities of this pursuit of 
reading which I commend to you today is that it offers 
us so infinite a choice from which we can select, as the 
spirit moves us. Are we heroic ? Let us read again 
the speech of Henry V before Agincourt, as set in his 
mouth by the greatest of all English poets : 

If we are marked to die, we are enow 

To do our country loss * and if to live. 

The fewer men, the greater share of honour, 

Close on that passage, you remember, comes ike romance 
of Exeter description of the death of the Duke of York 
and the Earl of Suffolk, lying stricken side by side on 
the field of battle. 




172 


SptfBches iij Lord trrbl^. 


ConmdatMi of the Delhi Univefsity, 

' York cries aloud : 

Tarry, dear cousin Suffolk ! 

My soul shall thine keep company to heaven : 
Tarry, sweet soul, for mine ,* then fly abreast 
As in this glorious and well-foughten field 
We kept together in our chivalry ! ’’ 

And then with what pathos Exeter tells how he 
tried in vain to stop Ms tears : 

“ But I had not so much of man in me, 

And all my mother came into mine eyes 
And gave me up to tears. 

Or let as turn to Sir Walter Scott, for preference 1 think 
Bob Eoy — ^and, though I believe true Scott lovers don’t 
a^ree with ine, Ivanhoe. Or the description, that I can 
still never read without profound emotion, by Mr. Mase- 
field, of all the transports in the last war setting out 
with their human freight from Mudros to effect the land- 
ing at O-allipoli. 

At other times we are dispirited or distiirbed, and 
our mind craves the solace that springs from nature and 
her works, unmoved as they are amid the din and clattei: 
of the world of man. There is no lack of material of 
the kind we seek, for in every country and age the order 
of nature has never failed to make a sure appeM to con- 
templative minds. The similes of Virgil that ring most 
true are those that draw their inspiration ftoln the 
simple things of life • bees, a wounded snake, an oak in 
a storm, a dying flower. Among En^ish wtitef^, birds, 
flowers and the scenery of the country side have been 
the subjefct-toatter bf some of the things that Mil' live 
as long as the English lan'guage. A^or'dsWorth, felate, 
Shelley, Gray, Thomas Hardy, Cotoad, Maty Webb- to 
mention only a few names at random — ^a’te peopte wilii 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


m 


Convocation of the Delhi University, 

whom we shall surely desire acquaintance once made 
to yipen into closer friendship. Allow me, as an illus- 
tration of ipy meaning, to quote to you one sentence from 
one who is surely not the least in this gallery of 
immortals. There is a passage in that great unfinished 
fragment of Stevenson’s, Weir of Hermiston ”, where 
he talks of his beloved hills of the Scottish lowlands : 

All beyond and about is the great field of the 
hills ; the plover, the curlew, and the lark 
cry there ; the wind blows as it blows in a 
ship’s rigging, hard and cold and pure ; 
and the hill-tops huddle one behind another 
like a herd of cattle into the sunset. ” 

To me that description stands out^ sharp, clear-cut, 
poignant, as any landscape on a painter’s canvas. Con- 
trast wdth this picture of the softer tones of a Northern 
sky another haunting memory of the hard, set colours 
of the Eastern desert. It is Kinglake’s description of 
the Dead Sea in Eothen, one of the great books of travel 
in our language. He speaks of the sea walled up J>y its 
blank hills piled high oyer hills, pale, yellow, apd 

naked There was no fly that hummed ip the fprbid<i^^ 

air, but, instead, a deep stillness ; no grass grew from the 
earth, no weed peered through the void sand ; bat trees, 
borne dowui by Jordan in some anciept flood, spread 
their grim skeleton arms all scorched apd eh^rrod P> 
blackness by the heats of the lopg silent years. ” 

It is interesting to linger over those two pictures, as 
different in character as a water colour from etching 
and alike only ip fidelity to their subjects, and to balance 
the intellectual delight we can derive from the pur^ 
artistry of words with the varying emotions which are 
aroused wilhiu us, even as we can suppose them to have 
been ^ work in the master-pdhds win^ words we read* 



174 


Speeches iy Lord Irwi/n, 


Convocation of the Delhi University, 

May I digress for a moment on this matter of artist- 
ry, as I have such a good text at hand ? The passages 
I have quoted from Shakespeare and Stevenson are good 
examples of the power of simplicity in writing. The 
economy of words both in number and in length — ^for the 
monosyllable is the mightiest of all — ^is one of the secrets 
of style, and how much should we not all gain could 
we but take this lesson to heart in our own writing and 
speech. Official letters would lose some of their terror 
and oratory would gain in force by being direct. But 
this is a dangerous topic and I shall be well advised to 
say no more lest out of my own mouth you should convict 
me. 


I have no-t the time, nor am I equipped to do more 
than point the way towards what I am certain is great 
enjoyment for nearly all of us, if we will only persist 
until we have got past the initial stages of impatience 
or unfamiliarity. 

And of course within the severe limits of a brief 
address one cannot hope to do more than touch the 
fringe of those things which one has learnt to love, and 
it is not indeed my purpose today to do more than 
arouse in some here, if I can, the desire to forage for 
themselves among the treasures with which the ground 
is strewed. Moreover, everyone will have his own 
favourites, both of subject and treatment, so that each 
must decide for himself what books he is going to make 
his companions ; we must each make our own anthology 
and learn by heart the passages of our own choice. But 
there can be no doubt that by so doing we build for 
ourselves a store-house from which mind and soul can 
freely draw. 

I began by saying that I meant to give advice to 
the younger members of my audience, I have ended by 


Speeches hij Lord Irwhu 


175 


Address from the Muslims of Delhi. 

rambling rather aimlessly through the fields of reminis- 
cence, more perhaps for my own pleasure than for your 
advantage. May I conclude by two sentences of 
practical counsel ? Train yourselves to read in odd 
moments of leisure, and as you read endeavour constant- 
ly to appraise the value according to your own standards 
of what you are reading. A good book, it has been said, 
should be more often on the knee than in the hand, for 
as we read we shall frequently pause to consider, digest 
and criticise. Nor let us be obsessed by the fetisli of 
small minds that there is something unworthy in leaving 
a book that does not interest us unfinished. It is far 
better to recognise that all books are not for all tempers, 
or for all times, and turn to something which we can 
genuinely enjoy. The great thing is to aim at being 
catholic in taste, to read widely, to think about what we 
read, and so extend our range of thought and knowledge. 
We shall assuredly gain greatly by the background that 
we shall gradually form for ourselves, and we shall find 
if I mistake not that there are few sides of our common 
life that do not gain in colour and interest from the 
attempt. 


ADDRESS FROM THE MUSLIMS OP DELHI. 

His Excellency the Viceroy received a deputation from 29 th March 
the Muslims of Delhi at "'The Viceroy's House", New Delhi, 
on the 29th March, and in reply to the address presented by 
them said 

Gentlemen,— It gives me great pleasure to meet your 
deputation this morning, and to receive the welcome of 
the Muslim residents of one of the many old cities of 
Delhi on taking up my abode in the new city, which so 
worthily upholds the historical and architectural traditions 
of the ancient Capital of India. 



176 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address from the Muslims of Delhi, 

I must thanlc you too for the congratulations you 
have offered me on the failure of the attempt which was 
made upon my train, almost within sight of this house, 
last December. The condemnation vrhich you have 
expressed of actions such as this echoes the opinion of 
all wise and sober people, and I have in the last four 
months received abundant proof of the detestation in 
which such futile deeds are held. 

I need hardly say that I share to the full your 
feelings in regard to revolutionary crime and anarchy, 
and I value greatly your uncompromising determination 
that Muslims shall dissociate themselves from all such 
activities. Those Avho encourage and inspire, and those 
who carry out, a policy of violence are taking upon them- 
selves a responsibility far graver than they know, and 
are following a creed which can lead in but one direction 
and which, if it ever could achieve its end, must bring 
distress to millions of your fellow countrymen. The 
assurance, therefore, w^hieh you have given me that the 
Muslims of Delhi will support Government in any 
measures they may consider necessary to deal with any 
such activities, is a timely and valuable reminder of the 
assistance which Government has in the past received, 
and still counts upon receiving, from your great 
community. 

I am not unaware of the disappointment felt by the 
Muslims of Delhi in the matter of representation in the 
Central Legislature, and I realise that in the existing 
communal conditions you have grounds for your appre- 
hension that a Mimlim is not likely to be returned to 
represent your constituency. I also recognise that, although 
Delhi Province has a larger representation in the L^isla- 
tive Assembly in relation to population than any other 
Province which returns elected Members, it has not the 
advantages of other Provinces in possessing a Provincial 
. Council, and to this extent it is less strongly represented 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


177 


Address from the Muslims of Delhi, 

Ib the eouncils of the country- than any other Province. 
I believe moreover that, judged by the test of iiterae3% 
the represent'ation of Delhi is Mow the standard w’hieh 
prevails elsewhere. The importance of your city on the 
other hand, both socially and politically, has, as ail know, 
grown considerably in recent years. The 'whole question 
however of increased representation for Delhi has been 
laid in some detail before the Statutory Commission, and, 
though I can assure you that the matter is not likely to 
escape our close attention, it woixld not be proper at this 
stage for me to express my opinion on a matter which 
is still within the purview of Sir John Simon and his 
colleagues. 

Yoxi have spoken too of the possible enlargement of 
the Province of Delhi, but, though I appreciate the 
strength of your feeling in this matter, it would not be 
right for me to hold out anticipations that your wishes 
can be met. I am afraid that very strong arguments 
w^oiild be necessary to convince the Government of India 
that any administrative advantage would be gained by 
such rexusion of Provincial boundaries as you suggest, 
which must always in itself cause considerable dislocation 
for some years. But importance is not to be judged^ by 
size alone, and you may rest assured that the interests 
of Delhi Province will not suffer in the eyes of the 
Government of India simply because its stature is less 
than that of the other Provinces of India. 

The claim of the Muslim community for an adequate 
share in the public services is one in which I have always 
taken a deep interest and one which I have constantly 
done my best to advance. As you know, the policy of 
the Government of India on this subject has been made 
clear on more than one occasion. Their general principle 
is to correct any unreasonable preponderance of particular 
communities in the public services by devising special 
MPSV 



178 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address from the. Muslims of Delhi. 
means to admit qualified members of other communities 
to the public service. As regards your own Province of 
Delhi, I have been at pains to ascertain how the position 
stands, and I believe it is true that, so far as the principal 
appointments are concer^ied, Muslims have a share fully 
proportionate to the numbers of their population. I 
earnestly trust that the Muslim community, which, as 
you say, has lee-way to make up in respect of employment 
generally, will so profit by the opportunities of education 
presented to them as to be able to lay fair claim, on the 
grounds of merit alone, to an adequate share of service 
both in Government offices and in other spheres of public 
life. 

With regard to the difficulties you experience through 
the absence of a High Court in your Province, you are 
aware no doubt that the proposal for a Circuit Bench of 
the High Court in Delhi was, after careful consideration, 
refused a few years ago by the Government of India. 
I understand that the local administration has again been 
in correspondence with the High Court of Lahore on this 
subject, and that these consultations may result in fresh 
proposals being submitted. Should they come before me, 
they will I can assure you receive the sympathetic con- 
sideration of my Government. 

I will note carefully what you say regarding the 
representation of Delhi at the Conference which is shortly 
to take place in London on the subject of constitutional 
reforms. The personnel of the British Indian delegation 
to the Conference has not yet been decided, and I fear 
I cannot at this juncture make any promise as to the 
representation of particular localities. But as you know 
it is the desire of His Majesty’s Government that the 
Conference should be fully and fairly representative, and 
I earnestly hope that, whatever may be the final decision 
as to its composition, it will be such as to give no respon- 
sible interest cause to feel that their point of view has 
gone unrepresented. 


Speecim hy Lord Irwin, 


179 


Address from a Deputation of the All-India Shiah Conference, 

I have touched, I think, on all the particular matters 
of interest to which you have referred in your address, 
and it remains only to thank you again for your welcome 
and for the sentiments of loyaltj’ and goodvdli to which 
you have given expression. I value these very highly — 
both from the personal and the public point of riew. 
Indeed all people and all things connected with Delhi 
have a special claim upon my interest, and the welfare 
of the ^Muslim community who fonn such an important 
part of its population is never far from my thoughts. 
For Delhi and its surroundings hold much that is 
immortal of Muslim history. There are few spots within 
a day’s march of this house, where a man could not stand 
and see before him some great memorial of famous Muslim 
Kings and rulers, or let his fancy rest on the Muslim 
theologians, historians, doctors and poets whose lives and 
works are among the memories of these places. I trust 
and believe that the future will be worthy of your great 
past, and that the Muslims of Delhi will continue 
throughout the years that lie before us to dischai^e with 
credit their just obligations to their community and their 
country. 


.ADDRESS PROM A DEPUTATION OP THE ALL-INBIA 
SHIAH COlOmBNCE. 

His Excellency the Viceroy received an Address from a 
deputation of the All-India Shiah Conference at ‘‘ The Yieeroy’s 
House ”, New Delhi, on the 1st of April, and made the following 
reply 

Genilemenf — I count it a great privilege to receive 
this deputation from an Association representing the 
Shiah community which forms such a large and important 
section of Muslim India. It is a cause for great r^ret 
that His Highness the Nawab of Rampur, who, I believe, 
was to have led your deputation, ^uld have been 


im 



180 


Speeches hy Lo7*d h^win. 


Address from a Deputation of the All-India Shiah Conference, 

prevented by ill-health from being here today. You will, 
I know, join whole-heartedly with me in wishing him a 
speedy and complete recovery. I thank you very w^armly 
too on my own behalf and on behalf of Lady Irwin for 
the terms in which you have referred to us, and to our 
providential protection from the attempt recently made 
upon our train. The almost universal chorus of 
condemnation which that act evoked in every quarter of 
this country was eloquent of the recognition by public 
opinion of the damage such deeds do to the cause of 
India. 

I deeply appreciate the spirit of loyalty which is 
manifest throughout your address. It is a source of great 
satisfaction to me that your community, which counts 
amongst its members so many distinguished men, accepts 
and appreciates the true value of the declaration which 
it was my duty to make last October on behalf of His 
Majesty’s Government. In that statement His Majesty’s 
Government made manifest their desire to mobilise and 
unite all the goodwill of Great Britain and India in a 
sincere effort to solve through frank and free discussion 
between representatives of this country and of Great 
Britain the large and difficult problems affecting the 
future constitution of this ancient land. I need no 
assurance from you that your community stands for the 
maintenance of those essential conditions of peace and 
order without which no progress is possible. In this field 
I am convinced that nothing is more needed at this 
moment than that the leaders of Indian opinion should 
apply their energy to the working out of a scheme of 
government which will at once command support among 
reasonable citizens and reconcile their natural and 
legitimate aspirations with the particular difficulties 
inherent in the Indian problem of which any solution 
must take account. And therefore it *must be with 
genuine disappointment and sorrow that sincere well- 
wishers of the country watch so much effort and ingenuity 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


181 


Addresa from a Deputation of the All-India i:)hiah Conference. 

deflected from practical examination of concrete con- 
stitutionaJ propo^alSj or from constructive '^vork by which 
the people's lot might really be made more happy, to be 
expended upon the barren task of devising means to 
break the laws. It is not short of tragedy that men 
should be constantly asked to believe that there must be 
a political typhoon uprooting, destroying many of the 
features of the countryside before the sun can shine, and 
that the country can reach its rightful destiny only 
through agony and convulsion. In the name of non- 
violence there is much violence of speech and thought, 
and angry passions are being invoked which it may be 
more easy to arouse than allay. I am glad to think, 
therefore, that your community with its deep sense of 
the eontinuit}" of institutions and appreciation of the 
blessings of tranquillity is not afraid to stand openly 
against such policies. 

1 am particularly pleased to hear the account which 
you have given of the establisliment of the Shiah Conference 
more than 20 years ago and of its rapid progress in 
securing the support of the influential members of your 
community. Its educational and charitable activities are 
surely worthy of recognition. T am glad too to learn of 
the good work being done by your orphanage at Lucknow 
'with its primary school and Quranic teaching, its 
industrial section and its adequate medical arrangements. 
It owes much to the generosity of private benefactors, 
though, as happens elsewhere, the problem of balancing 
the budget is not always free from difficulty. You have 
also been successful in collecting a large sum, including 
a grant of about 1| lakhs from the Government of the 
United Provinces, for the construction and maintenance 
of an intermediate college and of a college of higher 
status. I wish you all success in your endeavours to 
establish educational institutions on lines suited to the 
requirements of your community, and I trust that many 



182 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address from a Deputation of the All-India Shiah Conference, 

may be found to carry on the good work of your last 
President, that eminent educationalist, Mirza Wali 
Muhammad Sahib, Vice-Chancellor of the Bombay 
University, whose untimely death we all deplore. 

Turning now to the other points mentioned in your 
address, I have no doubt that the Statutory Commission, 
which had the benefit of close association with one of 
your Vice-Presidents, the Hon’ble Raja Nawab Ali Khan, 
will give careful consideration to the opinion expressed by 
your Conference on the vexed question of electorates, 
I recognise how keenly opinion runs on this matter, and, 
though I am naturally debarred from expressing an 
opinion on it until we have received the report of the 
Statutory Commission, I think I may assert a truth to 
which all experience will subscribe, that no constitutional 
arrangiements can be expected to work smoothly which do 
not command the general and willing acquiescence of the 
communities principally affected by them. 

As to the situation in Palestine to which you have 
referred, I would remind you of the assurances given by 
His Majesty’s Government, who have laid it down that, 
so far as it is in their power to do so, they are anxious 
to secure that the interests — ^religious and material — of 
each section of the population should be duly respected. 

Gentlemen, I thank you again for your address. I 
was very sorry that pressure of engagements prevented 
me from receiving an address from your Association while 
I was in Lucknow, which is the centre of your activities 
and has for long been so closely associated with Shiah 
life and thought. I am glad therefore that you have given 
me this opportunity of meeting so many leading men of 
your community and of assuring you of my constant 
^mapathy with its welfare and its beneficent activities. 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


183 


ADDRESS FROM THE NAWABS, KHANS AND RAISES 

OF THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE. 

Tile Nawabs, Khans and Raises of the North-West Frontier I4th Aiwil 

1930 

Province presented an Address to His Excellency the Viceroy 
at Peshawar on the 14tli April, to which His Excellency made 
the following reply : — 

It has been a great pleasure to me to hare been able 
to renew my acquaintance with the North-West Frontier 
Province and its people, and this pleasure has been 
greatly enhanced by the warmth of the welcome I have 
received on every side. Wherever I have gone I have 
been received with the true traditions of Pathan 
hospitality. I am very glad therefore that I should have 
had this opportunity today of meeting the leading 
residents of the Province, and of thanking you and, 
through you, the people wdiom you represent for the 
kindness they have shown to me throughout my visit. 

I must thank you too for the address which you have 
just presented to me, and I will make it my duty to 
convey to His Majesty the King-Emperor the expression 
of loyalty contained therein. 

Our meeting this morning has, I fear, been arranged 
on the spur of the moment, and my programme was 
already so fuU that it was necessary to invite you here 
at 8 time which I fear may have been inconvenient to 
some of you. You have, however, been good enough to 
save what time was possible by presenting me with a 
written instead of a spoken address and by supplying me 
with an advance copy of what you desired to say this 
morning. I cordially acknowledge the sentiments of 
loyalty and good-will which you have expressed therein 
and I will now endeavour to deal, as briefly as possible, 
with some of the matters to which you have referred. 

My Government arc fully aware of the danger of 
the revolutionary activities which you have condemned, 
and in fulfilment of their duty to preserve law and order 




184 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


Address from the Nawabs^ Khans and Baises of the North-West 
Frontier Province, 

they will continue to rely on the assistance of leading 
gentlemen such as I have the pleasure of addressing this 
morning. 

I have heard with great gratification that the Shia- 
Sunni question has, through the good offices of the Chief 
Commissioner, now been settled, and that tribal 
guarantees have been given. I earnestly hope that this 
friendly settlement may long endure and that peace may 
reign on both sides of the border. 

I join with you in rejoicing that peace has been 
established in the Kingdom of Afghanistan, and that the 
direction of affairs in that country has passed . into the 
hands of so experienced a statesman. You are aware 
that His Majesty the Eling-Emperor has recognised His 
Majesty King Nadir Shah and it is the King-Emperor’s 
most cordial desire not only that the bonds of friendship 
between the two Governments should constantly endure, 
but also that the ties of neighbourly intercourse should 
grow steadily more secure. 

I have listened with much pleasure to the warm 
appreciation you have expressed of the services of Sir 
Norman Bolton to this Province, and I am glad to have 
this opportunity of acknowledging the great debt which 
my Government owes him for his wise administration of 
his charge during the last seven years. By his personal 
qualities he has won the sure trust of the people both 
of the settled districts and tribal territory. I myself 
have always known that in your Chief Commissioner I 
had a colleague on whose counsel I could confidently rely, 
and whose thoughts were continually directed to the 
welfare of the North-West Frontier Province and its 
people. I fully appreciate and, I assure you, will bear 
in mind the necessity which you have emphasised of 
having as Chief Commissioner one who has as thorough 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


185 


Address from the Nawabs, Khans and Raises of the SorthAVest 
Frontier Province, 

a knowledge of the country and its residents as Sir 
Norman Bolton possesses in so conspicuous a degree. 

I will remember, as I know will your Chief Com- 
missioner, the various other desires you have expressed. 
I am in agreement with you that the leading families of 
this Province should take their full share in its adminis- 
tration, for it is clear that character and family tradition 
are no less essential qualifications than a literary educa- 
tion for success in the Public Services. It is not possible 
for me on the eve of the publication of Sir John Simon’s 
report to make any forecast of the constitutional changes 
which must be anticipated in this as in other parts of 
India. But whatever form of administration for this 
Province may finally be decided upon I trust tbat the 
capacity for leadership which has been characteristic of 
Path an aristocracy in the past may find ample scope. 
Sir Norman Bolton, as you know, has long been in 
s^unpathy with the introduction of a Panchayat System 
and Honorary Magistracies, and any considered proposals 
for giving effect to such a scheme will receive his and my 
earnest attention. 

No decision has yet been arrived at as to the method 
of selection of the personnel for the Conference which is 
to be held in London in connection with the constitutional 
reforms, and it is therefore impossible for me at this 
stage to say anything definite with regard to your request 
in this connection. It is, however, the desire of His 
Majesty’s Government that the Conference should be 
fully and fairly representative of all interests entitled to 
speak on behalf of India. 

Well, gentlemen, I have to start in a few minutes 
for the Malakand and for a keenly anticipated visit to 
the territories of the Wali of Swat and the Nawab of 
Dir. I have been able during the last few days, thanks 



186 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


6th May 
1930* 


Address from the Nawabs^ Khans and Raises of the North-West 
Frontier Province. 

to the wonderful efficiency of the Royal Air Force, to 
see more of the outlying parts of the Frontier than would 
have seemed conceivable a few years ago. I have visited 
the Kurram Valley, Razmak and Miranshah, and Wana 
within five days, and have noted with the greatest 
satisfaction the atmosphere of peace and of good-will to 
Government which prevails. Long may it continue. It 
is a sad thought that, so far as I can foresee, this will 
be my last visit to the North-West Frontier of India, 
and that this must be my farewell to you and to your 
fascinating country. During the remainder of my time 
in India, and when I return to England, I shall follow 
wdth constant interest and sympathy the fortunes of the 
North-West Frontier Province, and shall always wish its 
warm-hearted people all good fortune and prosperity. 

OPIUM CONFERENCE IN SIMLA. 

His Excellency the Viceroy opened the Black Spots 
Opium Cohference held at Simla on the 5th May with the 
following address : — 

Gentlemen ^ — It is a great pleasure to me to welcome 
here today representatives of all the Local Governments 
and of the principal Administrations, whom I take this 
opportunity of thanking, through you, for placing your 
services at the disposal of this Conference. Many of 
you have travelled long distances, at a season and under 
conditions that I fear can hardly have been conducive 
to comfort. 

I am aware that the Governments of some Provinces 
were not convinced that anything of special use or 
interest to themselves would be elicited at these discussions. 
We arte the more grateful to them for placing at the 
disposal of this Conference the experience and the advice 
of their officers, all of whom, I feel no doubt, will be able 
to contribute something of value. 



Speeches by Lord Irmn. 


187 


Opium Conference in Simla. 

This Conference, as you know, is primarily an inter- 
Provincial one. Opium is a Provincial transferred subject 
and the details of internal policy are therefore the direct 
concern of Local Governments. But, as has been pointed 
out more than once, our internal policy is no matter of 
mere domestic importance. It is jealously watched and 
criticised by observers in every continent. It has also 
to conform, and steps have been taken to ensure that it 
(Should conform in every respect, to our international 
undertakings. 

Prom this point of view the Government of India 
are deeply interested in the removal of every possible 
occasion for unfavourable comment by honest critics here 
or abroad. It is not possible, nor would it be right, for 
the Government of India, when attention is called to any 
apparent abuse, to any defect in our arrangements, or 
to any failure to check the one or to repair the other, to 
take shelter behind the constitutional responsibility of 
Local Governments. Nor, as a matter of fact, would 
such a plea be found convincing by those to whom it 
was addressed. I can assure you therefore that my 
Government will w’atch the proceedings of this Conference 
with the keenest interest, and that those officers of the 
Central Government who will be present during your 
deliberations will spare no effort to assist you by any 
means in their power. 

The Government of India, Provincial Governments, 
and the people of India themselves, may fairly claim 
that in recent years, and notably since 1924, much has 
been done to render our policy and our practice, internal 
and external, in regard to opium immime to reasonable 
criticism. The efforts of the Local Governments and 
Administrations, combined with the spread of education 
and enlightenment, have reduced the total consumption 
of the drug in British India, in the ten years preceding 



188 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Opium Conference in Simla. 

the year 1928-29, from 459,177 seers to 277,053 seers, and 
the average consumption per 10,000 of the population 
from 18.83 to 11.20 seers per annum. Early in 1926 the 
Governnuent of India announced their intention to 
extinguish entirely, within ten years, by equal progressive 
annual stages, their exports to the Par East, from which 
they derived a revenue of some four crores of rupees. 
The last exports will take place in 1935, and the coping 
stone will thus be placed on the structure of which the 
foundation was laid by the discontinuance of exports to 
China in the year 1914. 

The combined result of these measures, internal and 
external, and of the popular tendencies that I have 
mentioned, has been to reduce the area under poppy 
cultivation in British India during the same period from 
207 to 48 thousand acres. Of the peculiar and difficult 
problem presented by the cultivation of the poppy, and 
the accumidated stocks of old opium, in the Malwa States, 
we are actively endeavouring to find a satisfactory 
solution, with the co-operation of the Durbars concerned. 

These are all matters in regard to which the action 
that we have taken has been dictated by a consideration 
of our international obligations as well as by our anxiety 
to pursue our own policy on progr«essive lines. Another 
such subject is that of opium-smoking. This is a live 
problem only in a few Provinces, and there effective 
measures, legislative and administrative, have been taken 
to prevent the spread of the habit among those not 
already addicted to it, and to ensure its ultimate 
eradication. 

In British India as a whole the average consumption 
of opium cannot be said to be high. It is higher, it is 
true, than what is known as the League of Nations 
Standard, of six seers per 10,000 of the population, but 
this standard is one that has been fixed for the needs of 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


189 


Opium Conference m Simla. 

countries where the use ot* opium is confined to medical 
and scientific uses, and is therefore, strictly speaking, of 
little relevance to the conditions of this country. 
Nevertheless, the consumption in this country as a whole 
has now been reduced to less than twice this scale, and, 
if certain areas wdiere the consumption is abnormally 
high — ^the “ Black spots ’’ as they have come to be 
called — were eliminated, there w'oukl be little cause for 
anxiety about the rest of the country. This is recognised 
by the writer of some pamphlets on the subject — ^the 
Rev. W. Paton, who can eertainij" not be accused of 
excessive sympathy wfith the opium habit. For the 
larger part of the counl’ry’^, he wrote in 1926, the 
opium evil does not exist.” 

During the years 1924, 1925 and 1926 a certain 
amount of pressure was brought to bear on the Govern- 
ment of India in various ways by persons who thought 
that the time had come for a fresh comprehensive enquiry 
into the opium question throughout British India. After 
a very careful study of the subject the Government of 
India came to the conclusion that no ground has been 
shown for such an enquiry, which if it were to be directed 
to the question of revising the conclusions of the impartial 
and authoritative Royal Commission of 1893, which had 
made a most exhaustive investigation and embodied the 
results in a masterly Report, could be adequately conducted 
only by a fresh Royal Commission. It appeared to the 
Government that no new facts had been brought to light 
that invalidated, or made it necessary or desirable to re- 
examine, the main conclusions of the Royal Commission. 
The Secretary of State for India, while accepting the 
conclusion of the Government of India that a fresh 
comprehensive enquiry was unnecessary, su^ested the 
desirability of inviting Local Governments to set up local 
Committees for the purpose of investigating the causes of 
the relatively high consumption in certain areas, and 




190 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opium Conference in Simla, 

suggesting means of reducing it to a more normal level 
The results of those enquiries you are now met to discuss, 
to digest, and to collate, and it may be hoped that from 
these materials you will be able, by your united delibera- 
tions, to deduce general conclusions, on the basis of which 
action may be taken (varying no doubt with local con- 
ditions and needs) that will lead to a material improve- 
ment of the conditions in these areas of high consumption. 

A word is perhaps not out of place here in regard 
to one misunderstanding that has arisen, though it is 
perhaps not likely that any of those here labour under 
it. In saggesting the selection of certain areas for 
investigation, the Secretary of State mentioned those in 
which the average consumption per 10,000 of the 
population was more than five times the League of Nations 
standard to which I have already referred. Consequently 
in some quarters 30 seers per 10,000 has come to be 
regarded and referred to as the Secretary of State's 
standard " of legitimate consumption, and he has been 
criticised for having (as was wrongly supposed) treated 
as legitimate in this country an average consumption five 
times as great as that considered reasonable elsewhere by 
the League of Nations. Of course, as has been pointed 
out before, the Secretary of State did not intend to lay 
down any such proposition, or to suggest that any standard 
largely in excess of the League's standard could be 
regarded with equanimity, still less with satisfaction, in 
British India. His object was merely to secure an 
intensive study of the phenomenon of high consumption 
in selected areas w'here it was manifested in a somewhat 
exaggerated degree and where it might therefore be 
easier to detect the causes underlying it, and so arrive 
at that diagnosis which is essential before an effective 
remedy can be prescribed. 

I hazard the opinion that in some areas of apparent 
in^ c<msumption at aU events the real significance of 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


191 


opium Conference in Simla. 

the statistics is to be found in some form of illicit traffic. 
Ho\vever that may be, I know that the illicit traffic not 
only in opinm but in more pernicious drugs, such as 
cocaine, and in charas and other hemp drugs, is a cause 
of considerable anxiety and embarrassment to some, if 
not to all, Provincial Governments and Administrations. 
The Inter-Provincial Conference of Excise Ministers 
held at Simla in September 1926 was practically unanimous 
in considering that some sort of central organisation 
should be set up to collate information relating to the 
illicit traffic throughout India, and to co-ordinate 
measures for its suppression, though there was some 
diiference of opinion as to the precise nature and scope 
of the machinery required. This question has been the 
subject of prolonged consideration, and for some time a 
Police officer with special knowledge has been on duty 
under the Central Board of Revenue for the purpose 
of studying the facts in all parts of India, with the 
assistance of the local police and Excise authorities. 
You are now invited to consider the subject again in the 
light of the full information that has been collected, and 
to assist the Government of India with your advice in 
regard to it. It may be hoped that in the near future 
it will be possible to translate the conclusions reached into 
actmn. The Government of India are anxious to do all 
that lies in their power to create effective machinery for 
dealing with this nefarious traffic. It concerns us, as 
it concerns the.Loeal Governments, if somewhat differently, 
and it is a matter in regard to which they and we can, 
and should, co-operate to render mutual assistance. 

Another subject finds a place on your agenda that is 
of great interest, and by no means unconnected with your 
main concern — ^the “ Black spots That is the desir- 
ability of supplying excise opium iu the form of wrapped 
and sealed tables of uniform weight approximating to a 




192 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Opium Conference in Simla. 

reasonable average daily '' dose ’’ for a moderate con- 
sumer. This was suggested by the Taxation Enquiry 
Committee, who considered that it would not only ensure 
that the consumer got pure stuff and full measure, hui 
also that it would afford a valuable check on illicit 
practices. After prolonged and careful investigations 
and trial in England and at Ghazipur, where experimental 
catting and wrapping machinery has been installed, it 
has been established that it is possible to make up opium 
in this form. Great credit is due to the late Opium 
Agent, Mr. Gaskell, for the pains that he has devoted 
to this subject. The technical difficulties to be overcome 
were formidable, and without enthusiasm and concentrated 
study they could not have been surmounted. 

The opinion of Local Governments however is by no 
means unanimously favourable to this make-up for 
excise opium. Some Local Governments are definitely 
opposed to it and fear that its adoption would be attended 
by serious disadvantages, and might even tend to encourage 
an increase in consumption. If this apprehension is well- 
founded, it is fatal to the scheme. On the other hand, one 
Local Government, at least, is disappointed that owing to 
this difference of opinion the installation of the somewhat 
elaborate and costly plant of various kinds that a large 
output of the tablets would require has been postponed. 
It is obvious however that the Government of India could 
not incur the very considerable expenditure that an 
installation of this kind would involve before they were 
assured of a demand for the product. If the result of 
your deliberations should be to dispel the apprehensions 
that I have mentioned, and if the supply of opium in 
tablet form should be accepted, * I am inclined to think 
that to the extent to which it renders illicit practices 
easier* 4f detection it will help materially to clean up the 
Black Spots. 



Speeches hj Lord Irwin, 


im 


Depuiation of the MtisJm Zemindars of the Punjab at Simla, 
I have made a sufficient demand on your time^ 
gentlemen. I must not longer detain you from the 
business that has brought you here. Should you be able 
to excogitate practical measures that will substantially 
reduce consumption in the areas with which you are 
specially concerned (and no doubt the same principles 
will be applicable in other areas where consumption 
though not so high is still excessive), a result will have 
been attained, the beneficial effects of which will be 
evident not only in these areas themselves, nor even in 
India alone, but far beyond her borders. For it must 
be clear that on the successful solution of the problem 
which you are met here to discuss will depend in no 
small measure the i)hysieal and moral welfare of many of 
our fellow human-beings in this and in other countries. It 
is a solemn duty incumbent upon all civilised Govern- 
ments to protect from one of the most insidious dangers 
that can attack manldnd those who through weakness of 
mind or body have given themselves over to the misuse 
of drugs. I would urge you earnestly therefore to 
grapple with this problem, difficult and elusive as it is, 
lit the determination that through your efforts a lasting 
benefit shall in due course have been conferred upon the 
human race, and that the good name of India shall shine 
undiminished before the world. 


HIR EXCELLENCY THE YICEEOY’S EEPLY 
TO AN ADDEESS PRESENTED BY A DEPUTA- 
TION OF MUSLIM ZEMINDARS OF THE 
PUNJAB, AT SIMLA, ON 4th JUNE 1930. 

His Exeelleney the Viceroy received an Address from a 
Deputation of the Muslim Zemindars of the Punjab at Simla 
on the 4th June and made the f<ffiowing reply : — 

GEKTtiEMBN. — 

I am very glad to have the opportunity of meeting so 
many of the leading Muslim Zemindars of the Punjab, 
L6PSV 


4th Jniie 

im. 



194 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


deputation of the Muslim Zemindars of the Punjab at Simla. 

and I can assure you that I consider it a pleasure, and in 
no way an addition to the labours of what, as you say, is 
a busy time for us all, to welcome your deputation here 
this afternoon and to be put in possession of your views on 
matters of such great moment. I only wish that in your 
journey to Simla you had not been forced to travel 
through a Punjab June, which I fear must have caused 
many of you an uncomfortable journey. 

The condemnation you have pronounced on the efforts 
which have recently been made to disturb the peace of 
India echoes what is being generally expressed by 
Muslims, both individually and through meetings and asso- 
ciations, in many different parts of the country. It is a 
great satisfaction to have the clear assurance of a body such 
as yours, which has, I know, a wide influence on public 
opinion both within and outside the Punjab, that you are 
determined to support Government in their task of up- 
holding the authority of the law and to pursue the course 
of wise men towards the development of the country on 
peaceful and constitutional lines. I desire, on behalf of 
my Government, to acknowledge with the most cordial 
feelings the expression of continued loyalty which you 
have been good enough to make this afternoon. 

You have asked in your address that I should urge upon 
His Majesty’s Government the necessity of securing to 
Provinces a large degree of autonomy, and to India 
equality with the Dominions, in the constitution about 
to be framed for India. At the moment my lips are 
sealed upon such constitutional problems, which will no 
doubt be fully dealt with in the report which Sir John 
Simon is on the point of submitting. They will also, I doubt 
not, be one of the main topics of discussion at the Con- 
ference to be held in London, at which I shall certainly hope 
— ^in accordance with your desire — ^to see the interests for 
which you speak adequately ’ represented. ’ I often look 


Speeches by Lord Irmn. 


195 


Deputation of the Muslim Zemindars of the Punjab at Simla, 

back to the occasion at* which most of yon, I think, were 
present, when I was privileged to hold a Durbar — my first 
in India — in Lahore, and to add my meed of homage to 
the sacrifices which the Punjab made on behalf of the 
British Empire in the stern days of the Great War. 
Those sacrifices are not likely to be forgotten, and so long 
as they are remembered I cannot believe that the Muslims 
of the Punjab need fear that their just claims will pass 
unrecognised, I repeat what I said not long ago in a 
statement which some of you may have read that no 
settlement of the problem which confronts us can be 
considered satisfactory that does not carry the consent of, 
and give a sense of security to, the important minority 
communities who will have to live under the new constitu- 
tion. 

The claim which you have made this afternoon for 
adequate representation of the Muslim community in the 
public services is one with which I fully sympathise and 
which I have done, and will continue to do, my best to 
advance. As I have said on more than one occasion 
recently to Muslim deputations, the general policy of the 
Government of India is to adjust any unreasonable pre- 
ponderance of particular communities in the public 
services by taking special steps to admit duly qualified 
members of other communities. We do not propose 
to depart from that principle, and I may say that the 
Home Department are now engaged in examining the 
practical working of our present system to see whether it 
is yielding* fair results. This examination, as you will 
realise, involves a good deal of statistical research, but the 
Home Department are proceeding with it as quickly as 
they can at a time when they are necessarily burdened 
with other and grave responsibilities. As soon as this 
material is available, repr^ntativ^ of Government 
would be very glad to discuss the situation with any 
representative body of Muslim opinion. 




196 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Deputation of the Muslim Zemindars of the Punjab at Simla, 

The particular question of the appointment of Muslims 
to the High Court of Lahore is also, as I appreciate, one 
of the greatest concern to you. The fixing of any 
definite proportion of Muslim Jutlges would, I fear, be 
a departure from accepted principles, but you may be 
sure that I recognise the force of the representation 
made in your memorial, and that, in recommending 
names for permanent appointments and in filling appoint- 
ments of additional Judges, the considerations you have 
advanced will not be overlooked. 

I have spoken earlier this afternoon of the great 
traditions of service to Government for which the 
Punjab Muslims are famous, and you may therefore feel 
assured that the question of the admission of Muslims to 
King^s Commissions in the Army, to which you have 
referred, is one which will always have my sympathetic 
interest. I find on reference to the current Army List 
that out of 99 Tndifin King’s Commissioned officers in the 
Indian Army 40 are nov/ Muslims, and I trust that there 
is no reason to fear that the Muslim community will 
fail to maintain at least the same percentage of successes 
in future entrance examinations as it has in the past. 
I understand that there has been a high proportion of 
Muslims in the recent batches of Indian cadets entering 
Sandhurst, and I trust that their careers will be a credit 
to the virile races from which they have sprung. 

To turn to the other matters mentioned in your 
address, 1 have watched the course of recent events in 
Palestine with particular solicitude, for I am well aware 
that developments in that country are a subject of the 
closest concern to the Muslims of India. I have not 
failed at each stage to keep His Majesty’s Government 
apprised of the sentiments of Indian Muslims regarding 
affairs in Palestine, and I shall be careful to communi- 
cate to them the views bn the subject to which you have 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


197 


Deputation of the Muslim Zemindatb of the Punjab at Simla» 

given expression today. As I have said on another 
occasion, the declared policy of Ilis Majesty’s Goverii- 
ineiit is to secure to every section of the population in 
Palestine the due protection of their rights and interests 
— both religious and secular. That is, I think, as fair and 
explicit a declaration as it is possible to make, and I 
think you may have confidence that in Palestine, as 
elsewhere, llis Majesty’s Government will pursue their 
declared policy’, whatever the difficulties which may 
appear to beset their course. As you have probably seen 
from recent Press reports, His Majesty’s Government 
have called for a further detailed examination of the 
vitally important questions affecting land tenures and 
immigration. 

I entirely share the feelings of regret expressed by 
you with regard to recent unfortunate events in the 
North-West Frontier Province, and I trust that the 
tranquillity of the Province and confidence in Govern- 
ment will speedily be restored. Two High Court Judges 
are now conducting an enquii*y into the disturbances of 
the 23rd of xYpril at Peshawar and the measures 
taken to deal with them. Pending the results of that 
enquir 3 " I would enter a word of caution against the 
acceptance in any quarter of unverified reports as to 
what actually took place, which may turn out to be 
untrue, and the expression of opinions which appear to 
prejudge the facts. With regard to the antecedent 
causes of those disturbances I can assure you that these 
are engaging active attention, and, if they are not included 
in the terms of reference to the enquiry Committee, it 
is only because it is considered that other methods of 
arriving at an appreciation of those caus^ are more 
appropriate. You may also be assured that no time will 
be lost, as soon as the facts are known, in taking steps 
to redress any administrative grievance of the people 




198 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Deputation of the Muslim Zemindars of the Punjab at Simla. 

of the North-West? Frontier Province which may be 
disclosed. 

You express the view that one of the main causes 
underlying unrest in the North-West Frontier Pro>vinee 
is the sense of disappointment felt by the people that 
their legitimate political aspirations have not been satis- 
fied, and you believe that their satisfaction will prove 
to be the foundation of stable and peaceful administra- 
tion. I am fully convinced of the importance which the 
people of the Province attach to constitutional advance, 
and realise the desire of your community in general 
that a Province which is predominantly Muslim should 
not be denied the means of political self-expression. 

You may be interested to know that on my return 
from my recent visit to the Province, and before these 
unfortunate disturbances had arisen, I requested Mian 
Sir Fazl-i-Husain to examine this question in order that 
no time might be lost by the Government of India after 
receiving the Keport of the Statutory Commission in 
reaching their own conclusions. I am glad to be able 
to inform you that he is now presiding oyer a committee 
which is actively engaged in re-examining the problem 
in all its bearings. You will of course understand that 
it is not possible to anticipate the solution which may 
ultimately be approved by Parliament. But I can assure 
you that so far as I and my Government are concerned, 
when making recommendations on this subject to His 
Majesty ^s Government, the natural claims of the Province 
in the constitutional field will be viewed with sympathy, 
and I am taking steps to see that the people of the 
Province may have an opportunity of making direct 
represenMion of their views at the forthcoming Confer- 
ence in London. 

I have, I think, touched on all the points which you 
hav^. .J^eeur good enough to bring to my notice, and it 


Bpetches hy Lorri Irvnn, 199 

Deputation of the Mudim Zemindara of the Punjab at Simla* 

onl}" remains for me to thank you again for coming here 
today and for your reassurance, which I most highly 
value, that the loyalty of the great community for w*hich 
you speak remains unshaken. We are passing through 
anxious times, and have seen the damage wrought to 
India by a policy which is the negation of all progress 
and construction. It has been a source of deep gratifica- 
tion to me and to my Government to know that the 
Muslim community, with few exceptions, have been wise 
and statesmanlike enough to appreciate the dangers of 
such activities and by keeping sternly aloof from them 
they have acted in the true interests of their own com- 
munity and of India. 

I have seen it suggested that in the face of the 
present troubles the Government have allowed their 
desire to find means of meeting Indian aspirations to be 
buried under a ruthless determination to secure victory 
over those who are responsible for the present Civil 
Disobedience movement. Nothing could be further from 
the truth, for it remains my fixed resolve to do all that 
is in my power to give effect to the words which I used 
on November 1st last year. 

But constitutional advance, in the true sense of a 
change which will be beneficial to India, depends at this 
stage upon two conditions : first, on co-operation based 
upon mutual trust between the Indian and the British 
peoples ; and secondly, the maintenance of the authority 
of constituted Government. It is because the present 
Civil Disobedience movement represents a negation of 
both these conditions that it must be the imperative duty 
of my Government to oppose it. 

But while recognising this necessity it remains my 
earnest desire to promote generous constitutional advance, 
and, if those Indians, who, like yourselves, are prepared 
to join with my Government in this endeavour, can also 




300 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin, 


20th June 
1930. 


Opening of the Y, M, C. A, building in Simla, 

find means of persuading your countrymen of whatever 
creed to join you in this co-operation, then your efforts 
will he of true service to your country. 

I am not without hope that it may be possible to 
settle the future constitution of India, as I and my 
Government, and His Majesty’s Government, have always 
hoped that it would be settled, by agreement between 
the various parties and interests in India on the one 
hand, and His Majesty’s Government on the other. But, 
if these hopes are to be realised, it will be necessary that 
those who have embarked on the Civil Disobedience 
movement should discard the ideas of force and coercion 
vvhich underlie it and be prepared once again to adopt 
the methods of argument and reason. In such happier 
circumstances it would be possible for all those who wish 
India well to collaborate in finding a solution of her 
problems by which all communities might securely and 
freely give of their best in India’s service. 


OPENING OF THE Y. M. C. A. BUILDING IN SIMLA. 

In opening the Y. M. C, A. building in Simla on the 20th 
June His Excellency the Viceroy said : — 

Ladies md Gentlemeny — I have had the pleasure, during 
my time in India, of being associated with the opening 
or the foundation of many buildings in different parts 
of the country, but this is the first time that I have been 
invited to attend an occasion of this kind in Simla. 
The reason, one might have supposed, was that Simla 
had every kind of building that heart could desire. But 
B'd)Qdy, who is here today and sees the fine building 
■which I have been asked formally to open, can doubt 
Is a very real and very valuable addition to the 
al 8i«da. 



Bpeeches iy Lord Irwin. 


201 


Opening of the Y. M. < 7 . A, building in Simla. 

Your President has just given us a most interesting 
aceount of the development of the Young Men’s 
Christian Association in Simla, of the work it is doing, 
and of the enthusiasm and generosity which have 
cembined to raise it to its present position. I heartily 
associate myself with all that he has said in appreciation 
of Mr. deNoronha’s princely gift which made possible 
the completion of this Hall. I hope that others, inspired 
by his example, will not be slow to offer the further 
requirements which Sir George Rainy has mentioned ; 
these are matters which — unlilce many burning questions 
of the day — need not be shelved pending the publication 
of the Simon Report. I know that you will also echo 
all that your President has said in recognition of 
Mr. Webb Johnson’s work in collecting funds for the 
As^sociation. It is due to him, perhaps more than to 
any other single person, that we are able to meet together 
for this ceremony today. Mr. Webb Johnson from his 
legal knowledge has of course the advantage of knowing 
the depth to which the law will allow him to put his 
hand into other people’s pockets, and you will agree wdth 
me that he is in more senses than one the perfect solicitor, 
a word whose lay definition you will find in Webster’s 
Dictionary as one who asks with earnestness I 
would like to take this opportunity of associating myself 
with the gratitude felt by the Young Men’s Christian 
Association in Simla to their Secretary, Mi% Fraser 
Sutherland, for all that he does for the Association. 

It is left to me tJo say a word as to Sir George 
Rainy’s own contribution to the life of the Association. 
Those who have woijked with him, both here and in 
Delhi, know well the debt which the Young Men’s 
Christian Association owes to his unfailing energy and 
encouragement. He has made it quite clear to hs this 
afternoon that until now the Simla Association lacked 
quarters worthy of its great ani it mmi give 



202 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Annual General Meeting of the St. John Ambulance Association 
and the Indian Bed Cross Society at Simla, 

the truest pleasure to those interested in its work to see 
the fine building which has now been provided. It is 
gratifying to know that the names of three persons^ 
Sir Charles Monroe, Sir William Birdwood and Sir 
Alexander Muddiman than whom I am sure the Young 
Men’s Christian Association in India has never had 
better friends, will here secure permanent commemoration. 

I noticed a day or two ago, in reading one of your 
reports, that the Young Men’s Christian Association’s 
address for telegrams is the word ^'Manhood”. It is, 
01 course, not given to us all to live up to our telegraphic 
addresses. But I take it that no one here has any doubt 
that the Young Men’s Christian Association goes the 
proper way about making men — ^in the best sense — of 
those who are fortunate to come wdthin its influence. 

I have had the opportunity of seeing a good deal 
of your Association’s work in India, and am privileged 
to know many of those engaged in it, to admire the ideals 
they set before themselves, and the faith and singleness 
of purpose with which they strive to achieve them. I 
am confident that those high principles will inspire all 
those who are destined to share in the life and work of 
this institution, and that i't will mean something very 
real in the lives of many of the younger generation in 
Simla. 


ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE St. JOHN 
AMBULANCE ASSOCIATION AND. THE INDIAN RED 
CROSS SOCIETY AT SIMLA. 

24ifeliJune His Excellency the Viceroy presided over the Combined 
Annual General Meeting of the St, John Ambulance Association 
and the Indian Red Gross Society held at Simla on the 24th 
of June and delivered the following Address : — 

: . ' LaMes and 'ffe?itZemen,—Four years ago today I had 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


203 


Annual General Meeting of the St. John Ambulance Association 
and the Indian Bed Cross Society at Simla. 

the pleasure of welcoming for the first time in their 
annual general meeting those responsible for the great 
work which the Eed Cross Society and the St. John 
Ambulance Association carry on in India. During the 
last year of a Viceroy’s office his approaching end is apt 
to be brought vividly to his mind at annual functions 
snch as this by the thought that he is attending them 
for the last time. And it is sad to reflect that in 
welcoming you all warmly here today — some of you from 
long distances — it must also in a way be the occasion of 
my taking my official farewell of you. 

Looking back over our last five general meetings, 
and glancing through the old annual reports, I am 
tempted to sum up briefly the progress which has been 
achieved in that period. The first of those reports 
opened by saying that* the preceding five years of the 
Society’s life had been spent in exploring and preparing 
the field for the peace-time activities of the Red Cross, 
and that the ground was ready for the seed which had 
been sown. Since then the crop has year by year 
increased, in a way which would be the envy of farmers 
in real life. Sir Henry Moncrieff-Smith has just told us that 
the Society’s membership has multiplied five-fold since that 
year, and I notice that, while the first report of w’hich 
I am speaking ran to only six pages, Sir Henry has 
found it impossible to condense the activities of 1929 
into a smaller compass than 15. His style, I think, is 
no less terse and business-like than that of hfe predecessor, 
and this enlargement of the report is in itself a measure 
of the growth in the work done. 

A five-fold increase is no mean achievement. But, 
if the crop has grown, there are among the tall poppias 
some which are still disappointingly small. Two years 
ago I mentioned the uneven progress which had up till 




204 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Amual General Meeting of the St, John Ambulance Association 
and the Indian Bed Cross Society at Simla, 

then been made, and I think the same criticism is still 
true. But, having said this, I should like to congratulate 
the Punjab and Burma warmly on the striking progress 
they have made and to echo what your Chairman has 
said of the fine work performed in the Punjab by Khan 
Bahadur Khurshid Ahmed and in Burma by 
Mr. deGlanville and Dr. Anklesaria and others. The 
increase in their numbers is proof that besides distribut- 
ing funds among their philanthropic Societies these 
Provinces have succeeded in making people interested in 
the peace-time objects of the Society and thus engendering 
the spirit of voluntary service for the benefit of others. 

In reading the Ked Cross report for this year one 
cannot but be struck by the widening of the Society's 
horizon. It is one of the 56 Societies which go to form 
the Red Cross league ; it has been recognised as an 
independent National Society by the International Red 
Cross ^ Committee of Geneva ; at the Empire Red Cross 
Conference held in May this year it was well represented, 
and His Royal Highness the Duke of York who presided 
paid a tribute to its work, especially in the field of child 
welfare. It is thus taking its place among, and co- 
operating with. Societies of other countries in the world- 
wide task of alleviating human suffering. I was greatly 
interested to notice that the international spirit has 
reached the Junior Branch of the Society, and that the 
Juniors of the Government High School in Amritsar 
exchange correspondence with a School in Holland. 

We have gained and, I am confident, shall continue 
to gain much by this international co-operation^^ and 
side by side with this it is fitting that we should endeavour 
to co-operate with other organisations in this country for 
the attainment of the objects of our charter. The 
Indian Rod Gross Society and the St. John Ambulance 
4iioe|atinn always worked tc^otker m close con- 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 




Annual General Meeting of the St John AmhuIaHce Assoemtion 
and the Indian Red Cross Society at Simla, 

noction in India, but there are other bodies with whom 
closer relationship would, I am sure, result in much 
mutual benefit. I am pleased therefore to learn that a 
scheme for closer co-operation among charitable organisa- 
tions and for the co-ordination of all child-welfare work 
has been elaborated, and I trust that it will be possible 
to bring it into operation before many months are passed. 
The new Headquarters in Delhi, for which we are 
indebted to the princely generosity of His Highness the 
Nawab of Junagadh, will be of material assistance in 
accomplishing this object. 

Sir Henry Moncrieff-Smith spoke of Red Cross relief 
wwk in times of disaster. The last twelve months have 
unfortunately given scope for work of this kind and I 
am glad to know that the Red Cross Society seized the 
opportunity to demonstrate its capacity to deal with 
such emergencies. ^Ye have all listened with pleasure 
to the tribute which Sir Henry has paid this afternoon 
to the part played by Malik Firoz Khan Nun in the 
Punjab flood disasters. I look forward to the time when 
in each Province there will be a relief organisation ready 
to lake the field at a mementos notice, and knowing that 
in time of need it can count on ready assistance from 
neighbouring Provinces. 

I will not attempt to comment on all the activities 
of the Society or to trace their development during the 
past five years, but I must express the satisfaction that 
we all feel at the large increase in that most important 
sphere of Red Cross work, child-welfare. The activities 
of Mrs, Cottle’s Committee in Bengal and the invaluable 
work done in the Central Provinces by Mrs. Tarr are 
proof of the results which the Red Cross can achieve in 
this field of their labours. Although Army child-welfare 
is not a branch of the Society, a grant has been made to 
it for the last three years from otir Headquarters funds, 



206 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Annual General Meeting of the St. John Ambulance Association 
and the Indian Bed Cross Society at Simla. 

and it is a great pleasure to be able to congratulate Lady 
Birdwood, to whose inspiration the work is largely dae, 
and the Army Commandei's’ wives on the .success that 
has been attained. 

His Etseellency the Commander-in-Chief was good 
enough to mention the honours recently bestowed on Lady 
Irwin and myself by the venerable Order of St. John, 
and there is no one from whom we would rather have 
received these kind congratulations. For Sir William 
Birdwood has for many years now been a guiding spirit 
in the counsels of the Order, and the St. John Ambulance 
Association is one of very many bodies in India lhat 
will deplore his loss when he lays down his present 
distinguished office. 

From the speech he has made today and from the 
annual report which is before you we have learnt with 
satisfaction that the activities of the Association are being 
well maintained. The interesting table on the first page 
of the report shows that, every year, a large number of 
people are being added to those who have undergone a 
valuable training in first-aid. At the same time it has 
been suggested to us that the organised application of 
all this training still leaves something to be desired. It 
is no doubt difficult for busy people, engrossed in work 
of their own, to bind themselves unreservedly to duties 
in which as a rule urgency is of the essence of the contract. 
But I feel sure that with the co-operation of organised 
bodies sueli as Railways — ^which have done great work 
in developing ambulance training among their employees 
— of the Police and prisons, of schools and colleges, of 
mines and factories, where classes are now being held, 
it ought to be possible to form many more ambulance 
brigades than now exist, and thus provide a means both 
for refreshing the knowledge and training acquired by 



Speeches hy Lard Irwin, 


207 


Annual General Meeting of the St, John Ambulance Association 
and the Indian Red Cross Society at Simla, 

their members and for dealing speedily and effectively 
with any emergency that may arise. 

Another feature of the Association's work in which 
both Lady Irwin and I take a particular interest is the 
development of home nursing classes. I had occasion 
when laying the foundation-stone of the Central Hospital 
in Delhi last January to draw attention to the lack of 
trained nurses in hospitals all over India, and the 
discomfort and anxiety which must frequently be caused 
to patients and their friends by the difficulty of getting 
private nurses to attend to serious cases of illness. I 
feel sure that the knowiedge gained at the home nursing 
classes organised by the Association will be invaluable 
in time of need. 

There is one further matter about which I wish 
to say something today. The fund for which, as you 
know, I appealed last year to commemorate His Majesty 
the King^s recovery from serious illness has now been 
closed and amounts to something over lakhs of rupees. 
I have received a large number of valuable suggestions 
as to the allocation of the fund, and some time ago I 
a.npointed a small Central Advisory Committee including 
among others the Hon’ble Member for Education, Health 
and Lands and the Director-General of the Indian Medical 
Service to advise me as to the merits of the various 
schemes submitted. After the fullest consideration, this 
Advisory Committee recommended that with the funds 
at our disposal an anti-tuberculosis scheme is one that 
is most likely to be of real service to the people of India. 
The best means of relieving suffering is by prevention 
of disease, and the best means of preventing disease is 
by education directed towards the causes of disease and 
the methods by which these causes may be removed. 
The scheme of which the Committee have drawn up an 
outline is therefore concentrated on the prevention of 




0 Qg Speeches bg Lord irwin. 


Ann»ei General Meeting of the St. John Amhvlance Assoeiiation 
and the Indian Bed Gross Society at Simla. 

tuberculosis, and, after consulting both official and non- 
ofiieial opinion in the different! Provinces, I have decided 
that a scheme of this character would meet with the most 
general approval throughout India. Some of you may 
remember that at our General Meeting last year I 
announced that Sir Bhupendra Nath Mitra had offered 
the assistance of the machinery of the Red Cross Society 
in administering the Thanksgiving Fund, and I have 
ascertained from those now in authority that the Society 
will be ready to administer the scheme we have now 
decided upon. The King has been graciously pleased to 
approve our proposal, and I think we may congratulate 
ourselves both on being able to provide the Red Cross 
Society with funds for a much-needed campaign and on 
tbe good fortune of having such an efficient organisation 
to administer the scheme. 

Before I close may I add once more my tribute to 
the inestimable public service performed by the two 
Societies represented here today, and as it may be my 
last opportunity of doing so I would also record — with, 
I know, your warm approval — ^the debt we owe to Sir 
Henry Moncriefif-Smith for the unfailing enthusiasm with 
which .he guides our policy, to Miss Hill for the zeal and 
energy which she infuses into all her work and — ^may I 
add — ^for the success with which she seems to have dis- 
anmed the male suspicions of our Assistant Secretary. 
Sm^ar Bahadur Balwant Singh Puri's services are far 
too vaiuable to tts to risk losing ! Official organisation 
can do much, and is doing more every year in India, in 
the way of preventive and medical policy, but the value 
of its -work will always be enhanced by voluntary and 
unofficial endeavour, whicU can serve, so to speak, as 
^ experimental and propaganda Section of the organisa- 
tion for puWic he4ltii and thus prepare the ground fot 
fte dcveioiment of Govetameirt schmnes for the relief 



Speeches hy Lord 2rwm. 


m 


Deputatim from the Sikh community of the Punjab, 

of suffering. It has been my privilege to be fonnall> 
assoeiated during my time in India with the Eed (h*oss 
Society and the St. John Ambulance Association. It will 
he my desire and hope, as years go on, to hear of their 
constantly extending growth and influence, for I shall 
know that the sick and suffering are receiving the ailevia- 
tioTi they crave, and that India is playing her part 
worthily in the unending w’arfare that mankind must 
wage against its most relentless enemy disease. 


DEPUTATION PROM THE SIKH COMMUNITY OP THE 
PUNJAB. 

In replying to the Address presented by a deputation of 
the Sikh Community of the Punjab at Simla on the 30th June, 
His Excellency the Viceroy said : — 

Gentkmenf — It is a great pleasure to me to receive 
your deputation this afternoon and to have the oppor- 
tunity of addressing the representatives of the great 
Sikh community of the Punjab. It is an added pleasure 
that you have chosen as your leader a Prince whose house 
holds such a distinguished position not only, as you have 
said, in your own community, but in the whole history 
of British relations with the Punjab, and whose own 
personal services to Government in peace and in war 
have earned gratitude and well-deserved recognition from 
Government. His association with your deputation today 
is a token of the close ties which exist between British 
India and the Ruling Chiefs and which I venture to 
think will prove of growing importance with the further 
development of the constitution of India. 

Ton have touched lightly on the services which y<mr 
community have rendered to Government in the 
No one looking back over the history of the Punjab since 
the be^nning of its relations with the Britidi Government 
is likely to underestimate the value of the aMstanee 
L6PSV 


June 

im 




210 


Speeches hj Lord Irwin. 


Deputation from, the Sikh community of the Punjab. 

rendered in times of stress by your community, whether 
he lets his thoughts rest upon the dark days of the 
.Mutiny, when the loyalty of the Sikhs and of their Chiefs 
was of such inestimable value to Government, 
or upon the battle-fields of Gallipoli, France or 
Mesopotamia, Avhere the fiower of Sikh chivalry made the 
supreme sacrifice in the cause of freedom and the Empire. 

You may feel very confident therefore that I most 
deeply appreciate your renewed assurances of loyalty to 
the Crown and of your determination to support the 
cause of law and order. These, I know, are no empty 
phrases, but represent the fiirm decision of a great people 
to play a part worthy of it in the constructive task of 
lajdng a new foundation for India’s future. 

Let me assure you that I fully realise the extent to 
which the feelings of the Sikh community were stirred 
by the news of the unfortunate occurrences at the Sisganj 
Gurdwara at Delhi on May the 6th. The depth and 
volume of those sentiments have been repeatedly brought 
to my notice by Hi's Highness the Maharaja of Patiala, 
whose solicitude for his community is well known, and 
by the Governor of the Punjab within whose jurisdiction 
the majority of the Sikh population is to be found. 
Believe me that it is a cause of deep sorrow and regret 
to me and my Government that such an incident should 
have occurred ; and we deplore the distress which it has 
inevitably caused to your community. 

Since the advent of British rule it has been a fixed 
tradition of the Government in India to recognise and 
reapei^ the sanctity of places of worship. This policy 
hm been faithfully and continuously pursued ; and I 
need scarcely dwell on the numerous acts of Government 
which testify to it ; for they are well known to you, 
SufSee it to say that the kind of acts I have in mind are 
the inclusion of spemal provision for their protection in 
the penal law, the eontinuanee under British rule, in 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


211 


Deputation from the Sikh community of the Punjab. 

favour of many shrines, of jagirs, grants and muafis 
originally granted rulers of the faith with which they 
are connected, and t*he elaborate arrangements which are 
made for the comfort and eonvenienee of pilgrims to the 
places they hold in veneration. 

This attitude has not been dictated by reason of 
self-interest, but springs from genuine conviction. It is 
a cardinal item of policy ; and the spirit "which underlies 
it is expressed in the proclamation of Queen Victoria 
relating to the freedom of religious beliefs, a passage from 
which I may quote to you — 

Firmly reljdng Ourselves on the truth of 
Christianity, and acknowledging with grati- 
tude the solace of Religion, We disclaim alike 
the Eight and the desire to impose Our 
Convictions on any of Our Subjects. We 
declare it to be Our Royal Will and Pleasure 
that none be in any wise favoured, none 
molested or disquieted by reason of their 
Religious Faith or Observances ; but that all 
shall alike enjoy thq equal and impartial 
protection of the Law : and We do strictly 
charge and enjoin all those who may be in 
authority under Us, that they abstain from 
all interference with the Religious Belief or 
Worship of any of Our Subjects, on pain 
of Our highest Displeasure.^* 

Let me assure you that I and my Government stand 
steadfast in those convictions. We regard as matters of 
first importance the protection of all communities in the 
free exercise of their religious beliefs and the preservation 
from disrespect of the sacred places which th^ hold in 
reverence. My Government will in future, m m the 
be scrupulous in condemning and preventing any action 
which may give genuine ofl^enee to rel%ious ^ntiments or 



212 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Deputation from the Sikh community of the Punjab. 

interfere with the use, for purposes of worship, of saered 
buildings, by whatever community they may be venerated. 

Nevertheless I must necessarily attach to this 
assurance a qualification which you yourselves recognise 
as just. Indeed it is the essence of the matter that a 
sacred building should be devoted and preserved for the 
purpose of worship. All men condemn as unseemly the 
misuse of a building set apart for the service of God for 
the purpose of giving provocation or committing excesses. 
While Government always desires to respect the sanctity 
of places of worship, it must be a point of principle that 
the public should not by any action detract from, or 
sally, their sacred character. It was the temporary 
abrogation of this principle at a time of popular excite- 
ment that was the occasion of the incident we all deplore. 
I recognise that the circumstances were peculiar and that 
they made it exceptionally difScult for those responsible 
for the management of the Gurdwara to exercise the 
eJtective control which they would doubtless have other- 
wise exercised ; for owing to re-building operations the 
front of the building was open and it was thus easy for 
members of the excited crowds to enter. I and my 
Government have most carefully examined the material 
in our possession relating to the events of the 6th of 
May, and we are unable to come to any other conclusion, 
but that the Gurdwara was used on that day by iU- 
disposed persons to attack from the flank a party of 
police who were proceeding at great risk to themselves to 
the rc^eue of their comrades, whose lives were in 
imminent danger. It was to save this party from a 
furious and continuous shower of brick-bats which had 
already injured a number of members of the party, that 
ikii^ had to be directed towards the Gurdwara. It is 
that you should feel distressed at the firing and 
ite tesitts ; md I am fully prepared to give all due 
to -fee strength of your sentiments. 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


213 


Deputation from the Sikh community of the Punjab. 

At the same time, I would remind you, shortly after 
the occurrence the Chief Commissioner of Delhi, when 
receiving a deputation of Sikhs, gave an assurance that 
lie would make enquir}" into any specific complaint 
against any Government serv'ant relating to excess of 
firing at the time the mob was dispersed, or arbitrary 
conduct on the part of ttxe police when the search of the 
Gurdwara was made, or to any other matter concerned 
with the incident. |Jp to the present no such complaint 
has been laid before him. I would also remind you that 
the Magistrate, who held a public enquiry info the 
occurrence, found that the firing was unavoidable and 
that had there been any hesitation on the part of the 
police the Senior Superintendent and his party would 
ha\e lost their lives. He did not find that any Govern- 
ment servant had been guilty of excess. The reason, 
therefore, for which Government have taken no dis- 
ciplinary measures, is not that they desire to shield 
anyone guilty of misconduct, but that the evidence in 
their possession shows that the circumstances do not call 
for such action. 

But none-the-less I and my Government, as I have 
already made plain, deeply regret the incident, which 
has inevitably caused pain to the Sikhs and which 
threatened to be t3ie cause of misunderstanding between 
them and Government. We desire as strongly as you 
that all ground of misapprehension should be removed 
and that no efforts should be spared on either side to 
prevent the occurrence of any such incident in future. 
I know that the Chief Commissioner shares this desire, 
anil I am instructing him to carry out in co-operation 
with the Sikhs ail arrangements that may be practicable. 
The exact details I must leave to him to work out in 
close consultation with the Sikhs of Delhi. The measures 
may well take the form of closer liaison at tim^ of 
public excitement between the authorities and the 



214 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin. 


Deputation from the Sikh community of the Punjab, 

lilanager of the Gurdwara and of greater caution on the 
part of the latter in regulating admission of persons 
generally to some portion of the building on such 
occasions ; but I must leave those with local knowledge 
to work out arrangements best suited to local conditions* 

You express your conviction that, if my Government 
cfin give some clear token of their goodwill towards the 
sacred shrine, it will cement the friendly relations which 
have always bound the Sikh community to Government* 
I am only too pleased to give a ready response to a 
su^estion, the acceptance of which will show in an 
unmistakeable manner that this unfortunate incident will 
not be allowed to impair enduring friendships or to 
attenuate the respect with which Government view the 
sanctity of a shrine, the very traditions of which testify 
to the friendship of the British and the Sikhs. I am, 
therefore, instructing my Government to make to the 
shrine in a suitable form a grant of the value of 
Ks, 25,000 to be expended at the discretion of the Com- 
mittee of the Gurdwara. 

You have also called attention to the fact that certain 
high posts have not yet been filled by Sikhs. I am sure 
you will realise that it must be the policy of Government 
primarily to select for such appointments as those of 
High Court Judges those who are considered best 
qualified to perform the duties of that high and respon- 
sible oiBce. But I have no doubt that, as time goes on 
and the number of Sikhs who are qualified for appoint- 
ment increases, you will find that your community will 
play its full part in these spheres. 

The important questions to which you have referred 
regarding the position of the Sikhs in the future con- 
jstitution of your country, regarding communal electorates 
and the adjustment of the claims o4 different Provinces 

<Kmmiunities, these and other vital matters are among 
lie which it will be the duty of the approaching 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


215 


Address io both Mouses of the Indian Legislature at Simla. 

CVmference in London to discuss. I do not think it 
right or possible for me to anticipate those discussions, 
but I can promise that the selection of Sikh representa- 
tives to the Conference will be guided by the sole desire 
to ensure that due weight should there be given to the 
claims of your community and to the important position 
it holds in this great Province of Northern India. 

With you I earnestly desire that it may be the fortune 
of this country soon to enjoy once more the blessings 
of ordered and contented peace, and that the bonds which 
unite it with Qreat Britain may endure with increasing 
strength. I am confident that the Sikh community will 
not be backward in this great task, and that, as the 
Sikhs have so often stood shoulder to shoulder with their 
British comrades in times of danger, so hand in hand 
they may now advance with them in a common endeavour 
to work unremittingly for the good of India. 


ADDEESS TO BOTH HOUSES OP THE INDIAN 
LEGISLATUEl AT SIMLA. 

The following is His Excellency the Viceroy’s address to 
both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla on the 9th 
July 

Gentlemen, — 

It is my first duty this afternoon to offer to the newly 
appointed President of the Legislative Assembly my con- 
gratulations on his election to that honourable post. I 
am confident that he will fill it with dignity and distinc- 
tion, and that he will have the support of all parties in 
the discharge of the duties that the House has entrusted 
to him. 

I felt some doubt, gentlemen, whether it was in ae- 
cordance with your wishes that a ses^on of the Council 
of State and of the Legislative Assembly should be held 
this summer. In reaching my decision' I was influenced 


9th July 
1930- 



216 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla, 

largely by the fact that, apart from certain official and 
non-official business which it was desirable to transact, it 
seemed clearly right that members of both Houses should 
have an opportunity of discussing matters of public in- 
terest, on which also I wished^ before the legislature was 
dissolved, to have the privilege of addressing you. 

This session will mark the close of the second Council 
of State and of the third Assembly, which last has al- 
ready been extended by two sessions beyond its normal 
term. In certain quarters a desire in favour of a further 
extension for the Assembly has been expressed, and 
notice has been given of a resolution to be moved to this 
effect. After giving the matter my careful considera- 
tion, I came to the conclusion that it would not be right 
on general grounds to extend the present Assembly further, 
and in consequence of this decision it appeared that the 
most convenient course would be to dissolve the Council 
of State in time to allow of the elections of both Houses 
to be held concurrently in September. This procedure I 
propose to follow. I realise that an election at that time 
will mean that those who have recently been successful in 
bye-elections can take part only in one brief session, and 
that it may for climatic reasons cause inconvenience both 
to candidates and electors. I greatly regret that this 
idiould be so, but the usual date of elections is impossible 
if it is not tp ela^ with the approaching Conference in 
tiondte, and for those potential candidates who may iu 
due mmme be invited to go to England for this purpose 
deetions would, I thiii, be accepted as the 
iaosl ecmvenient. 

The return of His Majesty’s Legation to Kabul marks 
tte re-a^Mishment of normal relations between His 
Soverammt and Afghanistmi, and the end of 
of Acuity and stre^. 



8peechm by Lord Irwin, 


217 


Address to both Homes of the Indian Legislature at Simla, 

The situation on our North-West Frontier, which for 
some time was such as to give cause for anxiety, is now I 
am glad to say giving place rapidly to more satisfactory 
conditions. I wish warmly to commend the elforts both 
of leading residents of the Province and of the official 
authorities to restore to the North-West Frontier Province 
the old relations of friendship and confidence between its 
people and Government. 

On the North-Eastern borders of India, difficulties 
arose between the Governments of Nepal and Tibet over 
a question of the nationality of an undertrial prisoner, 
and led to incidents involving veiy serious tension between 
them. The pK)ssibility of hostilities between these two 
countries, both neighbours of India, was not one which 
India could regard with equanimity, and with the consent 
of His Majesty’s Government special efforts were made to 
avert any such calamity. A friendly mission was des- 
patched to Lhassa, and, acting on advice thus tendered, the 
Tibetan Government took the steps necessary to remove 
the cause of friction. All is now well between the two 
countries, and both have expressed their gratitude for the 
friendly action taken by the Government of India. 

As Hon’ble Members are aware, two important 
questions relating to Indians overseas have been engaging 
the attention of my Government for some time past. One 
of these arose out of the recommendations made by the 
Hilton Young Commission and by Sir Samuel Wilson re- 
garding closer union in East Africa ; the other concerned 
the basis of franchise under the new constitution in Ceylon. 
Hk Majesty’s Gk)vemment have recently announce their 
conclusions about both. I need not recapitulate them in 
detail, as they have received ftill and wide publicity in 
India. But I wish to make a few observations on the points 
of outstanding interest to India that eme]^ from these 
^umouncementa 



218 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin, 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla, 

As regards East Africa, the proposals of His Majesty’s 
Government are to be referred to a Joint Select Committee 
of Parliament. When this Committee is set up the Gov- 
ernment of India will intimate their desire to place it in 
possession of their views on those proposals that concern 
the Indian communities in these territories. The eonclu* 
sions of His Majesty’s Government that the ofSeiai 
majority should be retained in the Legislative Council 
of Kenya and that the establishment of a common roll is 
the object to be aimed at and attained are in accordance 
with the views consistently urged by the Government of 
India. Fears have been expressed in certain quarters 
that the scheme of closer union formulated in the White 
Paper may ultimately prove detrimental to Indian in- 
terests. I would however draw the attention of Hon ’hie 
Members to the various safeguards provided in the scheme 
to protect racial minorities. They may rest assured that, 
should it later be found necessary, the Government of 
India will make the requisite representations on the 
subject. 

The decisions of His Majesty’s Government regard- 
ing the franchise in Ceylon recognise the claim of the 
Government of India to watch over the interests , of Indian 
emigrants in the Colony. Explicit renunciation of their 
protection by an Indian applying for a certificate of per- 
manent settlement will not be required. There is no in- 
tention of repealing or amending to the detriment of 
India^ any of the laws of Ceylon ajffecting their position 
or privil^^, which they will continue to enjoy. As re- 
gards the future, the Governor will not be empowered to 
as^nt to any bill diminishing or abrogating these 
privilege, unless he has previously obtained the instruc- 
tions of the Secretary of State, or the measure contains a 
si^pending clause. hme been expressed that the 

^eet of these mncessions wffl fee neutralised by inelusion 


Speeches hy .Lord Irwin. 


219 


Address to both Uoutsex of thr Indiati Lcyixhtlnrv at Simla. 

in the Order in Council of the provision that no holder of 
a permanent certificate, while registered as a voter, will 
be entitled to claim any rights, privileges or exemptions 
that are not common to all British subjects resident in the 
Island. This provision in no way affects the assurance 
of His Majesty’s Government that there is no intention of 
curtailing the special privileges that are noiv enjoyed by 
Indians. There is no reason to think that, by friendly 
negotiation between the Government of India and the 
Government of Ceylon, the retention of existing privileges, 
and the extension to all Indians of concessions that the 
Government of India may be able to secure hereafter for 
Indians who do not enjoy the franchise by virtue of 
possessing certificates of permanent settlement, will not be 
achieved. 

Before leaving the subject of Indians overseas, I 
should also like to draw the attention of Hon’ble Mem- 
bers to the fact that Ministers of the Union of South 
Africa have decided to postpone, till the next session, the 
bill to regulate the tenure of fixed property by Asiatics 
in the Traimvaal which was introduced in the Union 
Parliament in May this year. This delay, which we 
warmly welcome, permits the hope that the provisions of 
this measure, which as you are aware has caused consider- 
able alarm among Indians in the Transvaal, may ultimately 
be adjusted to satisfy the legitimate claims of the Indian 
community. 

I must now address myself to the subjects which 
constitute the principal and daily preoccupations of all 
concerned wi^ the political future of their country. I 
desire to ^at most frankly, for the gravity of the times 
requires that I should place all those who hear or read my 
words in full po^i^on of my thought. I would remind 
you briefiy of the bacl^ound against whidi recent 




020 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin. 


Address to both Hotises of the Indian Legislature at Simla. 

events sre set. During tb.e lust Ixulf centnryj tiie deve- 
lopment of political thought in India has been a continuous 
process. Particular events, notably the War, quickened 
the pace, with the result that the value of the reforms of 
1919 , marking though they did a very definite new depart- 
ure, and affording wide opportunity for public-spirited 
men to serve their country, was in some quarters soon dis- 
counted in the forward movement of political opinion. 
One of the joint authors of those reforms had gained the 
confidence of political India in a way that it has been given 
to few British politicians to do, but even the position 
that Mr. Montagu held in Indian hearts did not suffice 
to protect from disparagement the scheme associated with 
his name. Many influences were at work, and of these the 
reforms were not the least effective, to make it certain 
that the nationalist spirit in India wotdd develop, and 
that quickly, and that such development would be sought 
upon lines that British expepience, and contact of the 
political classes with British education and practice, 
naturally suggested. 

Outside India this movement was imperfectly 
appreciated ; and, if in India criticism of what was 
occupied more place upon the stage than constructive 
thoi^ht of what might he, Indians might, not without 
some jtistice, reply that Great Britain, preoccupied as she 
is apt to be with pressing problems nearer home, had been 
slow to apprehend how rapid a transformation was passing 
mrer the Indian outlook. And so, bred of impatience on 
one side and la^ of appreciation, mistaken for lack of 
sympathy, on the other, suspicion grew, aggravating as 
tbe years passed the difficulty of bringing to bear on these 
matters from either side the dispassionate judgment that 
their complexity demanded. 

■ Whmi I came to India, I came with one dominant 
of the woA whi^ in this generation any 



Speeches by Lord Irwin* 


m 


Addrefts to both How^en of the Indian LegMature at Simla* 

Viceroy must set out to try to do. Amid all his duties of 
administration, as the head of a great Government, no 
Viceroy as it seemed to me could for one moment forget 
that the principal duty, which he O’Wed alike to those on 
whose advice he had been called by the King-Emperor to 
his office, and to those whom for five years it 'was his duty 
and his privilege to serve, was to devote all his energies to 
the maintenance of a progressive, orderly, and contented 
India within the orbit of the British Commonwealth. It 
is not necessary for me to recall the influences^ naturally 
c^trifugai, at work upon the other side. Differences 
racial, with all that they imply in distinction of thought ; 
differences of religion, affecting men’s minds the more 
profoundly because their operation was more frequently 
in large degree subconscious ; differences of environment 
and history ; all these and many more combined to make 
the task of effecting and preserving true unity between 
Great Britain and India one which would strain the 
capacity of the best material on either side. And yet I 
could feel no doubt that it was the one supreme purpose 
for which no effort was disproportionate. 

It was also evident that looking ahead it was hardly 
to be expected that India, rightly sensitive of her self- 
respect, and growing eveiy year, more conscious of national 
feeling, should of her O'wn free will desire to remain 
indefinitely a partner in the political society of the British 
Empire upon terms which implied a permanent inferiority 
of status. It was for this reason and with the object of 
removing avoidable misunderstanding on this vital matter, 
that His. Majesty’s Government last year authorised me 
to declare that in their view the attainment of Dominion 
Status was the natural completion of India’s constitutional 
growth. That declaration was made and stands. 

His Majesty’s Government simultaneously announced 
tbeir intention to convene a Conference, as widely re- 
presentative in character as po^ible, in order fihiat, after 





222 


Speeches by Lord 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla. 

the submission of the Statutory Commission's Eeport, 
spokesmen of Great Britain and India might take free 
counsel together upon the measures which His Majesty’s 
Government would later present to Parliament. That 
Report has now been published, and I do not think that 
any impartial reader, whatever may be his opinion upon 
the actual recommendations made, will deny that the 
Commission have made a weighty and constructive con- 
tribution to a most diflSeult pi:oblem. Great however as 
for its intrinsic value must be the authority of the report, 
it was neither the desire nor the function of the Com- 
mission to anticipate the decisions of His Majesty’s Gov- 
ernment, reached after Conference with representatives 
from India, or of Parliament itself. Their task was 
described by Sir John Simon in the following words : — 
No one he said, should regard the Statutory Com- 
mission or its colleagues as though we were settling and 
deciding the constitution of British India. Our task is very 
important, but it is not that. Our task is that of making 
a fair, honest and sympathetic report to the Imperial 
Parliament. When we have made our report, then it 
would be Indians opportunity to make her full contribu- 
tion, which is right and necessary, to her future constitu- 
tion, which would be framed by Great Britain and India 
together 

The duty of expressing an opinion now passes to the 
Government of India, and, just as the Commission would 
have failed in their duty to Parliament by whom they were 
appointed, if they had not presented a report that 
reflected faithfully their own conclusions, so the Govern- 
ment of India would fail in their duly if they similarly 
did not approach consideration of the Commission’s Re- 
port with a full sense of their own responsibility. We 
hawe not hitherto been able to do more than give preli- 
and tentative examination to the Report and 



Speeches by herd Irwin. 


223 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla. 

before reaching conclusions I think it is right that I should 
have the opportunity of discussing the whole subject with 
some of those who can speak for non-oflScial Indian opinion. 
I hope to have occasion to do this with some of the Ruling 
Princes and representatives of the States next week, and 
I should propose also to invite representatives of different 
views and interests from British India to meet me for this 
purpose as may be found convenient. 

I am only too well aware of the degree to which calm 
examination of these questions has been prejudiced by the 
events that have engaged public attention during the last 
few months. It will be remembered that, following upon 
my refusal to anticipate the discussions of the Conference, 
Mr. Gandhi, in spite of my declaration of the purpose of 
His Majesty ^s GrOvemment and of the free opportunity for 
mutual co-operation and accord which that Conference was 
designed to provide, decided to launch a campaign of civil 
disobedience, and proceeded to use his great influence to 
persuade his countrymen to adopt a course of open defiance 
of the law. Before this reckless plunge had been finally 
taken, I did my best to give a clear warning of the conse- 
quences that it must involve ; but the warning fell upon 
deaf ears. That campaign has now been in progress for 
some three months, and all of us, whatever be our judg- 
ment upon it, must be conscious of the damage in countless 
directions that has already been inflicted. Th<^ who 
have identified themselves with this movement would have 
us regard it as a perfectly legitimate form of political 
agitation, to which resort is had only under pressure of 
regrettable necessity. I cannot take that view. In my 
judgment and in that of my Government it is a deliberate 
attempt to coerce establi^ed authority by mass action, and 
for this reason, as also because of its naturgd and Inevit- 
able developments, it must be r^arded as unwnstitettional 
and dangerously subversive. Ma^ action, jsimm ^ U h 



224 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin* 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla, 

intended by its promoters to be non-violent, is nothing but 
the application of force under another form, and, when it 
has as its avowed object the making of Government ini 
possible, a Government is bound either to resist or abdicate. 
The present movement is exactly analogous to a general 
strike in an industrial country which has for its purpose 
the coercion of Government by mass pressure as opposed 
to argument, and which a British Government recently 
found it necessary to mobilise all its resources to resist. 
Here it has been sought to employ more dangerous weapons 
even than this, and the recent resolution of the All-India 
Working Committee of the Congress, insidiously designed 
to seduce police and troops from their allegiance, leaves 
no longer room for doubt of the desperate lengths to which 
the organisers of the movement are prepared to go, and 
gave Government no option but to proclaim the body 
responsible for such a resolution as an unlawful associa- 
tion. He would in truth be a false friend of India who 
did not do his utmost to protect her from acquiescence 
in principles so fundamentally destructive. 

I gladly acknowledge that there have been public men 
who, in the face of strong opposition, have not been afraid 
to condemn in unequivocal terms the civil disobedience 
laovement. I could wish their example had been more 
widely followed. After all, is it not a very dangerous 
cbetrine to preach to citi2sens of India that it is patriotic 
mi laudable to refuse to obey laws or to pay taxes ? 
ifeman nature is oiim reluctant to do either, and, if there 
m certain, it is that, if society is once thoroughly 

iBoerteted with these noxious microbes, the disease will 
p^fel^ly reeur, until one day it paralyses the Indian 
Govenfflaent of the Aiture which by these methods it is 
.sought to brii^ into existence. It may not be long before 
‘Minfefeers are rei^nmble, fdr example, for the 
and ©elleciioM, of Ijmd revenue or other taxes. 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin* 


226 


Address to hath Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla, 

They 'v\ ould have little cause to thank those who had 
allowed the impression to gain ground that withholding of 
payments legally due was a proper method of voicing 
general political dissatisfaction with the established 
Ministry, 

Therefore it is that I have felt bound to combat these 
doctrines and to arm Government with such po’wers as 
seem requisite to deal with the situation. I fully realise 
that in normal times such frequent resort by the Governor- 
General to the use of his special powers would be in- 
defensible. But the times are not normal, and, if the only 
alternative is acquiescence in the result of efforts openly 
directed against the constituted Government of the King- 
Emperor, I cannot for one moment doubt on which side 
my duty lies. 

I have never been blind to the fact that in the cir- 
cumstances which we are considering there would" inevit- 
ably be serious clashes between the forces of Government 
and that section of the public which supports the move- 
ment, and that many persons would thereby unavoidably 
sustain physical injury. From the first moreover it was 
certain that during disturbances innocent persons must 
at times suffer with the guilty. Where this has been the 
case I deeply deplore it, and tender my personal sympathy 
to those concerned. But it is necessary to consider where 
the primary responsibility rests. When the fire brigade 
has to be called in to extinguish a fire, it frequently does 
serious damage, but though the fire brigade does the 
damage none would suggest that it was responsible for the 
fire which was the original reason for its being called io, 
least of all when the fire was due to direct incendiarism. 
No good, therefore, is done by shutting our eyes as to where 
the original blame must lie, and, whatever eritieism there 
may be of those whose task it is to put out the confiagra- 
tion, speaking gmierally I have nothing but commendation 

L6PSV 




226 


Speeches by Lord Irwin* 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla. 

for the servants of Government, both civil and military, 
who have been doing their duty with great steadiness and 
courage in conditions of the severest provocation and 
often of direct risk to their lives. Several— I speak of 
the police— have been brutally murdered, and in many 
cases they and their families are subjected daily to the 
grossest forms of persecution. I am glad to know that 
several local Governments have sanctioned for them 
allowances for the extra duties which they have had to 
perform and have not been backward in bestowing re- 
wards for exceptionally meritorious service. 

The gravity of the present movement however does 
not deflect my judgment on the question of constitutional 
reform by a hair’s breadth to the right or left. Hon’ble 
Members know that I am not fighting civil disobedience 
because I lack sympathy with the genuine nationalist feel- 
ings of India. I have never concealed my desire to see 
India in enjo3ment of as large a degree of management of 
her own affair* as could be shown to be compatible with 
the necessity of making provision for those matters in re- 
gard to which India was not yet in a position to assume 
responsibility. 

I am therefore bound at this time to keep two principal 
objectives in the forefront of my mind, and in this regard 
I wish to state my position and that of my Government in 
the clearest terms. So long as the civil disobedience move- 
ment persists^ we must fight it with all our strength 
because, whatever may be the spirit by which many of its 
adherent may be animated, I believe from the bottom of 
mj Imart that it is only leading many of India’s sons and 
daughters, in mistaken service of their motherland, un- 
willingly to expose her to grievous harm. 

On the other hand, so far from desiring to secure so- 
called victory over a nationalist movement constitutionally 
pu^ed, I desire nothing more than to be nble to help 



Speeches by Lord Irwin* 


227 


Address to both Mouses of the Indian Legislature at Bimla. 

India so far as I can to translate her aspirations into con- 
stitutional reality. I would ask what fairer method could 
be devised for this than one by which all the various points 
of view can be sifted in discussion, and where, not by 
majority voting, but by the influence of mind on mind in 
daily personal contact, a sustained attempt can be made to 
discover once for all the more excellent way in which 
Great Britain and India, to the benefit of each, can walk 
together. 

The date of assembly of the Conference has already 
been made public, and on behalf of His Majesty's Gov- 
ernment I am now able to define its functions more 
precisely. After very careful consideration His Majesty 
Government have reached the conclusion that it would 
not be right to prescribe for the Conference any terms more 
limited than were implied in my statement of November 
1st last, and that the Conference should enjoy the full 
freedom that those words connote. The Conference ac- 
cordingly will be free to approach its task greatly assisted 
indeed, but with liberty unimpaired, by the Report of the 
Statutory Commission or by any other documents which 
will be before it. It is the belief of His Majesty Govern- 
ment that by way of conference it should be possible to 
reach solutions that both countries and all parties and 
interests in them can honourably accept, and any such 
agreement at which the Conference is able to arrive will 
form the basis of the proposals which His Majesty’s Gov- 
ernment will later submit to Parliament. Prom such 
a definition of the scope of the Conference it is clear that 
His Maj^y’s Government conceive of it not as a mere 
meeting for discussion and debate, but as a joint ass^embly 
of representatives of lx>th countries, on whose ^reement 
precise proposals to Parliament may be founded. The 
Conference will thus enjoy the unfettered r%ht of examin- 
ing the whole problem in all its bearings, mth the 



228 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla. 

knowledge that its labours are of no academic kind, and 
His Majesty’s Government stiU hope that Indians of all 
schools of thought, whatever the attitude that some have 
hitherto taken, will be ready to share in this constructive 
work. I see no reason why, from frank discussion on 
all sides, a scheme might not emerge for submission to 
Parliament which would confound the pessimism of those 
who would teU us that it is impossible for Great Britain 
and India, or for the various interests in India, to reach 
agreement. 

My Government is anxious to render to the Indian 
side of the Conference every assistance that it can, and for 
this purpose has decided to place a secretariat at its dis- 
posal, consisting of Sir Geoffrey Corbett, Mr. Latiff and 
"Mr. G. S. Bajpai, whose knowledge of many different sides 
of administration will, I am confident, be of great value. 

Gentlemen, I have only a short time left of my official 
term of office, and I would anticipate its end by concludii^ 
what I have sought to say rathej] as a friend than as 
Viceroy and Governor-General. . As I look back over the 
time I have spent in India, I can recall no occasion on 
which I have consciously sought to work for anything but 
India’s good. I believe I can claim to have learnt some- 
thing of the feelings that fill the hearts of many TndiaTis 
of all classes and all shades of thought, who have been 
good enough to extend to me a friendship which I shall 
hope to enjoy long after I have said goodbye to India and 
the present troubles are left behind. 

India is a country the scale of whose history and 
physical features alike condemn those who would take 
small views. The monuments with which her land is 
enriched attest the faith and perseverance of her master 
craftsmen, and reprove th^ who would believe that any 
other qualities can serve the constitution builder, who 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


2 ^ 


Address to both Houses of the Indian Legislature at Simla. 

builds not for bimself but for futurity. I belieTe, as I 
have said often, that the right and the best solution of the 
riddle of India will be found only by Great Britain and 
India joining together in the search. But this demands 
faith, which we are at times tempted to think only a 
miracle could now give in the measure dictated by our 
necessities ; and many would have us believe that the 
age of miracles is past. Yet in India more than else-wheie 
there is the capacity to apprehend the spiritual power by 
which things apparently impossible are brought to pass, 
and I at least cannot doubt that, could we but recapture 
the spirit of mutual trust between our two countries, we 
should in so doing liberate invincible forces of faith to 
remove those mountains which have lately hemmed us 
round. 

I am in better position than others here to know the 
effect that would have been produced in Great Britain, if 
the hand of friendship that she extended last November 
had been generously grasped in the same spirit by those 
who could speak for India. Many things said subsequent- 
ly on both sides would have been said differently or re- 
mained unsaid ; new misunderstandings would have beeai 
avoided ; and the whole setting of the problem would have 
been favourable to a more just appreciation of the several 
points of views that have to be brought to harmony. It 
seems therefore utter tragedy that at the moment when the 
chances of settlement were perhaps better than they have 
ever been, and the stage was set for a free and unbiassed 
consideration of the whole problem, the party of Congress 
diould have thrown aside the finest opportunity that India 
has ever had. 

I would hope that it might yet not be too late for wiser 
counsels to prevail, by which all the political thought of 
India might be harnessed to the task of welding into unity 




2S0 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin* 


All-India Landholders Deputation, 

the elements that compose her life, and in conjunction with 
Great Britain devising the best means for giving consti- 
tutional expression to them. Thus two roads to-day lie 
open ; one leading as I think to turmoil ; disunity ; 
disappointment and shattered hopes : the other guiding 
those who follow it to the India of our dreams, a proud 
partner in a free Commonwealth of Nations, lending and 
gaming strength by such honourable association. India 
to-day has to make her choice. I pray God she may be 
moved to choose aright. 


ALL-INDIA LANDHOLDERS DEPUTATION. 

In repl3ung to an Address presented by a Deputation 
representative of the Landholders in India at Simla on the 29 th 
July, His Exeelleney the Viceroy said : — 

Oentlemenr-lt gives me the greatest pleasure to 
welcome here to-day such a large and representative 
gathering of landholders from different parts of India. 
Though it was your own suggestion that you should 
come to Simla to discuss the important matters dealt 
with in your address, I had always hoped to take an early 
opportunity of making myself acquainted with your 
views in pursuance of the desire, which I expressed in 
my recent address to the Legislature, of discussing the 
subjects traversed by the Statutory Commission’s Eeport 
wi&some of those who can speak for non-official Indian 
Towards the* formation of that opinion the 
laiidicidersf of India have, I know well, their particular 
and imp^tant contribution to make, and it is therefore 
most useful to me to have the authoritative expression of 
opinion on these vital matters which you have been good 
enough to place before me tliis afternoon. Anyone, who 
looks at the list of signatories to your address and con- 
sidm the fey no meanS' ^insignificant proportion of the 
whole country in which they have so large a stake, wiU 



Spuehcs by Lord Invin, 


231 


All-India Landholder.^ Leputaiiofh 

realise how essential it is that the most careful considera- 
tion should be given to their vie^vs upon the future 
constitution of India, and in particular as to the place 
which will be allotted therein to the landholding classes. 

Let me leave you under no illusion as to the import- 
ance I attach to a contented and pro>sj>eroiis rural 
population, whether owners or tillers of the land, above 
all in a country such as India where agriculture is and 
must continue to be the main industry of so large a 
majority of its people. Families like yours, which have — 
some of them from ancient times — their roots deep in 
the broad acres of Bengal, the United Provinces, Bihar 
and other parts of the country, and whose interests 
depend, perhaps more than those of any other section 
of the community, upon peaceful and orderly adminis- 
tration, ought fr?om the nature of things to be one of 
the chief and most stable buttresses of the Government 
which, either now or in the future, has the welfare of 
India’s many millions in its charge. You may be sure 
that such considerations will be very present to the minds 
of those who will have the fashioning of the future 
constitution of this country. 

I have said enough, gentlemen, to leave you in no 
doubt as to the feelings that I and my Government 
entertain towards the landholders of India. I fael it aE 
the more necessary to say what I have this afternoon, 
because, as you will realise, it? would hardly be possible 
for me at this juncture, while the Government of India 
is still occupied with the examination of Sir John 
Simon’s Beport, to do more than play the role of a 
lisfener and take note of the views you have been good 
enoTigh to place before me. My remarks this afternoon 
tJierefore must be directed rather to setting forth the 
difficulties of the case on both sides than to the enuncia- 
tion bt final or definite conclusions. Conclusions indeed 
can hardiy be ' reached until th^ and other important 




232 


Speeches hy Lord Irwki* 


All-India Landholders Deputation. 

matters lia^^e been considered by the Koiind Table 
Conference, to which, I can reassure you, it is my 
intention to recommend His Majesty’s Government to 
invite an adequate number of those who can speak for 
the interests you I’^epresent. 

The first main criticism which you have directed 
against the recommendations of the Statutory Commis- 
sion’s Keport is that it proposes to abolish the special 
representation of landholders. Some of your observations 
may, I think, be accepted without question. Few, for 
instance, would be^ found to deny that landholders by 
their success in responsible posts in the administration 
have made abundantly good thieir position in the new 
constitution, or that a class who pin their faith to whole- 
some conservative tradition and to support of good and 
stable Government is a supremely valuable feature in any 
constitutional system. I would go further and say that 
-I think you do the Commission less than justice if you 
doubt for a moment their full appreciation of these facts. 
If I read aright the arguments they have put forward 
to support their proposals regarding representation of 
landholders, they are really based on a clear recognition 
of the commendable readiness shown by the landowning 
classes to carry out their obligations and take up their 
political responsibilities under the new conditions of an 
increasingly popular system of government. It is, of 
course, an admitted fact that landholders — ^the more 
credit to them — have succeeded in obtaining a consider- 
able measure of repr^entation through general con- 
stituencies in addition to their special representation 
Balancing this on the other hand is the question how far 
this is true of landholders more than, for example, of 
commerce or the Universities and this point perhaps is 
one that deserves further examination. Your real 
apprehension, I take it, is that with the extension of the 
franchise and with larger councils landholders will tend 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


233 


All-India Landholden Deputation, 

tu lose ground in tiie new Legislatures, and that special 
nomination by the Governor may not prove a satisfactory 
means of remedying these conditions. These and other 
relevant considerations are matters which you will have 
an opportunity of developing in gr(*ater detail either at 
the Round Table Gonferenee or at' some later stage. 

A further point of eonsidora})le inten*st which ytui 
have raised in this eonneetion is that, if landholders are 
forced by the suggested change in their riepresontatlon 
to cultivate the interest of the general body of electors 
in preffCrenee to that of the landed classes which they 
historically and actually represent, the result cannot 
fail to be a clash of interest between the people of the 
country and the landholders. I take it that the event- 
uality you are anxious to prevent is the deterioration of 
relations between tenant and landlord, and no one, I 
think, can be blind to the dangers lurking in any such 
estrangement. For the strength of the landowning classes 
is in a contented peasantry, whose joys and whose sorrow’s 
they share, and whose welfare is bound up in their owm. 
It is moreover clearly desirable that such questions as 
tenancy and land revenue measures which I suppose must 
inevitably efligage the attention of Provincial Councils 
in future should be adjusted with the greatest possible 
degree of harmony between the two parties primarily 
interested. If the fears you have expressed can be 
shown to be well-founded, they would clearly be an 
important factor in arriving at a decision on the main 
question of representation. 

I was struck by the passage i’n your address which 
referred to the policy associated with the name of Lord 
Canning. In your view one of the principal merits of 
that policy was that it had permitted the Taluqdars of 
Oudh to devote themselves to the improvement of their 
estates and to the welfare of their tenantry. I would 
venture to say that, whatever may be the ultimate 



234 


Spaecfies by Lord Irwin, 


All-India Landholders Deputation, 

decision on t'he question of special landowner representa- 
tion, and I in no way underrate its possible usefulness 
as a means of securing just recognition of valuable and 
sta])ilising elements in Indian society, such special treat- 
ment alone will not permanently be able to effect these 
results. You have spoken of the policy, followed by the 
Oudh Taluqdars of 70 years ago, of fostering the improve- 
ment of their estates and caring for the real welfare of 
their tenantry, and I am sure no one here to-day would 
deny the landlord’s obligation to better the lot of those 
who inhabit their villages or till their land, by promoting 
improvements in water supplies, schools, medicine and 
health, better methods of agriculture and in many other 
activities that may make for the well-being of the country 
side. It is my firm conviction that, as landowners can 
succeed in thus identifying themselves with the daily life 
of those dependent on them, they will, besides discharging 
the duties that their position requires, be strengthening 
immeasurably the foundations of their order by basing 
them upon the grateful affections of their own people. 

The second main point on which you found your- 
selves at variance with the recommendations of the Com- 
mission relates to the proposal to impose a tax on 
agricultural incomes. This is a matter on which in any 
case I should hesitate to express an opinion until the 
views of Provincial Governments have been received, but 
I am familiar wiUi the discussions which have often taken 
place on this subject, for example before the Taxation 
Eric|tdry Committee, and with the political, legal and 
administrative difficulties which emerged in the course 
of th^se dfecussions and which it would be necessary to 
examine carefully before reaching any conclusions. 
There are also questions of the return such a tax might 
be expected to produce. I observe that ‘ the estimated, 
yield has varied aecor<Kng to different calculations from 
Ofue erore to three crotife, while Sir Walter Layton’s 
assumption is a yield of five'^cror^. This latter figure 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


235 


All-India Landholders Deputation, 

however is I presume based on prices of agricultural 
produce considerably in excess of the prices which obtain 
to-day. In any case however I cannot suppe^e that, if 
and when the matter were raised in definite form, the 
arguments both of . equity and expediency w^hich you 
have raised will fail to carry due weight with those on 
whom the burden of decision would rest. 

The desire you have expressed for second Chambers 
in the Provinces is a matter that will receive our close 
attention. As you know, the arguments on either side 
have been set out clearly in a special chapter of Sir 
John Simon’s Report^ and I do not think there is any- 
thing further that can at this stage usefully be said 
except that we shall not make any recommendation 
without carefully considering the factors to which you 
have to-day drawn my attention. 

It remains for me only to acknowledge with grati- 
fication what you have said towards the close of your 
Address regarding the deplorable results of the civil 
disobedience movement and the efforts 1 have not ceased 
to make to restore the old atmosphere of friendliness and 
mutual trust between the different races and classes in 
India. But by the nature of things at this moment the 
desire of my Government and of those on whose support 
we count to see a return to happier conditions is 
dependent upon the willingness of others to abandon a 
course of action, w'hieh so long as it persists makes any 
such hope still-born. I may perhaps at this point 
interpose the observation that, unfortunate as such a 
course of action must always be in its results on the 
country, it would hardly be possible to imagine a more 
disastrous occasion than the present for the introduction 
of discord and disturbance. The whole world is pacing 
through an economic crisis, and owing to a combination 
of world conditions, the causes for which I will not now 
endeavour to ^lain, there has in the course of the 




236 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


All-India Latidholders Deputation. 

past year occurred a tremendous fall in the price of all 
agricultural commodities. My Government have been 
watching this course of affairs with grave concern, for 
such a fall in prices must inevitably create difficulties 
and hardship in a country like India where such a vast 
proportion of the population depends upon the sale of 
agricultural products. In such *a time of difficulty it 
is of the most urgent importance that all the forces of 
the country should combine together in a common effort. 
We cani it is true, do little to control conditions in other 
countries, and, so far as our opportunities to sell Indian 
produce in the markets of the world are concerned, we 
are dependent mainly upon external forces. But the 
home market in India is also very important, and, if 
disturbances in India come on top of the world conditions 
to which I have referred, the results may be disastrous 
indeed. Such disturbances have been now created by 
the civil disobedience movement, and the results are 
evei-ywhere apparent. It has resulted in a complete loss 
of confidence in all business centres. No one in these 
conditions wishes to enter into new contracts. Shop- 
keepers and retail traders do not wish to lay in stocks, 
and as a riosult we see for example that the cotton mills 
of Bombay cannot dispose of their cotton goods. Many 
mills have had to close down, and as a result of the 
general position the mill-owners are not able to purchase 
Indian cotton. From this the growers of cotton directly 
suffer — ^but others suffer too. The loss of profit and 
unemployment which results mean that the purchasing 
power of the country for grain and other agricultural 
products is reduced. I have referred especially to 
Bombay, but the effects are general, and it is no exaggera- 
tion to say that the civil disobedience movement has 
produced a paralysis, of business in all the industrial 
and commercial centres of India — ^and that this must 
react disastrously on the Agricultural interesfe of all 



SpeeckeB hy Lord Irtdn, 


237 


Opening of a new Ball a# the Bishop Cotton School^ Simla* 
kinds hy destroying the market for their produce. 
Moreover, it reacts unfavourably on the whole world, 
foi India contains one-fifth of the world’s population and 
economic stagnation in India must have wwld-wide 
effects. Here again the agricultural classes of India 
specially suffer, for they rely to so great an extent on 
the markets of the world for converting their surplus 
pr(»ducts into money. Evey thinking man must regret 
that in the struggle for constitutional advance the true 
objects for such advance should be forgotten and 
defeated : for no change of Government can bring any 
real profit to a country unless it can be expressed in 
terms of well-being for the masses of the population. 
You have prescribed a threefold combination as a cure 
for the troubles which beset us— sympathy, understanding 
and statesmanship. These are indeed essential, and they 
•were never more essential than they are to-day in the 
conditions of special difSculty which I have briefly 
described. Without them we could not in any case start 
the future with confidence and courage. Without them 
in the special circumstances which are affecting all 
agricultural countries like India to-day we cannot hope 
to find any exit from the diflSculties which are already 
present, and India would be left to meet new constitu- 
tional conditions so crippled in material resources as to 
be almost fatally handicapped against any chance of 
successful progress. I would pray therefore that these 
qualities— -sjrmpathy, understanding, statesmanship — 

should be vouchsafed to us all according to our nieed, 
so that with Arm hope and single purpose all who have 
constructive contributions to make may join in the 
building of the new life of India. 


OPENIKG OF A NEW HALL AT THE BISHOP COTTON 
SCHOOL, SIMLA. 

In the course of a farewell visit to the Bishop Ck>tton^)^ 
School on the ^th September, His Ixceiency the Yiceroy ^ 




238 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Opcvtiyiy of fl neto Soil ot the Sishop Cottthi School^ ^^ynlo. 

oiwned the New Hall and also unveiled the portraits of Mr. 
Ironn and Mr. Lewis, former Headmasters of the School, and 
in doin" so said : — 

Your Excellency, Mr. Principal, Ladies and Genilemen, 
and Boys of Bishop Cotton School, — It is -t, great pleasure 
to me to visit this School once again. I have been anxious, 
since I last came here, to see how the School was faring 
and how far it has fulfilled the promise which I then saw. 
It is possible, of course, to ga.ther something of a school’s 
progress from the reports, statistics of examinations and the 
various papers on the subject, which I am privileged to see in 
this case, but these have not the living value which is to be 
obtained from a visit, when personal relations can be estab- 
lished and the visitor, by seeing the faces and general 
bearing of the boys, may hope to imbibe something of tlie 
spirit of the School, indefinable but real, with its blend of 
tradition and ideals, for which both the masters and the 
boys are responsible. And here I should like to pay a 
tribute, in which aU I know, join me, to Mr. Peaeey 
and his collee^es for all they have done for this School — 
whose great debt to these the boys would, I jim sure, be tie 
first to acknowledge. 

Though, as I have said, it is a great pleasure for me 
to come here to-day, the pleasure is not an immixed.one. 
ITiere are few who do not experience a feeling of sadneas 
in conscioudy doing anything for the last time, and this 
i^ I am afraid, my la^ visit to the School. The sadness 
is all tie keener when the thing done is a thing of enjoy- 
ment. I have not been here as, offen as I shopld ha,ve 
liked-— the duties of a Viceroy have a habit of preventing 
him from doing all that he would wish t<j do — ^but I think 
I can say that there i^ no school in India , in, whjch I take 
a greater personal interest. This is only natural, since 
any institution which plays so large a .part . in the life 
of Simla as does the Bishop Cotton School must claim a 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


239 


Opening of a new Hall at the Bishop Cotton Sehot^\ Simla. 

big share of the attention of the Viceroy, v»'ho spenrls more 
time in Simla than in any other place in India, I shall 
often think of this School when I have left India, and 
continue to hope that things may go well with it. 

One of my duties to-day is formally to open the new 
building in which we are assembled this afternoon. It is 
a great asset to the School, and I am very glad that the 
Punjab Government have been able to help in erecting 
and in adequately equipping such a fine hall. Jt is a 
happy indication of the constant interest shown by llis 
Excellency the Governor, his colleagues — and I would here 
make special mention of the Hon’ble Minister for Educa- 
tion — and the public men of the Province in all that 
pertains to education, whether of Europeans or Indians, 
in tho Punjab. 

Your Headmaster has mentioned the question of an 
endowment fund ; and I can well imaginci the strength 
-that such a fund would bring to the school, in the way 
of rendering it immune from possible fluctuation in the 
matter of Government subsidies in the future and of 
enabling some boys to educate themselves further at 
English Universities after finishing their time here. I 
earnestly hope that the fund may be a success. 

One development since I was last here is the opening 
of Intermediate classes. I hope that an increasing 
number of boys will take advantage of these facilities for 
higher studies. If Anglo-Indians and Europeans, whose 
future lot is cast in India, are to take their place in Gov- 
ernment service and the public life of the country, they 
will have to remember that there will be increasing com- 
petition to be faced, and they will have io , put their 
backs into it if they are to succeed against competitors 
being turned out in large numbers all over India. JSq, 
if this School is to perform the function we hopq fpr, good 
examination results become of imporfamee not oidy in 




240 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of a new Hall at the Bishop Cotton School^ Simla* 

examinations such as those for Oxford and Cambridge 
certificates, but in those on the lines of Indian University 
degree study to which the first step is the Intermediate 
Examination. 

It has been the lot of many of us to hear speakers, 
on occasions like the present one, extol their school days 
as the happiest of their lives and then rem.ark wdth com- 
placency that they, far from obtaining prizes, were always 
at the bottom of their class and failed in every examination. 
I do not wish to commend this complacent attitude, but I 
cannot help thinking what a much better place I should 
have thought school, if there had been no examinations I 
But, I suppose, if there were no examinations, there would 
be no prizes, and I should have no prize-winners to con- 
gratulate to-day. I am sure that a lot of the boys here 
to-day — ^both prize-winners and others — will make their 
mark in the world, and show that this School is performt 
ing its function by turning out boys not only well- 
educated but of the charaictei;i which we are accustomed to 
associate with a school like this. 

It is perhaps worth while considering for a moment 
how the life in the bigger world, on which many of you 
are on the verge of entering and which all of you will 
enter within a few years, will fit in witli what you have 
here learned. What in fact are the motives which make 
people do things t When a man or; boy is faced in some 
matter of importance with the question ‘ Am I to do this 
or am I not f what makes him decide in one sense or 
the other f Is it his own material advantage ? That 
comes into all our lives and it is no use disregarding it 
simply because it doesn^t or shouldn't rank very high in 
the scale of motives. Most of us have to make our own 
way in the world ; many of you will shortly be deciding 
on careers ; it is all to your credit to get the highest 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


241 


Opening of a new Hall at the Biahop Cotton School^ Simla, 

market value for your talents, whether in busines^j, Gov- 
ernment service, or professions. But the thin<| to re- 
member is that there are many better things in the world 
than money. 

Is it public opinion f We are all largely lK)und by 
it, whether it is that of our school, our club, our pro- 
fession, our class of society”, or of the whole nation. There 
is no need to emphasise what may be the value of a 
wholesome public opinion, or the handicap w’hich besets a 
country where public opinion is lacking or is unsound. 
Before ^'ery” long it will be y”Ou or peojjle of your age who 
are making the public opinion of the country. School 
gives you a good idea of the power of public opinion ; 
and anything that passes the standard at sch(K)l is pro- 
bably fairly good, for boys are shrewd judges and the 
^ I>opuiar ’ boy at school is generally a boy of sterling 
albround qualities. But at the same time public opinion 
is not always a safe guide. It may be wrong, just as the 
supposedly infallible umpire gives us out 1. b. w. when 
VC know that we vreren’t. Public opinion is after all 
little more than the sum of individual human judgments, 
and one man may sometimes be right where a thousand 
are wrong. Many of the greatest names in history — 
saints, soldiers, philosophers — ^have been great just because 
their owners did not accept public opinion. Against this 
one can think of popular heroes who by the merest accident 
or twist of fortune might have remained totally unknown. 

I suppose therefore that ultimately every man and 
boy has to be guided by bis own judgment of what is 
right and what is wrong. Philosophers have given long 
names to it — categorical imperative — ^and many things 
go to the making of it — religion, influence of persons, 
tradition, associations — ^but everyone knows the sense of 
** ought And, if a school is to fulfil its function, it 
must send out boys imbued with the right sense of 
L6PSV 




242 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Opening of a new Hall at the Bishop Colton School, Simla. 

“ ought Therefore form your otyu judgments of ■what 
is right. I hope this won’t alarm Mr. Peaeey I But I 
am not asking you to be rebels against authority. What I 
mean is that, though in our lives as members of society, 
■whether it be family, religious community, or State, we 
must clearly accept some authority, in individual judg- 
ment of right and wrong, we must test and reinforce it 
by the standard of our own thought and consciences. As 
one of our great English thinkers said. " Originality 
consists in thinking for oneself ; not in thinking differently 
from other people ”. Poe most of you, your judgment 
■will no doubt not be very different from hundreds of 
thousands of others, but its virtue ■will be that it is your 
own. Take ■with you from school the right sense of 
“ ought ” and you have justified your school, your masters, 
your fellow school-boys and younself, and ■will be doing your 
bit to the creation of the sort of public opinion that can 
make a country great. 

I started by saying that you could only get at the true 
character of a school by ■visiting it. One characteristic of 
the Bishop Cotton School I see is patience, and I have 
detained you long enough. 

I have no^w the pleasure of formally declaring this 
hall open. In doing so, I would express my earnest hope 
that all those who now or in future years meet daily ■within 
its walls may be worthy members of this School, that they 
may here learn the great lesson of esprit de corps, and 
that, when they leave it as pupils for the last time, they 
may go out into the world determined to put into practice 
the Ic^ns which they have learned and to uphold, as 
Cottonians, the fair name and reputation of this place. 

I have one other function to perform — ^to unveil the 
portraits of Mr. Ironn and Mr. Lewis who, as Headmasters 
of this School, gave many years of their lives to the service 


Speeches hj Lard Irwin. 


243 


Farewell Dinner given by the Members and Minlstev^ of the 
Punjab Government to His Ejceelkneg the Viceroy. 

of this foundation. It is fitting that their sendees should be 
recorded in this Hall, and that present and future genera- 
tions should be reminded by these portraits of those 
elder members of the Bishop Cotton family. 


FAREWELL DINNER GIVEN BY THE MEMBERS AND 

MINISTERS OF THE PUNJAB GOVERNMENT TO fflS 

EXCELLENCY THE VICEROY. 

The Members and Ministers of the Punjab Goveniment 20th Se^wn* 
entei tallied His Excellency the Viceroy at a Farewell Dinner 
at Simla on the 29th of September. In thanking his hosts 
His Excellency the Viceroy said 

Gentlemen ^ — The honour you have done me by inviting 
me here to-night is one of many kindnesses shown to 
me, during my time in India, by the people of the Punjab ; 
and I am greatly touched, Mr. Chairman, that you and 
your colleagues should have thought of thus entertaining 
me and giving me an opportunity to take official leave of 
the Punjab before leaving Simla. You have spoken very 
generously, Mr. Chairman, of both Lady Irwin and myself, 
and I find it difficult to thank you as I should wish. I 
am sure, speaking for us both, that, whatever the merits 
or demerits of what we have tried to do during our time 
in India, we could never have done it unless we had felt 
that we enjoyed the real friendship of very many persons 
of all classes and shades of political thought, among whom 
our work has lain. 

You have made mention of the interest Lady Irwin 
has taken in the cause of female education, and, although 
she has done whatever lay in her power to iomanl the 
work in the way of better provision for private effort in 
the cause of public health that was inaugurated by her 
predecessors, no cause has beep pearer to her heart than 




244 


Speeches hy Lord Invin. 


Farewell Dinner given hy the Mefnhers and Ministers of the 
Punjab Government to His Excellency the Viceroy, 

that of extending the opportunities of education for the 
women of India. And I cannot but think she has been 
right to feel that this subject is vital to the cause of 
India’s progress. On her behalf and my own, I am most 
grateful, Mr. Chairman, for what you have been good 
enough to say. 

As you, Mr. Chairman, have just hinted, a Viceroy 
has every temptation to become at any rate half a Punjabi 
himself. No longer able like Lord Dalhoiisie to remove 
himself for weeks at a time 150 miles from the seat of 
Government to Ghini, in summer he shares with your 
Government what loyalty to our own Headquarters impels 
us all to rank as the Queen of Indian hill stations, and 
for a great part of the winter he enjoys the delight of a 
cold weather, which Delhi shares with the Punjab. It 
follows that he has the privilege of seeing a great deal 
of the people of the Punjab, ofiScials anrl non-otficials — a 
privilege which I value so highly that I wdsh considera- 
tions of space and time could give me similar opportuni- 
ties in eveiy Province in India. Having said this, and 
without being so foolhardy as to dra\v comparisons, I 
think I may say that the laind of the five rivers has every 
reason to be proud both of its people and of those who are 
charged with all the business of Provincial administra- 
tion. You have good reason to know how much the 
Punjab has owed to the two Gover^nors who have, in a 
dMinguMied succession, held this important post during 
my Vi^royalty, Their Excellencies Sir Malcolm Hailey 
and Sir Cteoffrey de Montmorency. W^e owe very much 
to them for the wisdom, based on the just admixture of 
^pathy and firmness, with which they liavc conducted 
m affairs of their great ch^es in difficult times. For 
I know that I have constantly felt it to be of the 
value to have at my elbow an administrator of 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


24S 


Farewell Dinner given by the Members and Miniiders of the 
Punjab Government to His EjtveUency the Vu.eroy, 

ripe expel ience, in direct touch more particularly with 
the aspect which matters of common concern may present 
to the Provinces as a whole, and wdiose counsel was always 
readily at my service. You can rest assured, Mr. Chairman, 
that the idea of evicting the Punjab Government from 
Simla has never been part of my political creed. I 
recognise too clearly the force of opinion liehind the 
Punjab Land Alienation Act to make such an attempt. 

When I speak of the Members and Ministers of Gov- 
ernment, who are our hosts this evening, I think that all 
wdll agree with me when I say that the successful working 
of the present constitution in the Punjab has been due 
largely to the good team work which has been so remark- 
able a feature of the Provincial Cabinet. No 'iiificulty, 
^0 far as I remember, has ever been experienced in 
finding a ministry or in keeping it in with the support of 
the legislature, and the ministry has always functioned 
harmoniously, like brothers in a happy family, with the 
reserved side of the Government, a record the more 
creditable in that the Province is one where sectional points 
of view are strongly held, and sometimes forcibly expressed. 
I have often thought that the Punjab Government has 
wisely modelled itself on one of the old Punjab regiments, 
where class companies — Punjabi Mussalmans, Sikhs and 
Hindu Dogras — under their company commanders, will vie 
with each other in friendly rivalry to win laurels for the 
regiment as a whole in the service of India and the 
Empirje, 

I have no doubt that the Ministers would be the first 
to acknowledge the help they have received from the 
various Services, which tc^ethen form the great machine 
of Provincial Government. I have seen something of 
most of them : and, when all have given of their best, it 
might in normal times seem invidious to mention one branch 




246 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


Farewell Dinner given by the Members and Ministers of the 

Punjab Government to Eis Excellency th^ Viceroy, 

alone of the public serTiee. But, in the circumstances of 
to-day, you will forgive me if I pay a special tribute to all 
ranks of the police, which the other services, especially 
those whose duty it is most closely to co-operate with 
them, will be the first to welcome and the last to grudge. 
Those circumstances have made it necessary to expand the 
strength of the police both in the Punjab and in other 
Provinces, and I am well aware of the readiness with 
which numbers of Army reservists drawn from your 
Province have come forward to undertake this duty. 
Their assistance has been of great value and has furnished 
new evidence of the loyalty, which is the tradition of their 
class. During recent months they have performed duties 
more than usually difficult and dangerous mth the greatest 
gallantry and restraint, and L do not find it easy adequately 
to express my appreciation of all they have done. 

Gentlemen, an occasion like to-night’s is a forerunner 
of the time when Lady Irwin and I shall have to say good- 
bye to the many friends we have made in the Punjab and 
in India. It brings also very near a moment which will be 
one of sadness for us — ^the day on w'hich we shall see Simla 
for the last time. I am glad to think that we sliall leave it 
by what must be one of the most beautiful roads in the 
world, through the hill States between here and Dehra Dun. 
I fcimw few people who are more to be envied for the 
beauty of their country than the Punjab Hill Chiefs whose 
territory surrounds Simla, and whose kindness and 
hospitality so many of us have enjoyed and — I may add — 
whose shooting preserves have afforded us many happy 
days. It will be a delightful climax to our life in Simla 
to spend a few more days in the woods and on the bills 
that we have learnt to love so well. 

I shall carry away many other vivid recollections of 
the Punjab, but time will not permit me this evening to 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


247 


Farewell Dinner given hy the Members aurl Ministers of the 
Punjab Government to Ilis ExeeUency the Viceroy, 

linger over them. Sir Jogindra Singh has recalled the 
visit I paid to Lahore four yearjs ago, and the Durbar in 
the Lahore Fort at which many of you were present. I 
lia\'e also been able to see sometliing of your agriculture, 
your great irrigation works and the canal colonies, which 
are a standing tribute to your Irrigation ser\'ice and whose 
development has transformed the desert plains of the 
Punjab ; I have come to know and admire the virile races 
that make up the population of the Province, and provide 
the Punjabi regiments with such a splendid type of fighting 
man. These are all things I shall remember, along with 
the unfailing kindness that I have received at the hands 
of your Punjabi people. 

It is therefore a great pleasure to be able to meet so 
many Punjabis in one gathering, and, among many other 
reasons for which I count myself indebted to you for 
inviting me here this evening, is the occasion it affords 
me, at a critical time of India’s history, to review the 
position of Government in i:eiation to events, which now 
occupy the minds of all those concerned with the welfare 
of this country. In little more than a month from now 
representatives from all parts of India will meet Ilis 
Majesty’s Government In a Conference, which I trust may 
long be remembered as one of the landmarks of progress 
in the history of this country. It was of course inevitable 
that any selection I could make would meet with criticism, 
but I think Indian opinion generally, remembering that 
limits of size imposed obvious restrictions, and that the 
Conference will depend upon argument and agreement 
rather than upon voting strength, will give me credit for 
having done my best to find a team which might do 
justice to the several points of view of wMeh we have to 
take account. That Conference will include no repre- 
sentative of one important political pady in India, and 



248 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Farewell Dinner given by the Members and Ministers of the 
Punjab Government to His Excellency the Viceroy, 

1 confess that the refusal of that party to endeavour to 
make their contribution to discussions of such far-reaching 
consequence seems to me to betray a tragic lack of fore- 
sight and a banki’uptcy of statesmanship. But, while 
deploring that wiser counsels have not prevailed, I do not 
think there can be much doubt on whose shoulders must 
rest the blame for the present position of affairs. 

It is not necessary for me to trace the course of events 
which have culminalted in the pj^esent civil disobedience 
movement, and I need go no further back than the 
beginning of this year. Throughout that period, though 
it has been both my duty and my will +0 afSrm the fixed 
determination of my Government to fulfil their primary 
duty of maintaining justice and liberty, and to do every- 
thing in my power to support the servants and friends of 
Government, I have gone to the furthest lengths possible, 
further indeed than many critics have thought defensible, 
to hold open the door for reconciliation. You all know 
that, when Sir T. B. Sapru and Mr. Jayakar, acting 
entirely on their own initiative and inspired only by a fine 
sense of public duty, requested permission to visit the 
Congress leaders in jail in order to explore the possibilities 
of peace, that permission was readily accorded, and every- 
thing was done from the side of Government, at the risk 
of not a little misunderstanding, to facilitate their efforts. 
They spared themselves nothing in the task ; private 
sorrows and private preoccupations were set aside, and 
I venture to say that they carried with them the good 
wu*shes of vast numbers of their fellow-countrymen. India 
owes them a very deep debt of gratitude. And what has 
been the response that was given in no uncertain terms 
only a few weeks ago f I do not think I exaggerate 
when I say that the reply amounted to a total and blank 
refusal to face present facts ; it put forward demands 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


249 


Farewell Dinner given by the Members and Ministers of the 
Punjab Government to His Excellency the Viceroy, 

which made discussion impossible, and which could be ex- 
plained only by a desire on the part, of those concerned to 
reject sltij reasonable proposal that might lead to peace. 
There have it is true been hints from various quarters 
that the written word was more uncompromising than the 
actual view’s of some of the leaders w’arranted, and that 
private assurances by myself might supplement the open 
statement of the policy of Government. 1 have only the 
written word before me, and I am unable, as indeed I 
would consider it improper, to speculate how near this 
may be to the truth. But, in the very document on the 
strength of which Mr. Jayakar was encouraged to begin 
his attempt, it was suggested that I should give some 
such confidential undertaking. And it may be, as some 
have thought whose good faith I do not doubt, that as- 
surances on certain points very material to the speedier 
restoration of peace might have been received, if I on 
my part had been ready to give assurances on ihe consti- 
tutional issue in private that I was not prepared to give 
in public. I must make it perfectly plain that that method 
is not one that ever has, or ever will, make any appeal 
to me. And that, as I think, for sulBcient reasons. In the 
first place, I should have regarded it as quite incompatible 
with the preservation of the character of a so-called Free 
Conference, if His Majesty’s Government, or I on their 
behalf, had so far prejudged the case, that this Free Con- 
ference was ostensibly to consider, by private assurances 
not disclosed. And, in the second place, I think that the 
constitutional future of India is a subject in which as far 
as possible the whole of India has a right to be consulted, 
and in regard to which it would be quite improper for His 
Majesty’s Government or myself to enter into separate or 
secret engagements with a single political party, which, 
whatever its importance, is not and cannot claim to be the 



250 


Speeches by Lord Irmn. 


Fareirell Dinner given by the Members ond Ministers of the 

Punjab Government to His Ereelleney the Viceroy. 

whole of India. To have given any such private engage- 
ment, in order, as some might have hoped, to buy off the 
civil (lisol>edienee movement, would have been not less than 
a betrayal of all other parties in India, and above all of 
those who throughout these last troubled months have 
supported Government. This is no time, and the future 
of India is no subject, for secret diplomacy of this kind. 
I am quite willing to meet any attacks, and take any blame, 
for open mistakes of policy into which I or my Government 
ma}" fall. I should be the last to claim that we have made 
none, or shall not make others. But I hope m\ severest 
critic here or elsewhere will never be able to charge me with 
having spoken with a different voice in private from that 
which I have employed in public utterances. 

t 

It was not therefore possible ‘for me to do other than 
take the reply of the Congress leaders at its face value, and 
state quite frankly that it offered no basis of discussion. 
I believe that the great majority of informed and un- 
prejudiced minds have deplored the breakdown ; though 
those who find cause for satisfaction in the present situation 
of the country may rejoice. For my own part I do not 
hesitate to say that those who direct the policy of Congress 
have assumed a heavy responsibility, for which history 
will assuredly not hold them guiltless. Count up the 
items in that responsibility and see what the balance is. 
On the economic side, great damage cruelly affecting 
thousands of their fellow-countrymen by restraint of 
their legitimate trade, and inflicting loss upon the country 
as a whole, from which it will take 3^ears to recover ; on 
the civic side! irreparable harm to the future citizens of 
India at their mast , impressionable age, by encouraging 
them in defiance of discipline to abandon their studies, 
and plunge with little or no knowledge into political 
controversy". And, generally, the encom‘agement of a spirit 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


261 


Farexcell Dinner given hg the Members and Ministers of the 

Punjab Government to Hk Excellency the Ykeroy, 

of disregard and contempt for the law, which has not iK^en 
slow to i^esult, as anyone could have foreseen, in widespread 
and senseless damage to property, bodily injuries and not 
infrequently loss of life. As against all this, it may be 
claimed by its promoters that the movement has arouse* 1 
national feeling, that it has caused some <lamage to British 
trade, and that it has impressed British and world opinion. 
It no doubt has, but scareel^^ I think in the direction that 
those who initiated it would desire. For British and 
foreign observers do not overlook the fact that the move- 
ment was launched at the very moment when the British 
Government had proclaimed its readiness to make a new 
approach to the problem by way of round table conversa- 
tions, at which every point of view might have been freely 
ventilated. Whai the movement has achieved is to make 
the agreed solution, which everybody in their hearts knows 
is necessary, immeasurably more difBcult. 

It is a heavy count ; but I cannot absolve the Congress 
leaders of a responsibility even more grave than this. If 
ever there wa^ a phrase, by which those who first employed 
it unconsciously sought to deceive themselves and others 
into a blind disregard of the certain consequences of their 
actions, that phrase is non-violent civil disobedience. 
Many of those who broadcasted that phrase from the plat- 
form or in the Press must have known the sinister harvest 
they would reap. Some of the wiser among them have 
striven by word and example to confine the agitation to 
peaceful and constitutional lines. Many, I know, hy 
religious conviction and their sense of common humanity 
would ^rink in their own pratetice from anything that 
involves danger to life or bodily hurt. I gladly give them 
all credit that is their due, and I do not think that anyone 
here will suspect me of confusing sincere national feeling 
with revolutionary or anarchical activities, or with any 




252 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Farewell Dinner given by the Members and Ministers of the 

Punjab Government to His Excellency the Viceroy. 

Other subversive action which, with its doctrine of con- 
tempt for the law, leads on so often to violence and blood- 
shed, and which relies eontinuallj' on the exercise of some 
of the harshest forms of social and political tyranny and 
intolerance. But what is one to think of the attitude of 
those holding important positions in the Congress organi- 
sation, who are not ashamed openly to confess that the 
question whether or not to adopt a policy of violence is 
one of mere expediency and not of principle, that the issue 
is one to be judged not on moral but on practical grounds, 
and that, if the way of violence is to be rejected, it is only 
because it promises no substantial results ? Argument on 
.such lines is bound to be taken, especially by the young 
and ill-balanced, as a thinly-veiled invitation to put the 
matter to practical test. But, further, there have not been 
lacking impassioned appeals, made under the aufspices of 
Congress and accompanied by public recognition of cri- 
minal acts, to the unthinking enthusiasm of youth. Men 
chained with murder have been eulogised as heroes, public 
meetings and demonstrations have been held in their 
honour, and their lives have been hailed as deserving of 
high admiration. Leaders who have on occasion xrttered 
sentiments such as these, and whose official programme 
approves and has applauded the attempt to undermine 
the loyalty of troops and police, cannot be absolved if 
some of their followers go further along the road of 
violence than its leaders might themselves desire, or be 
prepared openly to encour^e. There is little ground for 
surprise that, after training of this kind, recent months 
have witnessed acts of violence and outrage which have 
cost the lives of many gallant servants of Government 
and of which every true lover of his country cannot do 
other than feel ashamed. 

Let me come back for a moment, however, to happier 




Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


263 


Farewell Dinner given by the Members and 2£inisfers of the 

Punjab Government to His Excellemoj the Viceroy, 

things, and think what this country might achieve if ail 
its energies were directed to the building of a strong and 
prosperous India on the new foundations, now in the 
process of being laid. To destroy is always easy, and in 
the very simplicity of destructive w^ork lies both its danger 
and its attraction to ill-balanced minds. But, if from one 
quarter there has been this unhelpful attitude, it is grati- 
fying to see that elsewhere — in the Punjab as in all other 
Provinces — efforts are being made to grapple with the 
problem of construction. What the architecture will be 
I do not here make bold to forecast, but that there will be 
builder’s work for all to do is clear enough. And I am 
not unhopeful that in the sweat and labour which such a 
gigantic task will demand from all, in the engrossing 
interest of formulating great plans which one clay will 
see fruition, there may be found at least a partial cure of 
the distempers which now have the country in their 
grip. 

If those, who before many weeks are out, are to 
engage with British statesmen in these momentous deli- 
berations, can agree on one broad and well-conceived 
constitutional plan, refusing to be distracted to the right 
or left by claims of party, creed, or unessential differences, 
I cannot doubt that in the outcome thej’’ will succeed in 
achieving something for Indiai as great as anything that 
has been done in her whole history. They can feel content 
that they have chosen the path of truer patriotism in at 
least attempting to solve India’s problem, instead of 
joining the ranks of those, whose contribution is confined 
to vituperation and denunciation of those with sounder 
public spirit than themselves. Of this at all events I am 
confident that, whatever the future may bring, the Punjab 
and its people in the task that faces them will play a 
part, worthy in all ways of a Province on wh<^ strength 
and loyalty India will ever continue to rely. 




254 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


2Wi Novem? 
berldSO. 


Farewell Dinner to H, E, FklfDMnr.'Jml Sir MlUium Birdwood, 

I began by .saying how much Lady Irwin and I had 
owed to the many friendships that the proverbial hospi- 
tality of India had permitted us to make. We shall both 
leave a large part of our hearts in India when the time 
comes for ns to say good-bye to it, and we shall both hope 
that our Indian friends, who may in future visit England, 
will frequently give us the opportunity of refreshing those 
personal relations that will always remain our happiest 
memories of the time Tve w^ere privileged to spend in India. 


FAEEWELL DINNER TO H. E. FIELD-MARSHAL SIR 
WILUAM BIRDWOOD. 

H. E. the Viceroy delivered the foUowing speech at the 
Farewell Dinner given to H. E. Sir William Birdwood at 
Delhi on the 24di November : — 

Tour Highnesses, Ladies and Gentlemen , — T want 
presently to ask yon to drink the health of the Commander- 
in- Chief and Lady Birdwood ; but before doing so there 
are a few things I shonld like to say. 

There is no colleague from whom, if they have worked 
cordially and harmoniously together, a Viceroy more 
reluctantly parts than from the Commander-m-Chief, and 
never could a Viceroy have felt that more strongly than 
I feel it in the ease of Sir William Birdwood. The fact 
that he succeeded to his post, on Lord Rawlinson^s sudden 
death, a few months only before I became Viceroy, has 
permitted Lady Irwin and myself to count the Com- 
mander-in-Chief and Lady Birdwood among the closest of 
our friends, and has enabled me to draw freely during all 
that time upon his ripe experience and his accumulated 
knowledge of men and things. 

The Commander-in-Chief, whoever be the incumbent 
of tile office, rightly looms very large in the life of India. 
The instinct of India about the importance of defence 



Speeches hy Lord /wm. 


266 


Farewell Dinner to JJ, E, Fteld-Murmal Sir William Birdwccd, 

leads ber to respect the person who is the official and 
responsible head of the system, on which defence depends. 
To the Indian Army, the Commander-in-Chief is the 
visible embodiment of all those converging loyalti^ and 
traditions, which make it what it is, and in tlie p^itiin 
they naturally accord to the Commander-in-Chief we see 
outward expression of the esprit de corps^ belonging to 
units, and of the individual and corporate self-respect 
they rightly feel. And I think therefore that we ought 
to look jealously upon any proposals that might be made 
to replace the personal Commander-in-Chief by an iwi- 
personal system of administration. 

If this is true generally of Commanders-in-Chie£, it 
is doubly and trebly true of Sir William Birdwood. His 
hold on the affection of the Indian soldier is I fancy truly 
remarkable. At inspections he has a word for every 
Indian officer and for most of the men ; at gathering* of 
pensioners he displays, so I am told, the most intimate 
personal knowledge of fathers and grandfathers of those 
he meets ; so that indeed of manj" sepoys it might be said : 
‘‘ It’s a wise child that knows his own father better than 
the Commander-in-Chief.” He speaks habitually to 
troops in their own language — ^Punjabi, Pushtu, GurkhaH, 
and I know not how many more. I believe that it is 
genuine matter for surprise to Scottish Eegiments that on 
similar occasions when he addresses them he sometime 
lapses into plain English ! Old Indian Army officers 
have told me that there has been no similar relationship 
between the Commander-in-Chief and all ranks of the 
Indian Army since that whidi existed between them and 
Lord Roberts, and no one better than I knows how valu- 
able this personal influence of the Commander-in-Chief hasi 
been during recent montihs. 

Different Commanders-in-Chief have had different 
tasks to perform. Some like Lord Eitdiener and Lord 




256 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


FareweU Dinner to H, E. Fttld-Marshal Sir William Birdwood. 

Kawlinson have been concerned with, wide schemes of re- 
organisation, and in Lord Rawlinson ^s case with 
far-reaching developments of Frontier policy. Sir 
William Bird wood took over the duties at a time w^hen the 
reorganisation, suggested and undertaken on the heels of 
war and under the influence of memories still fresh, had 
to be permanently strengthened and established under 
conditions of thought rather different. The War was 
further away ; and some of the necessity of iwiganisa- 
tion was 1^ plainly evident. Nor is reorganisation ever 
very pleassint. It necessarily means departure from cus- 
tom and often from tradition and the sacrifice of much 
which has gathered round it the regard that only time 
can give. This was Sir William Bird wood’s job and no 
one could have been better suited for it. 

He brought to it the personal knowledge of men to 
which I have already referred, and, if I had to define the 
other qualities that have given him this particular strength, 
I should place first that power of sympathy, that has 
made him feel no grievance or request too small to take 
up personally, and has enabled him to find time to write 
the personal letter that, even if the request is refused, is 
evidence that it has been carefully considered. With this 
has gone that simplicity that so often seems a quality of 
great soldiers ; a natural courtesy and kindness of heart 
that mean much everywhere, but nowhere, I think, more 
than in India : and that streak of imagination, which 
enables a man without effort to place himself in the posi- 
tion of those with whom he has to do. 

He was thus able in his work to smooth off many 
rough places, through the general feeling among Indian 
ofScers and men that they could safely trust the judgment 
and actions of one who knew them and their problem so 
intimately. 




Spe€clt€$ by Lord Irwin. 


257 


B'arewell Dinner to H. E, Field-Marshal Sir WilHam Birdwood, 

But his personal influence has not been confined to 
soldiers. He has travelled more widely than any of liis 
predecessors^ doing perhaps sometimes more of his journey- 
ing on foot than his staff would have been inclined to 
favour, and everyw’here he has gone in British India and 
the States he has made and left behind him friends. Only 
a short time ago he paid a visit to Nepal, and I am con- 
fident that no better ambassador could have been found to 
express the goodwill we feel for a country that is the home 
of some of our best fighting troops. 

Of his military qualities, a layman is obviously in- 
competent to ^eak. We regard all Commanders-in-Chief 
as necessarily great, and feel that we can rely safely on 
the advice of one who has been called, no doubt on the 
recommendation of other distinguished soldiers, to fill one 
of the highest posts in His Majesty’s forces. But there 
are few who were of an age to follow the events of the 
War, who have not learnt the name of Birdwood in asso- 
ciation with the Anzac landing at Gallipoli. Many tales 
are current of his doings in the drama there enacted ; how 
he always seemed to have the knack of turning up among 
the men where the shelling was heaviest ; how scarcely a 
day passed without his visiting every part of the pomtion 
held ; how he bathed with the men in the sea and when 
the Turks, as they sometimes did, began to shell, would 
seek safety, not by, with the rest, making for the shore, 
but by swimming out to sea. Or again, of the arts and 
wiles employed by him for the successful deception of the 
Turks, on which at the time of evacuation depended the 
lives of thousands of His Majesty’s soldiers. Small 
wonder that he was loved by every man of his force, and 
that, whether true or not, the story that will be familiar 
to many here was passed round of a conversation between 
two Australian soldiers after a visit of the Corps Com- 
mander to the trenches. As was, I am tdd, his habit 

Ii6PS¥ 



258 


Speeches hy Lord Irmn, 


Farewell Dinner to S, E, Field-Marshal Sir William Birdwood, 

he was indistingxiisjhable by any of the outward marks of 
rank, and was in working shirt-sleeve dress. When he 
had passed, one Australian said to another who had failed 
to recognise him : 

Don’t you know Mr. Birdwood f ” 

Yes, but that wasn’t him.” 

It was.’’ 

“ Then why the devil doesn’t he wear feathens 
as any other bird would ! ” 

In one of his despatches, Sir Ian Hamilton wrote some 
sentences that have become historic : — 

Birdwood has been the Soul of Anzac. Not for 
one single day has he ever quitted his post. 
Cheery and full of sympathy he has spent 
many hours of each of the twenty-four inspir- 
ing the defenders of the front trenches, and if 
he does not know every soldier in his force at 
• least every soldier in the force believes he is 
known to his Chief.” 

1 do not think any Commander of men could desire 
or receive higher praise. 

The name of the Commander-in-Qhief is thus a house- 
hold word throughout the Empire. And if the memory of 
his part in these events was ever likely to fade, which I 
scarcely think it will, in other parts of the King’s Domin- 
ions, it will assuredly remain green in the history of 
Jhose days taught to every boy and girl in the schools of 
Australia. 

At such a time as this you would I know feel that I 
had only half discharged my task, if I did not try to ex- 
press something of the feeling that we entertain for Lady 
Birdwood. There can be no good cause in India that has 
ever appealed to her, without receiving most readily all 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


269 


Aligarh Muslim rnitersity. 

the encouragement and assistance that it was in her power 
to give. Snowdon ’’ at Simla and the Commander dn- 
Chief’s House in Delhi have been indeed open-handed in 
their hospitality. And I know no one who has set a higher 
example of constant service of her fellow-ereaturfs, in 
whatever ways circumstances brought to her hand, than 
Lady Birdwood. In no quarter can the King’s recognition 
of good service have been more just than when he, to all 
our pleasure, recently awarded to Lady Birdwood I^lember- 
ship of the Crown of India. 

Whether after the Commander-in-Chief has retired he 
.will be permitted to enjoy a well-earned rest, in which per- 
haps he will be able to place on permanent record many of 
the things on which he is qualified to write, or whether 
one who has already rendered such yeoman service to the 
State will be called upon yet again to render more, time 
will decide. But in any case I know that both he and 
Lady Birdw'ood will leave behind them a memory of a 
great devotion to duty, and of many acts of kindness un- 
ostentatiously performed, and thousands of friends of all 
races and positions, who will deplore their departure, and 
whose best wishes and affection they will carry with them 
and always retain. 


ALIGAEH MUSLIM UKIYEESITY. 


His Excellency the Viceroy visited the Muslim University 
at Aligarh on the 2nd December, and in reply to an address 
said 


tienUeme%f-A. variety of circumstances has decreed 
that my visit to Aligarh should be postponed until the last 
few months of my time in India. There are however few 
educational institutions in this country for which I have 
felt greater solicitude and which I have been more eag^ 
to see with my own eyes. For I have always appreciated 



260 


Speeches hy Lard Irwin. 


Aligarh Muslim University. 

the peculiar hold it possesses on the affections and loyalties 
of the great Muslim community in India. It is not too 
much I think to say that, for those Mussalmans who are 
most deeply concerned with the future of their com- 
munity, Aligarh Universitj’ is the focus of their hopes 
and the centre of their affections. It is a cause of 
genuine pleasure to me to know that by the kindness of 
the University Court my name is to be associated in 
permanent form with this institution. I shall never 
cease to take the warmest coneem in its welfare, and I 
may add that the attempt to raise a fund, to which Syed 
Koss Masud has just referred, is one which I and my 
Government will watch with great interest and ys^hich 
will surely make its appeal to all those who hold the 
cause of education dear. 

But, if I waited long before seeing Aligarh, there is 
at least one reason for being glad that T deferred my visit. 
And that is that we find today in the Vice-Chancellor's 
chair a grandson of the great Muslim patriot whose far- 
seeing vision and courageous idealism were responsible 
for the foundation of the College from which this 
University later sprang into life. I am deeply indebted 
to Syed Ross Masud for all that he has said today. It 
was indeed a fortunate day for the University, when they 
secured the services of one who had so greatly distin- 
guished himself as an educational administrator in 
Hyderabad. And we may well contemplate how proud 
and happy his revered grandfather would have been to 
think that the torch of enlightenment he was handing on 
would be held one day by his own grandson, and that 
the family tradition of devotion to the cause of, Muslim 
education should thus be perpetuated. It is, as Syed 
Boss Masud has just said, a matter for regret to us all 
that His Highness the Chancellor is not with us today. 
His Highness himself, as I have cause to know, would 
have given much to be here, for he has inherited from 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin* 


261 


Aligarh Muslim University, 

his distinguished mother all her care and solicitude for 
the fortunes of this University. 

On an occasion such as this, we cannot fail to be 
reminded of the loss the University has sustained in the 
untimely death of Mr. Horne, who, coming to this place 
as Pro-Vice-Chancellor in difficult times, had quickly won 
the respect and willing co-operation of his colleagues 
and the affection of the students. He brought rare gifts 
to the help of Aligarh, and by his death the University 
has been bereft of one who, had he lived, %vould have 
given to it of his best. 

I do not propose to dwell at length on the troublous 
times through which the University has recently passed. 
As we know, the report of the Committee presided over 
by Sir Ibrahim Rahimtoola revealed certain defects in 
administration, organisation and teaching, and some may 
have temporarily lost heart at what seemed the eclipse 
of their brightest hopes. But the University authorities 
lost no time in laments or recrimination. They took up 
the work of reform with courage, and it is a matter for 
great congratulation that those responsible for the 
guidance of the University had the determination to 
realise the need for action and to apply the necessaiy 
remedy. It is a matter I say for congratulation but not 
I think for surprise. Courage and determination are 
now — as history shows them to have been in the past — 
features that are not often lacking in the Muslim 
character. Misfortunes may test but they cannot destroy 
his constructive ability or quench his spirit ; rather they 
call forth his loyalties and are the rallying cry for all those 
who see in tlfem the opportunity of higher service to a 
cause that they hold dear. I could mention many names, 
and I should like on this occasion specially to refer to 
the devoted labours of Sir Shah Muhammad Suleiman, 
who assumed the ofigee of Vice-Chancellor in critical and 
very difficult circumstances at a time when Ms own 


262 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin* 


Aligarh Muslim University, 

oflScial duties were unusually exacting. All credit is due 
to him and to many others for the earnestness with which 
they have grappled with their task, and there is now no 
reason I can see why the graduate of Aligarh should not 
be the equal of any graduate in India. And I can 
assure you, with reference to w’hat your Vice-Chancellor 
said towards the close of his address, that I will do 
everything in my power to ensure that the claims of old 
Aligarh students for employment in Government or other 
services receive the fullest consideration. 

Nor am I unmindful of the attitude adopted by the 
Aligarh students when the civil disobedience movement 
was at its height. At a time when the work of some other 
Universities was brought to a standstill by picketing, this 
University resisted all efforts made to undermine its 
discipline. Disruptive influences might easily have 
wrought their insidious harm, but the students of Aligarh 
remained staunch, not because of any lack of the high 
spirit or enthusiasm that is one of the best endowments 
of youth, but simply because of their own good sei^e 
and loyalty to their Alma Mater, They showed that 
discipline at Aligarh is not merely something imposed 
from above or from without, but something intelligently 
and deliberately accepted by the student-body as a 
necessary condition of healthy life and W'ork in the 
University. 

May I presume today to urge all those who share in 
the life of this institution to deviate no whit from the 
course which they have set before themselves ? If they 
keep steadily before them the aims which Jiave recently 
guided their policy, if they will insist on a high standard 
of qualification for matriculation and degrees, if they can 
ensure concord and harmony in administration and 
vigour in their intellectual and corporate life, I feel 
confident that they will in the fulness of time achieve 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin* 


263 


Aligarh Muslim University, 

success and confer an inestimable boon upon the whole 
Muslim community of India. For I suppose that there 
was never a time in their history when that community 
stood in greater need than they stand today of men well 
and truly trained for leadership. It was the dream of 
Sir Syed Ahmed that the College which he founded should 
equip for this purpose men who vrould assure for Muslims 
a position in modern India worthy of their best tradi- 
tions, and Tvould maintain for them their social and 
religious unity. Could he have foreseen the changes 
which since then have come over the political face of 
India, he would have felt doubly sure that in the ideals 
for which he strove were bound up not only the best 
interests of his community, but the surest means of 
eqiiipping it for all the responsibilities of Indian citizen- 
ship. 

All however cannot be leaders, and, though the 
considerations I have mentioned must largely influence 
the aims of those who direct the policy of any University, 
it is natural that parents and students should be more 
immediately interested in matters which appear to them 
to be more pressing. Theirs is the anxious problem of 
employment, and they cannot be blamed if their first 
demand of a University is that it should equip its 
students to earn a living honourably. But, if the con- 
ditions of success for the achievement of this practical 
and immediate object are examined, it will I think be 
found that in this sphere too success lies in steady 
adherence to the policy of maintaining high academic 
standards. There was a time when a university degree 
in India was a certain passport to employment, when the 
qualifications for admission and the standards of examina- 
tion were kept at a level low enough to ensure tie entrance 
into the universities of all ambitious young men, and the 
methods of teaching most appreciate were th<^ which 
would ensure for them a degree with the mmimtun of 



264 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Aligarh Muslim University. 

effort. But with the rapidly inereasing output from our 
Universities — ^the United Provinces alone turn out over 
1,600 graduates each year — ^the old qualifications for 
emplojuuent no longer hold. If degrees are to ensure 
material prospects, they must be a guarantee of high 
attainment in the subjects which have been studied, 
must certify that the graduate is able to think for himself 
and form his own judgments, and must imply that he 
has acquired by contact with his fellow students in life, 
in the hostels and on the playing-fields, those qualities — 
physical energy, initiative, and ability to get on with 
others — ^which in any sphere of practical activity are 
often of even greater value than intellectual gifts. 

I do not think therefore that the insistence upon a 
high academic standard 'which I have advocated is really 
in conflict with the immediate practical aims which, os 
I say, many parents and students are forced to set 
before themselves. Especially, I believe, is this true 
today of Muslim education. There is certainly leeway 
to be made up, but given the wiU to advance, and given 
an assurance that they themselves will be satisfied with 
no inadequate standard, I am confident that Muslims as 
a whole will reach a level of attainment which w^ill com- 
pare not unfavourably with that achieved by any other 
community. 

What T have just said is a commonplace, and I know 
that Muslims keenly desire that advance in education 
which will allow them to compete on level terms with 
others for posts in the public services. The case however 
has m often been stated in this way that we may perhaps 
sometime be in danger of giving the impression that 
success in such competition is the one goal which 
Muhammadan education sets before itself. No one 
would of course seriously suggest that the achievement 
of this end alone could ever be an ideal lofty and satis- 
enough to spuij the young men either of the 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


265 


Annual Prize-giving at the Eajkumar College^ Raipur. 

Muhammadan or of any other community to scale the 
mouutain peaks of learning. The ideal which I would 
urge you to set before you is so to develop the intellect 
and the character of Muhammadan youth that, as they 
pass from school to college and from college out through 
the gateway into the battlefield of life, they may fm<! 
themselves properly equipped for the fray, with their 
armour bright, and feel the ground solid beneath their 
feet. If they have learnt well, they will surely have 
learnt among other things the desire to learn more ; they 
will leave this University not merely with a store of 
knowledge, but with brain alert and firm purpose in their 
hearts, ready to take up the duties of the higher citizen- 
ship to which I just now made reference, in whatever 
sphere of the common life of India they may be called 
upon to play their part, 

I earnestly pray that the influence of this great 
Muslim University as generation succeeds to generation 
may be unceasingly exercised for the good of India 
and her people. Success or failure in this high mission 
must rest principally in the hands of those who will teach 
and learn here during these next years, and if success 
is theirs I cannot doubt that all, who have shared in its 
achievement, win have deserved well of this present 
generation, and will have assured for their names an 
honourable and abiding place in the halls of memory. 


ANNUAL PRIZE-GIVING AT THE RAJKUMAR 
COLLEGE, RAIPUR. 

His Excellency the Viceroy delivered the following s{>eech 
at the Annual Prize-giving at the Eajkumar Collie at Raipur 
on the 7th December 

« 

Mr. Prindpxl, Ymir Excellency, Btdiny Chiefs, 
Eumoo's, Ladies and Qentlemm,— It has been a very 


7tfa Oc«c»- 
iMTim 




266 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


Annual Prize-giving at the Bajkumar College, Baipur. 

great pleasure to Lady Irwin and myself to be able to 
be here today. We feel as if we have been pleasantly 
introduced into a very delightful family party and, on 
our behalf and on behalf of those who have come w'ith 
me, I wish to express our great gratitude both to those 
who invited us here — ^to the Euling Chiefs who have 
entertained us ivith such lavish hospitality — and to all 
who have contributed to making our visit to the College 
so pleasant and enjoyable, I think myself very fortunate 
that I should have been the first Viceroy to have the 
opportunity of paying such a visit, and still more 
fortunate that I should have been the indirect means of 
securing you such generosity from your good friends. 

I had heard a great deal about the College before I 
came here. But, as seeing is better than hearing, I 
shall go away with a much higher appreciation of what 
the College has done and is doing. It is with great 
interest that I listened to the history of the College 
which the Principal gave in his speech, and not the least 
part of that interest attached to what formed the con- 
cluding part of his observations, namely, financial 
questions that affect the College so closely. I am afraid 
he Imows, as well as I know, and as Sir Montagu Butler 
knows, that finance in these days is a very difScult 
question for everybody. Everybody wants money out of 
Government and Government has not got as much money 
as it used to have or as it would like to have. ]>ut, 
although the question is not yet finally settled, I can 
offer Mr. Stow a very good hope that we shall be able to 
come in some degree to his financial assistance. I have 
been very pleased for another reason to come to the 
College today, in that I have been able to do so under 
the auspices, so to speak, of Sir Montagu Butler, who 
has been so good a friend tq the College for many years. 
I only r^et that Sir Hugh Stephenson should have 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


267 


Annual Prize-giving at the Bajkumar College ^ Eaipur, 

been unavoidably prevented from being present also in 
this great gathering. 

I have just given away a great many prizes and I 
hope that those who have got them are very pleased to 
have got them, and I hope that those who have been 
unfortunate enough not to get them are not too dis- 
appointed. If I may make a personal confession, when 
I was at school I only got one prize in the whole of the 
ten years that I was at sehool, and I remember thinking 
it very unfortunate at the time. But I w*ould remind 
those who have not yet got prizes that, if they have been 
behind in this lap of the race, there are a good many 
more laps to run and, in a sense, the matter of competi- 
tion and the opportunities of winning prizes do not 
finish when you leave sehool but go on all your liv^. I 
sometimes think that our time at school may be likened 
to the preliminaries undertaken by explorers, such for 
instance as those who attempt to climb Mount Everest 
or Kinchinjunga. Before they start off on their journey, 
they collect all material and information, and when all 
these preliminary jobs ai^e done then only do they start 
on their journey. In the same way you Kumars will be 
setting out on a big journey,* some soon, some later, and 
I hope that when you leave the College you will have 
learnt, as I am sure you will, two things that are of great 
value. One is to work hard and the other is to play 
hard. I am sure that if you do both these things you 
will find that not only your time here is very much 
pleasanter, but that your time on the bigger journey out- 
side will also be very much pleasanter. Someone said 
that genius is only an infinite capacity for taking pains. 
In the same way if you take pains in your games, your 
sports and everything else, and if you play them as hard 
as you can, you will find that you leam as much from 
them as from your work. You will leam, if I may say 




268 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Annml Frize-giving at the Bajkumar College, Eaipur. 

so, how to ride over the difficult fences and overcome 
the obstacles that come in your lives. 

That is all, I think, that I really want to say except 
perhaps this one observation. I think the older ones 
among you Kumars, and even some of the younger ones, 
will realise that when you leave this College a great deal 
will be expected of you. Some of you will in time be- 
eoiae Rulers and to these I would say — Remember that 
when you are Rulers it is to you that your people will 
look for those gifts of character, judgment and wisdom, 
which they have a right to expect of you and which this 
College will have placed you in the way of acquiring. 
To those who will not be rulers I would offer this word 
of advice : Do not be afraid to try and strike out into 
the bigger world and find larger careers for yourselves, 
as Kumar Ram Saran Singh has done. There are many 
other ways in which you could do it and you will find 
you will live very much more useful lives than if you 
are simply content to live on in the homes where you 
have always lived up to now. And to all of you W'ho 
leave the College I say, do your best so to live, when you 
have passed beyond the College, that the College will 
never cease to be proud of you, and that, as you look 
back over your life, you -^ill be able to say — I have 
tried to repay to the Collie what the College gave to 
me.^* 

Now I have taken a great liberty. I have asked the 
Principal whether the Kumars may have a week’s holi- 
day in honour of my visit, and he has said that he would 
be very pleased indeed. I am not sure that he does not 
himself find some a«ttraetion in the thought of a week’s 
holiday. He will, therefore, arrange this at what seems 
to be the most suitable . time to fit in with the school’s 
work. It only remains for me to hope that you will 
enjoy it and to wish you the best of luck throughout your 



Speeches bij Lord Irwin. 


269 


ANNUAL CONYOCATION OF THE SERAMPOEE 
COLLEGE. 

His Excellency tlie Viceroy had to cancel at the last moment i3th Deew 
his engagement to preside over the Convocation of the Serampore 
College on Deceml>er 13th. The following speech, which he had 
intended to deliver, was read on his behalf by the Most Revd. 
the Metropolitan of India 

Genilemen , — It is a great pleasure to me today to 
visit a college which, both for the place it holds in hivstory 
and for the part it has played and is still playing in the 
educational life of Bengal, must have an almost unique 
appeal for those who are interested in the welfare of 
the young generation of Indians citizens. A century and 
more has passed since it was established by the first 
Baptist missionary to India, of revered memory, and I 
am glad to have this opportunity of paying a tribute to 
the far-seeing vision, which inspired the birth of this 
institution, and to the devotion which has brought it to 
its present state. 

Since those early days the history of Serampore 
College has been one of devoted and unflagging effort ; 
it has seen changes of fortune and changes of system, 
and now has once more been re-oiganised on the lines 
laid down by those great pioneers of missionary and 
educational effort, Carey, Marshman and Ward. For 
this reorganisation it is indebted above all to the inspira- 
tion and energy of Dr. Howells, whose name is written 
large on the scroll of those who have served the college 
well. I can appreciate how great a loss his retirement 
last year must have meant to you ; but he has bequeathed 
his charge to^ trusted hands, and I am confident that with 
equal zeal and equal faith Mr. Angus and his colleagues 
will carry on the high traditions of Serampore. 

For all of us, I suppose, a University Convocation 
provokes many thoughts and calls up many airociations. 

Some will look hack to the day— all too long ago— at our 



270 


Speeches hp Lord Irtoin^ 


Annual Convocation of the Serampore College. 

OTrn Universities, when by good luck or good management 
we had outwitted our examiners, and the hood was first 
thrown upon our own shoulders. Or we may be thinking 
what today means to those oi you who are just reaching 
the end of your University career, and now go out into 
the world to put to the test the knowledge you have gained, 
and the qualities of character you have formed. May 
you never regret the years j^ou have passed here or give 
cause to your University to remember you with any 
feelings but those of proud affection. 


A convocation too — ^with all that it implies in the 
kind of impress it sets upon those who are now receiving 
their degrees — is the justification or otherwise of the 
education which a University provides. It is not without 
some trepidation that I approach this subject, or attempt 
to speak of the true function of education. For I see 
that a great authority Mr. Mayhew has recently told us 
that it is only the professional educationalist w^ho really 
appreciates what educational problems mean, and in the 
same breath says that in India there has been no subject 
on which Viceroys and Governors have expressed their 
views with more ease and eloquence ! ’’ Much certainly 
has been written and said about the purpose of educa- 
tion in the modern world. But, though its outward 
foions may vary, its essentM object remains. For life, 
though conditioned by material elements, is a spiritual 
business, and what we may call the material aspect of 
education — ^the training of the young for the bar, for 
technical professions, for Government service, or for 
business — ^is stunted and incomplete without the spiritual, 
cultural, and ethical background on which our ideas and 
actions really rest. These are the all-em bracing condi- 
tions of our liv^ and, take it for all in all, they are the 
true test of the education a man has received. It is at 




Speeches by Lord irtenn. 


271 


Annual Convocation of the Serampore College, 

such a tribunal that a University will be ultimately 
judged. For, though in these respects our upbringing 
began for us long before we were even school lx>ys, a 
University life is for those who are fortunate enotigh to 
have shared in it perhaps the most critical as well as the 
most fruitful time of their career. It is about that age 
that w’e begin to realise w’hat a serious business life is 
going to be ; we find that the dull stuff' that we have been 
learning possibly has some value after all, and we bring 
what we have learnt of history, philosophy, literature 
and so on more and more into relation with the general 
life we see all about us. 

As you now know, a University gives priceless 
opportunities for comparing mental notes on all these 
subjects. When you are thrown, as you are during your 
time at a University, into the company of other people, 
young or old, -who are thinking out the same sort of 
problems, you are placed as it were in a kind of clearing 
house of knowledge, where the contact of mind with mind 
is at work on ideas, trying out the old and giving birth 
to new. It may be contact through books and study with 
minds ancient or modern ; or the exchange of thought 
with teachers or fellow-studtots. All the time we are 
clarifying our values ; finding that some things we 
thoi^ht gold are dross, and something we thought worth- 
less a thing of untold price. 

And this, if a University is fulfilling its proper 
function, is true both of culture and of character. In 
the sphere of culture you should be sorting out what is 
isp^ious and what is genuine in literature, in art, and 
in thought ; in the sphere of character, what is true and 
what is false ; acquiring the power of independent judg- 
ment, but basing it on something wider than your own 
ofeservation and experience. There are no doubt 



272 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Annual Convocation of the Serampore College, 

in which wa have to trust ultimately to our own judgment 
and eonscienee ; but we have no right or status to judge 
unless we have first studied and appraised the judgments 
of others, any more than w^e should have the right to 
umpire at a cricket match if we knew nothing of the 
established rules of the game. 

If the function of a University is something like 
what I have tried to suggest, I feel little hesitation in 
believing that Serampore College stands high in the rank 
of such institutions. It was, if I remember right, the 
hope of its Founders' that the college should be*, as they 
put it, “a union of piety and learning If, as T think 
we are all agreed, no education is eK^en half complete 
which does not go hand in hand with the training of 
character, the religious background of your education here 
must have inestimable value. For the ideals which con- 
dition moral progress are meaningless if they have no 
relation to religious belief, and I have little doubt that 
many non-Christian students of Serampore would be the 
first to acknowledge their debt to a foundation whose first 
object has always been to spread the light of the Christian 
religion. 

Before I conclude may I then offer a word of God- 
speed to those who are today receiving their Divinity 
degrees. They will be shortly offering themselves to 
many forms of Christian service, as Pastors of Churches, 
Priests, Missionaries and teachers. In all their various 
fields of effort their thoughts will often turn back to 
Serampord in wistfnl and grateful memory. They will 
di:«eover in fuller measure as the years pass what they 
ow'e to its influence, to the corporate life they led here 
with its common ideals, which all communities were able 
to share and make their own. And they will make the 
fullest return to their old College, by using always to the 
best advantage what it has taught them, in the service 
of their brother mm. 



Speeches by Lord Irmn, 


273 


OPENING OF THE ANNUAL MEETING OP THE 
ASSOCIATED CH.VMBERS OF COMMERCE. 

The following speech was delivered by His Excellency the Derem* 
Viceroy in opening the Annual Meeting of the Associated her 11^- 
Chambers of Commerce at Calcutta on the 15th December 

I need hardly say what very great pleasure it gave 
me to receive the invitation of the Associated Chambers 
of (^ommeree to take part in their opening meeting today. 

It is the third, though I fear the last, occasion on \vhi(*h 
I have the privilege of addressing your body, and it will 
always in years to come be one of my pleasantest re- 
collections of Calcutta that I have been able here- to meet 
and to make friends with so many members of the great 
European commercial community. 

I must thank yon at the outset, Mr. President, for 
the very kind way in which you have bidden me welcome 
this morning and I know that His Excellency Sir Stanley 
Jackson, whose name you have coupled with mine, will 
join me in this expression pf gratitude. 1 often feel 
that a Viceroy owes a Governor of Bengal an apology 
at this time of the year for robbing him of opportunities, 
such as today’s, of speaking to audi^ces who wish to 
hear him on subjects in which the present Governor is 
so much at home. But I think it possible that Sir 
Stanley himself, if we eonld probe his inner feelings, 
would confess that he is sometimes quite glad to sit in 
the pavilion and watch some less skilled hand going out 
lo hat 

You have just mentioned Mr. President the close 
eoneem with which the commercial community follows 
the development of the political situation in India and 
you have given expr^on to views, which I think are 
shared hj all reasonaHe people, on the policy which has 
recently been adopted by certain or^nisatioas in the 
wuntry. I shall have further opportunities, while I am 
in Calcutta, of speaking on some of th^ subjects, and 

umf 



274 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Associated Chambers of 
Commerce. 

1 will say no more this morning than to acknowledge with 
mneh appreciation the references you have made to the 
Government of India’s despatch upon constitutional 
reforms, and the desire you have expressed to assist, in 
a spirit of good-will, the solution of the difficult problems 
which today face the country. 

When I turn to the matters with which your 
Chambers are more intimately concerned, my first reflec- 
tion is that, in these days when Governments have grown 
accustomed to a larger share of kicks than half-pence, it 
is more than refreshing to listen to Mr. Laird’s spontane- 
ous appreciation of the help which, in one or two wa>s, 
my Government has recently been able to give to the 
commercial community. I can assure you that the 
Members of my Council who have come to attend your 
present Session will do all they possibly can to assist you 
in Ihe matters which are to be dealt with in the resolutions 
on your paper. But thcj subject which at the present 
moment overshadows all others is the general depression 
which has affected almost every branch of commerce and 
industry in nearly every country of the world. An 
unkind friend has reminded me that, when I addressed 
your meeting two years ago, I ventured on the stiitement 
that the general position gave good ground for sober 
optimism. Well, I am afraid there is not very much 
comfort to be drawn now from the recollection of that 
prophecy, unless it is perhaps that it shows the wisdom 
of sobriety in optimism as well as in other activities of 
life. 

For a year or so after that meeting of 1928, it is 
true, the position showed no great change for the worse, 
hut the Wall Street collapse of October 1929 proved to 
be the beginning of a period of acute and world-wide 
depression. India has suffered with the rest, and the 
returns of sea-borne trade for British India for the first 
six months of the present financial year show a fall of 


Bpeech&s hy Lord Irmn, 


275 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Associated Chambers of 

Commerce, 

no less than 28 per cent, in value of imports and 21 per 
tent, in exports, compared with the corresponding period 
of the previous year. I could quote similar figures for 
many other countries of the world, but rows of statistics 
are apt to be a soporific even to the most intelligent and 
best-mannered audience, and it is enough to say that the 
trade returns of the United States of America, Japan, 
Italy and Canada show that those countries have suffered 
even more severely than India, 

One symptom of these depressed conditions has been 
a world-wide fall in the prices of wholesale commodities, 
and, as was inevitable, India has felt the full brunt of 
this collapse, which is most pronounced in the ease of her 
chief exports, agricultural products and raw materials. 
It is, I suppose, of the usual order of things in a depres- 
sion of this kind that the price of raw products falls more 
sharply than that of manufactured goods. In a year of 
good harvests there is no possibility of limiting product- 
ion, for, cmce the seed is in the ground, the matter pass^ 
beyond the farmer ^s control, whereas industrial establi^- 
ments can be slowed down and the supply thus, partially 
at least, adjusted to demand. The consequent dump 
agricultural prices tends to fall first upon ^ricultural 
labour, which is unorganised and unlike industrial labour 
is in no position to resist wage reduction. In the natural 
^uence the troubles of industrial countries come pro- 
bably at a later date, when the purchasing power of the 
agricultural countries is reduced and the demand for 
manufactured goods begins to wane. Sooner or later a 
number of industries must either cease work or reduce 
and the numbers of unemployed mount. 
Thus the extent and the widespread nature of tte prtesent 
dislocation of trade is reflected in the very high ^ures 
of unemployment in different eountri^ — over 2 mflUons 
in the United Kingdom, 3 millions in Germany and pro- 
bably at least as many in the United States of America. 


376 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Asf^oeiated Chambers of 
Commerce, 

In a calamity of this magnitude there must always 
be a good deal of speculation as to the causes which have 
led to it. In some eases, such as the fall in price of sugar 
and rubber, there can be no question that there has been 
over-production in the full sense of the word ; that the 
world cannot use all the rubber which is being produced, 
without a large increase in the number of motor cars on 
the roads or substitution of cheap rubber for some of the 
materials of which many of the common requirements of 
life are today supplied, and that the world could not 
eat all the sugar that is being produced, without grave 
danger of indigestion, or whatever ills physicians may 
attribute to an excess of glucose. In the case of cotton, 
on the other hand, under-consumption seems to be quite 
as much to blame as over-production. China and India 
are the two great markets for cotton goods, and for years 
past the Chinaman seems to have been economising more 
in clothes than in civil wars, and has been buying much 
less than his normal requirements. This year too India’s 
purchasing power has been limited not only by the fall 
in the price of her prime agricultural commodities, but 
also by the disturbed political conditions. In the case 
of wheat, it is perhaps the most difficult of all to diagnose 
with confidence the causes of the situation. It is curious 
that the fall in price immediately succeeded poor harvests 
in three of the principal wheat-exporting countries, 
Canada, Australia and the Argentine, and it is not so 
obvious therefore to attribute the slump in prices to over- 
production. What would api>ear actually to have 
happened is that for threa or four years earlier the pro- 
duction of wheat had tended to be in excess of the demand, 
but the full effect was obscured by the action taken in 
various countries to hold the surplus off the market, and 
particularly by the wheat pools in Canada. The result 
was that the stimulus to a reduction in the acreage under 
wheat was absent, and in 19^ the eon^itution of the 
Federal Farm Board in the United States of America 



Speeches hj Lard Irwin, 


277 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Assoc iaterl Chamht rs of 

Commerce. 

made matters worse by removing further wheat Supplie.i 
from the market. The final result is that there is now 
in existence a large quantity of surplus w’heat, some of 
which was originally held up by the Farm Board aiid 
the wheat pools in the hope of securing better prices, and 
some of which the producers, as for example in the 
Piinjab, are compelled to hold, because no one will buy it. 

I have said enough, I think, to make the point clear 
that the hard times we have been having in India are, 
in their origin, due to world-wide causes. But, in saying 
that, I by no means absolve the present civil disobedience 
movement from its own heavy share of responsibility. It 
has immeasurably aggravated the situation both by the 
boycott directed against the trade in foreign, and parti- 
cularly British, goods, and indirectly by creating an 
atmosphere of uncertainty and unrest. The direct 
methods employed in Bombay have, as you know, resulted 
in the closing of several mills and the unemplojunent of 
a large number of mill-hands. The boycott on the sale 
of foreign cloth in Bombay and other parts of the country 
has not only caused serious losses to merchants, owing 
to their capital being locked up in unsaleable commodi- 
ties, but in doing so has prevented them from replacing 
their stocks of foreign cloth by the indigenous article. 
Handloom weavers are in distress for lack of the fine 
foreign yarns necessary to the production of some of 
their materials, and the Indian cotton grower has suffered 
l>ecause this political unrest, by reducing the eonsump- 
tfon both of Indian and foreign cotton cloth, has caused 
a further dasline in the price of the Indian raw material# 

You can well realise, geiatlemen, that during the last 
few months this economic crisis has been^the subject of 
anxious consideration both by the Government of India 
and by Provincial Governments. The general conclu^on 
we have reached is I think tbati in view of the complex 



278 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Associated Chambers, off 
Commerce* 

eliaracter o£ %vorld conditions, whatever share of respon- 
sibility may be attributed to the collective unwisdom of 
all the Governments in the world put together, there was» 
very little that any one Government could do to avert 
the crisis or to alleviate its consequences. It may indeed 
well be held that action by Governments in other countries 
has sometimes had the effect of postponing a crisis, only 
at the expense of aggravating its severity when it couldi 
no longer be averted. In some countries, as we have seen,, 
agriculturists have been assisted by Government or by 
commercial associations to keep supplies temporarily off* 
the market until prices had improved, and proposals on 
these lines have been repeatedly pressed upon the Govern- 
ment of India in recent months, and particularly in the 
case of jute and cotton. We examined these proposals; 
with all possible care and with every desire to help, but 
in the end our conclusion was that, whilst schemes of this, 
nature may be of value to counteract minor fluctuations, 
they are not only powerless against large movements of* 
world prices, but may actually be mischievous, in so far 
as they retard the operation of those corrective economic, 
forces which alone can have a permanent effect on prices.. 
Sir George Schuster in a speejeh at the Financial Secre- 
taries’ Conference last August dealt exhaustively with 
the experience of other countries in which such schemes 
have been tried, and I ne^ not go at length into the 
aiguments on either side. But the practical results, in 
the United States, in Egypt, in Canada and Brazil, are 
visible for all to see. None of their schemes have been 
able to prevent the recent catastrophic fall in commodity 
pric^, and my Government are convinced that any 
similar attempt in India would be equally barren of 
results, and would probably only result in placing a 
heavy financial burden on the public purse, a burden 
which does not rest upon the air but which must inevitably 
fall on the taxpayer,, the very person. whouL it ia dissired 
to benefit. 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


279 


opening of the Annual Meeting of the AsbOiiatul Chambers of 

Commerce, 

Another measure which has been strongly urged upon 
my Government, and on w’hich I see a resolution is to be 
moved at your forthcoming meeting, is the reduction of 
railway freights with a view to alleviating the plight of 
the cultivator. We fully realise^ the importance of this 
proposal and the necessity of assuring the agriculturist 
that we should naturally look w’ith favour on any scheme 
designed to help him, and 'we have in fact had under our 
consideration specific proposals of this kind with regard 
to wheat and cotton. I should how'ever be unwilling to 
anticipate the discussion which will take place on the 
Resolution in the paper, and I would limit my observa- 
tions to two or three salient points. A reduction in rail- 
way rates would certainly not be open to the serious 
objections which seem conclusive against any schemef for 
maintaining or raising prices by withholding crops from 
the market. On the contrary, in so far as the reduction 
promoted the export of Indian products and thereby 
reduced the stocks on hand, the effect must be beneficial. 
On the other hand, due weight must be given to the 
difiiculties which those responsible for the commercial 
administration of the railways feel in making wholesale 
reduction of rates at a time when railway traffic, and 
consequently railway revenue, has fallen off serioxisly, and 
a d^cit of Rs. 7 or 8 crores in the Railway Budget is 
anticipated. Each proposed reduction has to be con- 
sidered on its own merits, and in each case the prospective 
gain to the cultivator must be weighed against the loss 
involved to the railway revenuels, that is ultimately to 
the, Indian taxpayer, who is the principal proprietor of 
tihe raMways. It must be remembered also that the rates 
on agricultural products generally, and ^spedallj on 
grain and pulses, are already so low that there is not the 
same room for reduction for them as there may be in 
mme other countries. At the same time^ Gbmrnment has 
not approached the problem in any narrow spirit. The 
question whether a reduction in rates will lead to an 


280 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin^ 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Associated Chambers of 

Commerce. 

increase in traffic is one which must always be considered, 
but in addition Government will constantly keep in view 
the fact that the cultivator is the client of the railways 
not only in respect of what he sails but also of what ho 
buys, and that any addition to his purchasing power 
which may accrue as the result of reductions in freight 
will to some extent benefit the railways owung to the 
increase in the inward traffic. 

the communique which we issued a week or two ago 
gave at some length our views on the proposal that freights 
on cotton might be reduced, and the Railway Board is 
now engaged on this specific question. The concession 
already granted on wheat freights to Karachi will, we 
hope, assist the cultivator to a considerable degree, 
especially in Northern India. The proposal has also been 
made that a similar reduction should be allowed in 
freights to Calcutta, and, though this question presents 
much greater difficulty, I am hopeful that it may be 
possible also to take early action on these lines. Any 
counsel on these or any kindred subjects which you may 
wish to offer to my Member for Commerce, Sir George 
Rainy, or to receive from him in return will, 1 am sure>, 
be warmly welcomed on both sides. 

When I opened your proceedings two years ago, I 
exprei^sed the hope that an Agricultural Research Council 
on the lines recommended by the Royal Commission would 
be established in the near future. That hope has, as 
you know, been fulfilled, and the Council has now been 
at work for over a year. Among other activities it has 
taken up seriously the important question of improving 
the Indian Sugar Industry, and has made grants for a 
systematic study of all its branches, besides initiating the 
proposal which has resulted in the Tariff Board's, enquiry 
into the ease for fiscal protection of the sugar trade. 
Another of the many schema which the Research Council 
has oa foqt is the large co-ordinated scheme of 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


281 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Asmeiated Chambers of 

Commerce, 

research on rice, designed Ijoth to improve the <|uality 
of Indian rice and to increase the efficiency of production 
of this most important of all India’s food crops. The 
Council too has given agriculture substantial assistance 
in one unexpected quarter, by helping the people of 
Northern and Western India to tight the plagues of 
locusts which have recently caused such damage, and 
they are, I think, entitled to full credit for the protective 
schemes they have worked out to cope with these air-raids 
from the North-West. 

One other matter to which I referred two years ago 
was the formation of a Jute Committee. Our proposals 
for setting on foot and providing funds for this Com- 
mittee have received a wide measure of acceptance, but 
it would seem that there has been some misunderstanding 
as to its scope. It is clear from their Report that what 
the Royal Commission intended was that the Committee 
should do for the jute industry exactly what the Indian 
Ceniral Cotton Committee has done so successfully for 
the cotton industry during the last 10 years. In addition 
to being concerned with ^ricultural and technological 
research for the improvement of the jute industry; the 
provision of superior strains of seed, the improvement of 
statistics, the dissemination of information and economic 
studies into the marketing of jute, with special reference 
to the improvement of primary marketing by the grower, 
the Committee will form a meeting ground for all sections 
of the jute trade and industry, where problems of com- 
mon interest can be discussed and solutions sought. The 
Royal Commis^on did not intend, nor do my Government 
propose, that it diould usurp any of the functions which 
properly belong to a trade Association, or that it should 
be given any regulating' powers. Where the interests of 
the cultivator can* be shown to call for a change in trade 
practice, it would be for the Cmitral Jute to 




282 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Associated Chambers of 
Commerce. 

convince the trade Associations concerned of the desira- 
bility and feasibility of the change, and, if the experience 
of the Indian Central Cotton Committee is any guide, 
I believe that the trade will be by no means deaf to an 
appeal from such an authoritative source. My Govern- 
ment hope to take early steps to bring into being the 
necessary machinery to give effect to their decision. 

My speebh on this occasion would be incomplete 
without a reference to the gracious action of His Majesty 
the in’ng-Emperor in opening India House in London 
last July. I feel confident that India House will worthily 
represent India in the Capital of the Empire, and 
will prove a real centre in London for all Indian 
purposes. It is already attracting business visitors 
in large numbers, and it cannot fail greatly to assist the 
work of the Trade Department under the immediate 
control of the Indian Trade Commissioner in London. 
It also provides exceptional opportunities for publicily 
in the Exhibition Hall m which are displayed to great 
advantage some of the arts and crafts of India. I also 
hope that in the near future it will be possible to organise 
in India House a fully equipped Commercial Samples 
Room to be used for the exhibition of all classes of Indian 
goods. 

It has been, I know, a matter of great personal satis- 
faction to Sir Atur Chatterjee that the new India House 
should have been completed during his term of office as 
High Commissioner. When Sir Atul hands over charge 
next year to an old colleague of my own and to an old 
friend of this Chamber, Sir B. N. Mitra, he will have held 
the post with distinction for 6 years, and I should like 
to take this opportunity of acknowledging publicly his 
great services as High Commissioner, and not least the 
part he has played on our behalf in the manifold inter- 
national aetiviiies of Geneva. 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


283 


Opening of the Annual Meeting of the Ai^HOciatcd Chambers of 

Commerce, 

Before I leave this subject I should like to call atten- 
tion to the progress achieved in recent years by the Indian 
Trade Commissioner and his staff in the sphere of 
publicity, and to acknowledge the generous co-operation 
and assistance given by the Empire Marketing Board in 
propaganda work directed to increase the consumption of 
Indian goods in the United Kingdom. I am thinking in 
particular of the support given by the Board to the Indian 
rice campaign instituted in the United Kingdom in the 
autumn of 1929, the object of W’hich was to assist Indian 
and Burma rice in meeting the competition experienced 
in recent years from rice grown in Italy, Spain and other 
countries. 

I leave you now, Gentlemen, to the serious purpose 
of your meeting. I feel indeed that I have been playing 
the part of the orchestra that precedes a play at the 
theatre, when the principal anxiety of the audience is that 
the curtain may be rung up as speedily as possible on 
the real business of the evening. They are, however, too 
pdite to say so. But before I sit down may I as your 
very warm well-wisher and friend say just one thing more. 
The foundation and the strength of British commerce is 
in British character, in the trustworthiness that inspires 
confidence in others, and in the course which meets 
obstacles with the assured determination to overcome 
them. Of your ability to come triumphantly through the 
present crisis I entertain no doubt. You have had your 
share of rich years, and no doubt like all good business 
men are prepared to meet the lean. But looking further 
intr# the future I feel confident that those same qualities 
which have given Britain the position she holds in com- 
merce, at home, in the Dominions and Colonies, and in 
foreign countries, have still their indispensable part to 
play in the future of India’s commercial life. And in 
taking leave of you, on the last occasion when I shall he 
in your midst, I am not a&aid to predict a long and 




284 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


I6ib Decern* 
berim 


Unveiling of the bust of the late Sir Bash Behari Gliose, 

happy continuance of those commercial relations between 
this country and our own, which have brought wealth 
and prosperity to both, and so great a measure of happi- 
nehs to countless numbers of both peoples. 


UNVEILING OF THE BUST OF THE LATE SIR RASH 
BEHARI GHOSE. 

In unveiling the bust of the late Sir Rash Behari Ghose 
at the High Court, Calcutta, on ,the 16th December, His 
Excellency the Viceroy said 

Mr. Chief Justice, .Members of the Calcutta Bench 
and Bar, and Gentlemen,— When Sir Rash Behari Ghose 
died ten years ago it was rightly said of him that the 
Court had lost a great counsellor and the country a true 
benefactor. It is eminently fitting that in this place, 
where as a man he was held in such affection and esteem, 
and where as a jurist he occupied a place unique among 
a great company of distinguished lawyers, he should be 
commemorated by the bust which I am today privileged 
to unveil. 

To my loss, it was never my fortune to know Sir Rash 
Behari Ghose, and many of you, among whom his memory 
is green, could have done fuller justice than I to the 
i>ersonal qualities, which earned for him deep and lasting 
friendships. But, from the testimony of some of those 
friends, I know that he was a great and accomplished 
gentleman, outspoken in manner hut tender at heart and 
full of that natural ^ntnpathy, which is perhaps the 
greatest of man’s endowments. 

Of his achievements in the realm of law and public 
life it is not difficult to speak. His early academic 
successes led on to his selection at the age of 29 as Tagore 
Profe^r of Law, and it was then that he first imparted 
form to a subject, then indioate, of which, he was to 



Speechen by Lard Irwin, 


285 


Unveiling of the bust of the late *Sir Hash Behari Ghone, 

become the acknowledged master — the Law of Mortgage in 
British India. His professional career was in some ways 
unique in the history of the Indian Bar, and good judges 
have held him to be the greatest jurist that India has 
produced. It was once said of him by one whose opinion 
we may trust There is not a single individual in the 
^Yhole country who does not bow to the learned Doctor’s 
superior knowledge of law An erudite scholar, Sir 
Rash Behari found perennial delight in the company of 
authors old and new, and his advocacy was distinguished 
not only by its depth of learning but by the richness of 
its style. 

Though Sir Rash Behari Ghose had served since 
1888 in the Bengal Legislative Council, and later in the 
Indian Legislative Council, he was attracted to the fore- 
fr(»nt of political life by the announcement of the parti- 
tion of Bengal in 1904, and thereafter he took a prominent 
part in current controversies. Rightly trusted for the 
sagacity of his opinion and admired for the brilliance 
of his oratory, he quickly acquired a leading influence 
in this sphere of public life. In 1920 he was ejected to — 
but through illness W'as unable ever to attend — ^the first 
Council of State under the reformed constitution. 

His public services in the cause of education form 
a record which can have been surpassed by few. His 
personal connection with the Calcutta University dated 
from 1879, when he was first nominated a Fellow of that 
body, and only terminated with his death, after long 
years of service. Scientific education in particular 
(fiaimed h^ interest, for with keen foresight he realised 
that smentific knowledge must precede, or at any rate 
aco<mipany, that development of industry m India which 
is essential to her economic weal. In this cause he spent 
by far the greater part of his fortune, for his munifi^n^ 
included such vast gifts as Rs. 27 to the Calcutta 
TTniversity, and Ro. 25 lakhs •'to National Council of 


286 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Laying of the Foundation-stone of the neto Headquarters 
Building of the Institution of Engineers (India), 

Education, besides many smaller— but yet large— bene- 
factions. 

It is a privilege I value highly to have been asked 
to participate today in this tribute to one, who from a 
full store of knowledge and visdom gavei so much to the 
service of his fellow-countrymen. Much in his life will 
remain an inspiration to those who occupy the stage that 
he has left, to those who study or who practise the Law, 
to those who are charged with the upbringing of thet young 
and to those whose ways lie in the wider field of public 
life. All these, and many others who knew the man and 
his works, will rejoice to know that this lasting honour 
is being donel in the place where he himself would 
assuredly have wished to be remembered to one of whom it 
may indeed be said that he deserved well of his 
motherland. 


LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION-STONE OF THE NEW 
HEADQUARTERS BUILDING OF THE INSTITUTION 
OP ENGINEERS (INDIA). 

IdUi Decern- Sis Excellency the Viceroy delivered the following speech 
ber 1030, laying of the foundation-stone of the new Headquarters 

Building of the Institution of Engineers (India) at Calcutta 
on the 19th December 

Qentlefnen , — ^Tou have just reminded us, Mr. President, 
of an occasion a little more than two years ago when, by 
the hospitality of your Association, I was privileged to 
meet many of your members in Delhi, and thus to obtain 
a more direct and more personal acquaintance with your 
aetivife than I had previously enjoyed. I retain very 
pleasant memories of that meeting, and I remember that 
I then tried to assure you of the warm interest I would 
retain in the future growth and fortunes of your Insti- 
tution. Ton will know, therefore, that it affords me 



Speeches by Lord Irwin^ 


287 


Laying of the Foundation-stone of the new Headquarters 
Building of the Institution of Engineers (India)- 

keen pleasure that before my departure from India it 
should have been possible for me to be associated with 
this further and very significant step in the program of 
your body. 

You have spoken today of the course of events which 
led to the decision of your Association to construct your 
headquarters building in Calcutta. It is eminently fitting 
that a city which is itself a monument of great engineer- 
ing achievements, the home of many great industries, 
and a centre from which has radiated so much that is 
concerned with the development of India, should be 
chosen for the focus of an organisation which is, I am 
confident, destined to play a very important part in 
India’s future. I trust that, with your parent building 
established here, you mil before many years are past 
have a whole family of similar buildings distributed 
among the important towns of India. 

No one can feel doubt about the potential usefulness 
of an institution such as yours. The material advance- 
ment of any country is in no small measure dependent 
on its engineers. When we think of all that engineers 
have donq for India in the past, of the rivers they have 
bridged, of the canals and roads and railways they have 
made, of the great buildings and great cities they have 
built, we cannot but be deeply conscious of the debt we 
owe them. Of this we had a conspicuous example^ two 
days ago when by the co-operation of rare human skill 
with the forces of nature a span of the Bally bridge was 
so suec^fully placed. I would like to offer my warm 
eongratuMions to all those who were r^ponsible for 
this great feat of engineering. And when we (^ntemplate 
the possibilities of development which still lie before this 
country, and the demands which the ^panmon of in- 
dustry may be expects to make, we can be in no two 
minds as to the neemity of fumishhig an adequate mpplj 




288 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Laying of the Foiindaiion-stoyie of the new Headquarters 
Building of the Institution of Efighieers (India). 

o£ qualified engineers. With the great reduction of 
European recruitment during the last ten years an 
increasing responsibility for producing the right type of 
engineer has been thrown on to Indian engineering 
colleges. There is therefore a Ycry real and very necess- 
ary function to be performed by an organisation which 
can keep careful watch on the working of these colleges 
and which, before it aeknowdedges their degrees, must be 
satisfied that their standard of education qualifies their 
graduates for corporate membersliip of your institution. 
I have been greatly interested too to hear of the valuable 
work done by the Institution, especially in Calcutta, in 
bringing students into contact at an early stage with the 
practical side of their future profession, and the adoption 
by tha Public Servi.ee Commission of your examination 
standards, as a qualification for the admission of engineers 
to public service, is a tribute to the sterling work you 
have already done. 

In all these activities it is clear that central buildings, 
well designed and adequately equipped, will play an 
essential part, and it is a great pleasure therefore to me 
today to lay the foundation-stone of your new Head- 
quarters. I echo all that you have said, Mr. President, 
as to the debt we owe to Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerji, 
and many others, whose generosity has made it possible 
for this scheme to be set on foot. I only wish that it 
might have been possible for me to announce that Govern- 
ment were able to sanction the grant for which your 
Institution rece:ntly applied. My Government, you may 
feel sure, are deeply sensible of the services rendered to 
them by this Institution, and indeed if I remember aright 
they have had one or two opportunities in the past of 
acknowledging in a practical way the services it performs. 
But you are no doubt also aware that in pr^nt financial 
eirenmslances strict and ruthless economy has to be 



Speeches ip Lord Irwin, 


289 


European JLssociafiow Dimer at Cakutfa, 

exercised in every direction, and it is impossible to find 
public money for any objects not absolutely and imme- 
diately essential. 

I earnestly hope however that lack of funds will not 
prevent the completion of your building programme. 
Since Lord Chelmsford inaugurated your Institution, and 
in so doing forecast a great and successful future for it, 
the increase in the number of your members and the 
progress you have made in many directions have well 
justified his optimism. I trust that in succeeding years 
your Institution will go from strength to strength, and 
will be a potent factor in upholding the great traditions 
which belong to the engineering profession throughout 
the world. Your primary function and your chief 
justification will be the maintenance of standards — of 
those technical standards which make the first-class 
engineer a man outstanding in any company of men, 
and of the ethical standards without which neither your 
nor any other profession can take the honoured place 
which is its due among the beneficent activities of man- 
kind. In laying this foundation-stone today I ask you 
all to join with me in wishing all success to the building 
which will rise above it, and in hoping that the founda- 
tion is being laid of something for which the India of 
the future will have good reason to be grateful. 


EUEOPEAN ASSOCIATION DINNER AT CALCUTTA. 

GRie hallowing speech was delivered by His Excellency the 
Ylmoj at the European Association Dinner at Calcutta on 
the 22nd December ; — 

Gentlemen, —1 have on two previous occasions been 
pigvil^ed to enjoy the hospitality of the European 
A^oeiation, and am ^ain reaping the advantage of the 
fact that tihis function now ranks as one of the most 


22nd Deeent' 
berim 




290 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


European Association Dinner at Calcutta, 

important engagements of a Viceroy during his winter 
visit to this great city. I am right, I think, in saying 
that it is a privilege which was never enjoyed by a 
Viceroy before Lord Reading, and it is a happy chance 
that has brought one of my distinguished predecessors in 
office, w’hose memory is still cherished in all parts of 
India, to the hospitable table of your Association this 
evening. I have no doubt that you will in future years 
extend a warm welcome here to one who, after a long 
record of distinguished public service, returns to bear 
the highest responsibilities in a country which he knows 
well and which holds him in warm regard. I am parti- 
cularly pleased that what must be my last European 
Association dinner should have been held undefr the 
presidentship of one, who has made for himself so notable 
a place in the political life of the European community 
and of Bengal. It is not indeed without real regret that 
I reflect that I can newer again expect to enjoy the 
delights of spending a Christmas in Calcutta, though I 
derive what solace I can from the knowledge that at 
Government House wDl still be a brother- Yorkshireman 
of mine, by w’^hase side I have been glad to fight many 
political battles in Yorkshire and at Westminster, and 
whose gifts of cool judgment and shrewd knowledge of 
men render him well fitted to grapple at such a time as 
this with the anxious duties of Governor of this great 
Province. For myself I have received many kindnesses 
here, made many friends, and been able to appraise the 
part which a vast and important city like Calcutta plays 
in the commereial, social and political life of India. All 
that J shall remember, and for your hospitality to-night, 
as for all that your Chairman has just said on your 
f>ehalf, I ivouid express my warmest thanks. 

I r^^mber that, speaking here four years ago, I 
triad to express my appreciation of what members of this 


Speeehfs hy Lord Irmn, 


mi 


European Association Dinner at CaUntta. 

Association had done and were doing to assist the poli- 
tical growth of India, often at no small inconvenience to 
themselves and to those they represent. This work indeed 
has always been associated in my mind with one whose 
untimely death has recently bereft the European com- 
munity in India of a bold champion and a wise crmnsellor, 
and who is mourned by a very wide circle of his friends. 
Colonel Crawford gave up a soldier’s career for the task 
of mobilising European interest in the political future of 
this emnitry, for he believed that the European com- 
munity had their own peculiar and indispensable part to 
play in the national life of India. He gave liimsclf 
unsparingly — I do not think it is too much to say that 
he gave his life — to the wmrk for which his varied qualities 
suited him so well, and which at this moment above all 
could so ill-atford to lose him. Thanks in no mall 
measure to his inspiration, the European community has 
loyally taken its share in the task of Avorking a new 
constitution, on the intrinsic merits of which some still 
felt misgivings ; many, like the Chairman, have placed 
their experience freely at the service of popular bodies ; 
and no fair-minded observer would assert that Europeans 
in India have been lacking in sympathy for Indian 
aspirations. 

It has so happened that my five years of o^se have 
comcided with what must in any circumstances have been 
a period of intense political activity, and no one knows 
better than I how great has been the help that, during 
that time, I as head of the Government have received 
from the Europejan community. Especially has that 
been the mse during the last difiScult year. I do not 
now speak of thc^e difScnlties which are weighing ao 
heavily upon the economic life of India, and with which 
I had occasion to deal a few days ago, I rather refer 
here to tho^ political affairs which have lately 
so large a place in all our thoughts. The ship of State 




292 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


European Association Dinner at Calcutta. 

has been encountering rough weather, and it is at such 
times, rather than when the sky is clear and seas are 
smooth, that help is valuable. A British party leader is 
reported to have once said, when discussing the support 
he desired from his party, ‘‘ I don't want a fellow to 
support me when I'm right ; I want him to support me 
when I'm wrong." I would scarcely expect the European 
Association to be so indiscriminating as that, and I am 
Well aware that there have of late been both some differ- 
ence of opinion within your own ranks, and also a dis- 
position in certain quarters to seek much-needed relief for 
feelings in criticism of Government. It is no doubt all 
to the good that, when such differences of opinion exist, 
they should be freely and frankly stated and discussed. 
It was moreover certain that the times should have 
induced different conclusions in different minds, and 
tended to provoke some to despair of anything constructive 
being accomplished. For the prevailing conditions in 
India challenge thought, and lead all thinking men to 
search the intellectual foundations of their political 
philosophy. And, where views are strongly held, it will 
be natural that strong expression should be given to them, 
and, if the critics are honest in their convictions, they 
will not hesitate to apportion blam^ where they believe 
it to be due. 

But the principal target of attack — or at all events 
that with which I am mainly concerned — ^has of course 
been Government, and on that I am entitled to speak 
more fully. I have myself been the object of a good deal 
of criticism both here and in England. With the 
latter, this is obviously not the place and I am not at 
present the person to deal. But general criticism in 
India, directed against myself and my Government, it is 
both my desire and my duty to meet. Let me make it 
plain in the first instance that I am the last person to 
claim that Governments, or the Governor-General who 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


293 


European Assruiatirfh TJinuer at Calcutta. 

presides over them, should be immune from public 
criticism. For unless we are to aasuine that GfivenimentB 
are always entirely right— and I expect that bf>th Lord 
Hardinge and Sir Stanley Jackson would agree that even 
the most self-confident and self-satisfied meinl>erh of 
Governments have themselves been sometimes disposed to 
recoil from this extreme assertion of infallibility — the 
absence of such criticism would denote a dangerous state 
of political apathy. At the samc^time, although no one 
needs to have been in the business of Government in 
order to know that they make mistakes, it is, I think, only 
those who have never been charged with the responsibility 
of framing policy and of executive action, who are prone 
to the conclusion that Governments are imbued with a 
double dose of the original sin of ineptitude. While 
therefore I welcome criticism, — and politicians, like the 
poor man’s donkey, w’ould think that something had gone 
seriously awry with the natural order if blows were no 
longer rained upon them — I think that Government on 
their side are entitled to demand that criticism should be 
constructive, and that those who find fault with the action 
of Government should take steps to place their suggest- 
ions for a better course in concrete form before those 
-who are occupied with administration. 

From one quarter the general criticism that we hear 
is of course that there would have been no trouble, or 
that any trouble -vv^ould have immediately disappeared, if 
only the country had had what is called strong Govern- 
ment I notice that those on whose lips this phrase 
generally lies are often more unanimous in their denuncia- 
tion of Government than in describing in exact tenns the 
matters in which executive action falls short of. their 
ideal — ^and I find ^>me difiSculty in ascertaining ^clearly 
what it really is that they have in mind* During every 
we^ of these last months, my Government have worked 
in the clos^ co-operation with His Govemii^t 


294 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


European Association Dinner at Calcutta. 

on oi3e side and with Local Governments on the other 
reviewing the situation from week to Tveek, exploring 
new means of countering new developments, and on no 
single occasion has there been difference of opinion 
between any of the parties concerned on any point of 
substance affecting the special powers, for which Local 
Governments, after due deliberation and with a full 
sens^ of their responsibility, deemed it necessary to ask. 
We have examined in detail various proposals put forward 
by unofficial persons and in the Press, and in many 
instances have incorporated them in the powers we 
thought it right to assume. Others on examination 
revealed insuperable objections and were evidently im- 
practicable. And therefore, without as I have just said 
claiming any infallibility for Government, I think I am 
{fntitled to ask men and women of sober judgment why 
those who compose Local Governments and the Govern- 
ment of India, and who together represent a good deal 
of varied Indian experience, must be supposed to have 
forfeited, because they hold official positions, whate^ver 
may have been their natural endowment of common- 
sense ; and why they, applying their minds day in and 
day out to the problem of how best to combat the threat 
of civil disobedience, arei more certainly all wrong than 
critics, who have not the same facilities for information, 
and who therefore have not the same opportunity of 
forming their conclusions. 

The truth I fancy is that such critics are firm believers 
in what I may call the practicability of short cuts. In 
** Alice in Wonderland’’, as you will remember, “the 
Queen had only one way of settling all difficulties, great 
or small. ^ Off with his head,’ she would say, without 
even looking round,” And that policy, translated into 
terms of real life, will always offer powerful attractions, 
when men are impre^ed with the disturbance that is 
temg caiBed by particular agitation^, and believe that 


Speeches iy Lord Irmn, 


295 


European Association Dinner at Cakntta. 

a speedy and effective remedy lies ready to band in the 
shape of vigorous executive action. Now, I think Govern- 
ment can do, and ought to do. many things to protect 
those who want to obey the law, and to punish those who 
break it, and I am constantly told from other <|iiarters 
that we have done far too much. But I definitely do 
not share the view that any Government action, however 
drastic, wdll or can be as powerful a solvent of these 
troubles as will be the gradual force of public opinion, 
which must sooner or later aw'ake to the fact of how 
mistaken is the course that the country is invited to 
pursue. The conditions, for example, of prosperous and 
friendly commercial intercourse will always depend far 
more upon public opinion than upon Government action, 
and, however emphatically we may condemn the civil 
disobedience movement — ^and nobody can feel more 
strongly than I do the harm that it has done and is 
doing to the cause of India — ^whatever powers we may 
find it necessary to take to combat it, so long as it per- 
sists, we should, I am satisfied, make a profound mistake 
if we underestimated the genuine and powerful feeling 
of nationalism, that is today animating much of Indian 
thought. And for this no simple, <K)mplete, or permanent 
cure ever has been or ever will be found in strong action 
by Government. 

Before this movement started, I formed the definite 
view, which everything that has happened since has only 
reinforced, that it would no doubt be possible to apply 
a far more ruthless policy of repression than anyone has 

suggested, and after a space of time, be it short or 
long, to create a desert and call it peace. Such a policy 
would have involved a rigid censordiip of the Press, 
compared to which the operation of the Press Ordinan^ 
would have been negligible ; the strict prohibition of all 
hostile expr^ons of opinion in all forms ; the supmr- 
se^ion of the ordinary law of trial and punidbment mtx 



296 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin. 


European Association Dinner at Calcutta, 

a wide field ; and other action of similar kind. But any 
such policy, apart from all other considerations, must 
be judged not only by its immediate effects — ^let these 
be as favourable as the sternest advocate of the plan might 
desire — ^but by its ultimate results ; and these again must 
be placed in relation to the wider purposes that you have 
in view. We all know what these are. And here I do 
not believe that any man can doubt that, so far from 
facilitating the accomplishment of the principal purpose 
of Great Britain, which is to lead India to sdf -government 
and to retain her as an equal and contented member of 
the Imperial family of nations, such action, even if other- 
wise feasible, would on the contrary aggravate your task 
quite indefinitely, and probably destroy any hope of 
bringing it to successful issue. The British people, more 
than any othejr, ought to know that, in so far as the 
matter is one affecting the forces that we call nationalism, 
it cannot permanently be dealt with on such lines. 
Government has a clear duty to maintain the law, and 
to resist attempts to substitute another authority for its 
own, and I am glad to have this opportunity of paying 
a tribute to the manner in which Their Excellencies Sir 
Stanley 'Jackson and Sir Hugh Stephenson, who recently 
acted for him, and all their officers have during these 
troublous times upheld the administration of this Presi- 
dency. But, if Government is wise, it will remember that, 
to the extent to which these things are only the symptoms 
of underlying causes, they call for different treatment. 

At the other extreme is the line of criticism which 
denounces Government as repressive, the enemy of all 
true progress and national feeling. In answer to this 
charge the policy of Government has so often been made 
plain that I must ask your forgiveness for restating it 
once again. The fact that civil disobedience claims to 
rest upon a harmless gospel of n^ation has not prevented 
its rapid development in practice into a positive diafiei^ 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


297 


European Association Dinner at CalcnttfL 

to the constituted Government, and a ^rave menace to 
the good order of the whole body-politic. Sir, those, who 
summoned from the deep this spirit of law-breaking in 
support of a so-called non-violent movement, cannot 
escape responsibility when- their gospel has led ill-balanced 
minds to have resort to methods of violent terrorism, of 
which you have had experience in Calcutta and Bengal 
during the last few weeks, in such crimes as the murders 
of Mr. Low^man, Inspector Tarini Charan Mukerji, and 
lastly Colonel Simpson. It is always within the power 
of reckless miscreants to take the lives of their fellow men 
and to inflict untold pain and sorrow upon those who 
held those lives dearer than their own. But action of 
this kind will not deter men who know their duty from 
its performance, any more than it will deflect on one side 
or the other the judgment of those, with whom refets the 
responsibility for considering and framing the political 
structure of the future. I know full well how deep and 
how bitter is the resentment which such happenings excite 
in the hejarts of all loyal citizens, and there is not one 
of us here who can for a moment forget the strain that 
they impose most of all upon the Police. I should like 
to express here publicly my sense of the great debt that 
Government owes, as to the Police generally, so parti- 
cularly to Mr. Craig and Sir Charles Tegart — ^himself only 
lately the object of one of these criminal attempts — for 
the example of steadiness, wisdom, and gallantry they 
have set to the forces that have the honour to serve under 
them, and of which they have the honour to be Chiefs. 
If repression means the determination to resist this 
mmaoe, Government readily plead guilty to the charge, 
for no Government worthy of the name could do other- 
wise. But^ if by repi^ion our mritics mean that Govern- 
ment de^re, by any action they have been forced to take, 
to strangle national aspiratiops or to obstruct India’s 
constitutional advance, then I say tikat no such charge 




298 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


European Association Dinner at Calcutta. 

can be levelled against those who were responsible for 
commenting upon Sir John Simon’s report as we did in 
the Reforms despatch of the Government of India pub- 
lished a few weeks ago. 

In that despatch we made no attempt to under- 
estimate the force of the political currents influencing 
Indian thought, and we recorded our vie^v that in the 
future relationship between Great Britain and India the 
time has definitely come for the relation of partnership 
to supersede that of subordination. That is a step surely 
of deep significance to those who reflect on the past 
relations of the two countries, bolder than some of our 
critics might have thought wise, and far-reaching in its 
implications. I have seen it said in msmy quarters that 
the actual proposals made by the Government of India 
do not in fact translate this view into practical reality. 
That criticism I believe to be based upon an imperfect 
appreciation of the manner in which such arrangements 
as we foreshadowed might, with goodwill on both sides, 
be expected in practice to operate. It seemed to us 
moreover of fundamental importance to examine in detail 
how provision might be made for the collaboration of the 
two partners, in a form that, historically and constitu- 
tionally, would for the first time endow India with that 
political entity that has been the antecedent condition of 
all self-governing institutions throughout the Empire. 
On the forms of machinery best suited to our purpose 
opinions will be many. We claim no monopoly of wisdom, 
and there may well be other means by which this object 
can be achieved. I was much gratified to hear what you, 
Sir, said as to the Round Table Conference now sitting 
in L.ondon, of which we have all watched the progress 
with close attention and with earnest prayers that it may 
win suc^e^. Sinee^ that Conference assembled, the general 
^tii^ of the picture hfc been greatly changed by the 
^e^fe ^own by representatives of both British India and 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


299 


European Association Dinner at Calcutta, 

the States to launch the new constitution in the form o£ 
an all-India federation. It %vonld not be proper for me, 
nor indeed is it possible for any of ns, while discussionB 
are still proceeding, to pronounce upon the merits of the 
plan upon which the Conference has been engaged. We 
all know how grav-e are the difficulties that they have to 
overcome. But I am certain that, if and when their 
labours reach agreed conclusions, possibly in a form 
different from that which many of us, on such information 
as we possessed, had supposed to be immediately within 
the reach of practical constitution builders, we shall all 
desire to give those conclusions full and most sympathetic 
consideration, realising how truly His Majesty described 
the issues that hang upon these deliberations as of moment- 
ous kind. On behalf of my Government I can readily 
say that any scheme which will adequately meet the 
various facts of w’-hich we have to take account, and will 
satisfy the main principles by w^hich we believe the 
problem to be governed, is assured in advance of no 
grudging reception at our hands. 

More than once I have expressed the opinion that, 
given a spirit of mutual accommodation, there is no 
reason why it should pass our powers to reach agreement- 
Agreement however will not be reached by the cold light 
of reason alone, and, to warm and fire onr imagination, 
we need to fix our gaze steadily upon the €totrancing 
picture of an India, spontaneously and gladly claiming 
her full share of Imperial responsibility and privil^es 
as a co-partner in the common heritage of the British 
CSommonwefalthu With this vision before my ey^, I 
to see India resolving her own internal difficulties 
and Great Britain freely extending her trust to Indian 
Rulers, statesmen, and people, who in return would not 
less freely offer to Great Britain any constitutional 
^^Til*ities, that in the early days of the new arrangements 
might promise to strengthen that trust, and place it firmly 



300 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


State Banquet at ImpJial 

on a basis of mutual respect and understanding. Upon 
that basis only can constructive v'ork satisfactorily 
proceed, and without it our castles will all be castles in 
the air. 

The history of British relations with India in the 
past is a monument to the co-operation of two peoples, in 
commerce and in administration. Changing forms of 
Government will not lessen the need for each nation to 
rely upon the other for those qualities which, on either 
side, have contributed to a long and prospering partner- 
ship. I most earnestly trust that the same mutual good 
sense and capacity for seeing the problem from the other 
fellow’s point of view will now stand us' all in good 
stead, and in years to come permit each and every com- 
munity, that is interested in this great land of India, to 
look back on their work at a difficult time, and say that 
it was good. 


STATE BANQUET AT IMPHAL. 

6th January The following speedi was delivered by His Excellency the 
Viceroy at the State Banquet at Imphal on 6th January 
1931 

Your Highness, Ladies and Oenilemen , — I should like 
to begin by thanking Your Highness very heartily on 
Lady Irwin’s behalf and on my own for the kind manner 
in which you have just proposed our health, and, if I 
may, I will also take this public opportunity, on behalf 
of the whole of our party, to thank Your Highness for 
your hospitality in inviting us to your State, and for the 
excellent arrangements you have made for our comfort 
and entertainment. We look forward more than I can 
say to the next few days which we are to spend in your 
beautiful country, and to seeing something of its people, 
of their interesting customs and of their prowess in manly 
sports. 



Speeches hy Lord Irwm* 


301 


State Banquet at ImphaJ. 

It was a great disappointment to Ladj’ Irwin and to 
me two j’ears ago when urgent and important business 
called me back to Delhi and forced me to cancel the visit 
to Manipur to whieli we had been so keenly looking for- 
’ward. My regret was all the greater because I was fully 
conscious of the trouble to which our sudden change of 
plan must have jjut Your Highness and Your Highness’ 
officials. 

As Your Highness has just said, it is nearly 30 years 
since Lord Cui'zon, that much travelled Viceroy, came 
to Manipur. The ways of Viceroys are always mysterious, 
and it is a mystery to me why other Viceroys have denied 
themselves the pleasure of visiting this beautiful corner 
of North-Eastern India. The truth is that we have not 
always time to follow’ out our own inclinations, nor has 
it alw’ays been possible to perform the journey to Imphal 
with the ease and comfort in which we have travelled 
here today. The magnificent motor road which now 
connects the capital with the railway line, 134 miles away, 
has indeed changed the conditions of travel since Lord 
Curzon did his journey by bridle path through Silchar. 

Much else has happened In the intervening space of 
30 years. At that time Your Highness was a boy, but 
you may remember that Lord Curzon spoke of the good 
education you had received, and promised that as long 
as your rule was good and you showed justice and 
benevolence to your people you would be supported by 
the British Government. 

It is a great pleasure to me to be able to say tonight 
that I believe that the hopes expressed by Lord Curzon 
have been fully realised. The part Your Highness played 
in the Great War is still fresh in our memories. Not only 
did you offer the British Government the resources of 
your State, but you placed your personal services and 
thc^e of your men at their disposal. That generous offer 
was carried into practice by Your Highne^ supplying 




302 


Speeds hy Lord Jrmin. 


State Banquet at ImphaL 

a double company for service in the army and for motor 
ambulances, and also a labour corps which went on 
service to France. 

Before the Great War had ended, the Kuki rebellion 
gave Your Highness a further opportunity of dfsplaying 
your loyalty to and support of Government. I read 
lately the resolution in which Sir Nicholas Beatson-Bell, 
the Governor of Assam at that time, placed on record his 
high appreciation of Your Highness' attitude throughout 
the rebellion, and of your statesmanlike view of the pro- 
blems connected with it. He emphasised especially the 
good effect produced by Your Highness’ tours in the 
valley and by your presence in one of the expeditions, and 
he ended by expressing hope, which I warmly echo this 
evening, that never again will Your Highness’ rule be 
disturbed by any unrest among your subjects. Following 
on this unrest Your Highness gave practical proof of 
your desire to improve the administration of the hill 
tribes in the State by consenting to the employment of 
sub-divisional ofScers in the hills under the control of 
the President of the Durbar. More recently your decision 
to allow a responsible body of missionaries to carry on 
medical and educational wofk among the Kukis is further 
evidence of your determination to fulfil your obligations 
as a ruler. I think I need scarcely say that it is in 
recognition of the sincere desire of Your Highness, 
expressed in words and translated into action, to meet 
the wishes of Government in such ways as I have just 
described, that Your Highness’ State has received from 
t^e to time liberal treatment in the matter of financial 
ai^istanee. 

Before I conclude I should like to offer Your Highness 
and your people my sympathy in the loss to life and 
property caused in the State by the recent earthquake 
and the floods of the previous year. It gave my Govern- 
ment the greatest pleasure to assfet towards tte repara- 
tSon uf the dam^e caused iy floods by granting a 



Spmkes hy Lord Ifwm, 


m 


SkiUong Municipal Address. 

substantial loan to Your Highness, and by agreeing for 
a further period of three years to let the tribute stand 
at five thousand instead of fift^' thousand rupees on the 
understanding that the savings are utilised for expendi- 
ture in the hills. 

It remains only to thank Your Highness once more 
for the great kindness you have done us by inviting us 
to Manipur. We only wish that time could have per- 
mitted us to make a longer stay. Our visit has given us 
the privilege of making the acquaintance of Your Highness 
and of many of Your Highness^ people, and the warm 
interest which we shall always take in everything that 
concerns your State will be quickened by the |)ersoxiaI 
memories we shall retain of all the kindness which has 
been shown to us here. 

Ladies and gentlemen, I ask you now to join me in 
drinking long life and prosperity to our host His High- 
ness the Maharaja of Manipur. 


SHILLONG MUNICIPAL ADDRESS. 

His Excellency the Viceroy received addresses of lOth Jantiaiy 
welcome from the Shillong Municipal Board and the Siems 
of the Khasi and Jaintia people at Shillong on 10th Janimry 
1931 and replied as follows 

Genilemnr-'^t has given Lady Irwin and myself 
the greatest pleasure to have been welcomed with such 
kindness on our arrival in Shillong by the residents of 
the capital and by the Siems and representatives of the 
Khasi and Jaintia people, and on her behalf and on my 
own I thank you very warmly for all that you have 
said in the two addresses to which we have just listened. 

We had of course often heard of the beauty of your 
lull station and of tie country which surrounds it, and 
nm at last we are able to see for ourselv^ that those 
who sang its praises have in no way exaggemted. Indeed 
I fully agree with th<Be who, whether r^ht in their 



304 


Speeches by Lord 


Shillong Municipal Address, 

etymology or not, derive the name of Assam from the 
Sanskrit word which in English means the peerless 

It is therefore all the greater satisfaction, 
Mr. Chairman, to have yonr assurance that the Municipal 
Board of this town are so fuUy alive to the obligation 
incumbent upon them of making Shillong in every way 
worthy of the material with which Nature has endowed 
it. Now that you have an elected majority on the Board, 
the general body of voters shares with you the respon- 
sibility of keeping your municipal services up to date 
in every way, and I trust that the people of Shillong will 
always insist on the maintenance of high standards in 
these matters. I listened with pleasure, Mr. Chairman, 
to the tribute you paid to the work being done in the 
important field of public health by the Welsh Mission 
Hospital and the Pasteur Institute, a work which must 
surely be of great and lasting service to the people of 
this Province. 

The interest of our visit to your capital has been 
greatly added to by the presence of the Siems and 
representatives of the Khasi’ and Jaintia people, some 
of whom have I know performed arduous journeys to 
welcome us here today. Your address, gentlemen, hais 
properly recalled the ancient history of your race, its 
national pride and its virile character. It possesses in 
marked degree an attribute which, in days gone by, made 
the men of my own race famous as fighting men, a natural 
skill in archery. The conditions of society and admin- 
istration in your hills have been well set forth in the 
memoranda prepared by the Government of this Province 
for the Statutory Commission, and the Commission them- 
selves have clearly stated the problem of your future 
administration as it presented itself to them. This, 
along with the general question of certain kindred tracts 
in other parts of India, is a matter which is now within 
the purview of His Maj^ty’s Government and the Con- 
ference now assembled in London. I will not therefore 



Speeehc^i by Lord Irwin, 


305 


Shillong Municipal Address, 

say more than that, whatever the eonstitiitional develop- 
ment may be, I Lave no doubt that the rights and 
privileges of the Siems will be safeguarded, and that, so 
far as may be practicable, steps will be taken to preserve 
the national individuality of the Khasi race. This, I 
know, is a matter in which — as in all others aifeeting the 
welfare of this Province and its people — His Excellency 
Sir Laurie Hammond takes a close personal interest, and 
of which he has a wide and sympathetic knowledge. I 
will only make one comment of a general kind. A desire 
has I think been expressed by some of the Klhasis and 
Syuntengs that the district excluding the Siemships shonld 
be made a regulation district and should not be included 
in what are now known as the backward tracts. The 
reactions of such a step upon those Khasis who live in 
Siems^ territory is clearly an important consideration in 
coming to a decision on this matter. For I think it may 
be laid down as an axiom that the introduction of the 
land revenue system, with the free transfer and purchase 
of land, the establishment of Courts of Justice under the 
Calcutta High Court, the imposition possibly of a road 
cess, in fact all the administrative improvements wMeh 
would accompany the inclusion of the British portion of 
the district as part and parcel of Assam proper, would be 
likely to result in the Khasi States being drawn by 
economic competition to follow the line of development 
adopted in the rest of the district. 

May I, in conclusion, thank once ^ain all those 
who have gathered here today for the very kind reception 
lhat has been given to Lady Irwin and myself. Our 
tSme in India is, to our great regret, drawing near ibs 
dose, and my present tour is probably my last in British 
India* *A11 the more vivid therefore will be the picture, 
we shall take away with us of your beautiful muntry and 
its friendly p^ple, and we shdl never eea^ to widi you 
and all the people of Assam a full m^asui^ of hapine^ 
and prosperity. 



306 


Speeches, hy Lord Irtvin, 


ADDBBSS AT THE OPENKS SESSION OF THE FOUBTH 
LEGISLATIYE ASSEMBLY. 

17th January Hig Exeelieney the Viceroy delivered the following Address 
1931 

at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative Assembly on 
the 17th January 1931 

Genflemenr-l't is my privilege today to welcome Mem- 
bers of this House to the opening session of the fourth 
Legislative Assembly. Among them are many who have 
already made their names in public life, and, if we regret, 
as we must, the absence of some who have hitherto been 
frequent participants in ourj debates, we are glad to see 
again many, who are well known to the Assembly, along 
with others of proved quality in other fields^ who have 
come forward to serve their country in this sphere. 

My first duty is to ojffer my sincere congratulations to 
your President on his election to his responsible and 
honourable ofSce. He brings to his duties a wide ex- 
perience of public affairs and of legislative procedure, and 
I am confident that he will discharge his important func- 
tions with dignity and with wise impartiality. Though the 
election has on this occasion been contested, I have no 
doubt that, now the decision of the House has been taken, 
the President will on all occasions be able to count upon 
the loyal support of all parties and persons in it. 

I would have wished that this Assembly might have 
been convened for its first meeting at such a date as would 
have enabled those of its members, who have attended the 
Bound Table Confe3:enee, to be in their places at the 
beginn in g of the session. There are however certain fixed 
dates and certain requirements of procedure which have 
limited my choice in this matter. The Bailway Budget 
must be completed in time to permit us to bring the second- 
half of tile general Budget before the House at the 
b^ innin g of March. Moreover, on the occasion of a new 



Spcicluts hy Lord Irwin* 


307 


Addres\s at the opening SeRshm af the Frntrfh LegiRbfHv>^ 

ARsemhly, 


Assembly, the Standing Finance roniinittee and the Kail- 
way Standing Finance Committee, which at other times 
complete the greater part of their task before tlie beginning 
of the session, hare to be reconstituted. There are also 
important measures of legislation, to which I must pres«?iitly 
refer, and for 'which it was clearly essential to give ample 
time for discussion. These were all reasons which would 
hare made delay inconrenient. 

On this particular occasion too I was anxious that the 
work of the session should be completed before I laid (!own 
my office, and, as the date of my departure from India was 
uncertain until a week or two ago, I felt it desirable if 
possible to conclude our business by about the third week 
in March. For these reasons I decided to summon the 
House in the middle of January, and I trust that this may 
not have exposed Hon^ble Members to ineonrenienee. It 
has meant, I fear, the absence today of certain prominent 
members from their places, but, while regretting this, I 
trust I hare made plain the reasons that appeared to pre- 
clude the adoption of any other course. 

The same considerations of urgency did not apply to 
the Council of State, and, as their session will not open 
until Februarj^ I hare had to forego the pleasure ot 
addressing them on this occasion. I shall hope, however, 
to^vards the close of the session to ask the Members of 
both Houses to give me an opportunity of taking my 
formal farewell of the Central Legislature. 

For myself this o<^iasion must necessarily be !fcgeid 
■^wMh regret. For it marks the opening of the last' se^on 
of the Legislature with which I shall be concerned, and it 
brings nearer the day when I shall hare to say good-bye bo 
nojany friends in India, amongst whom I am fortunate W 



308 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative 
Assembly. 

coTmt large numbers, who are and who have been Members 
of this House. I am however happy to think that, when the 
time eomes for me to lay down the responsibilities of my 
present charge, I shall hand them over to one, well known 
to India, who is singularly well qualified to guide her desti- 
nies at this particular, juncture, and who has during a long 
and distinguished period of Indian public service already 
assured for himself a place in the esteem and friendship 
of very many of India’s people. 

Before I speak of the legislative and other business 
which will come before the House this session, there are 
certain important matters of more than departmental 
interest, which deserve mention. 

•Our relations with Foreign States along the whole 
of our great land frontier continue to be of a cordial 
character. On the North-West Frontier the disturbances, 
which marred the spring and summer months of last year, 
have subsided, and, except in our relations with the Afridis, 
normal conditions may be said now to have been generally 
restored. As a result of two unprovoked invasions of the 
Peshawar District during the summer by lashkars of 
certain sections of the Afridi tribe, it was decided by my 
Government, with the concurrence of His Majesty’s Gov- 
ernment, to take me^ures for the protection of Peshawar 
against this danger, by preventing hostile concentrations 
from again using the Khajuri and Aka Khel plain, on 
the wesimi border of the Peshawar District, as a base 
for su<^ attacks. In pursuance of this decision some miles 
of road have been or are being constructed to link tip the 
plain with adjoining areas in which communications have 
been developed, and portions of the plain have been 
occupied by troops with n^ligible opposition. A con- 
siderable number of troops have been employed under 



m 


Speeches hy Lord Irmn, 

Address at the opening Session of the Fourth LegistaHve 

Assembly. 

very severe climatic conditions in these opemtionSj, and have 
carried out their duties with the cheerfulness and effi- 
ciency that is always characteristic of the Army in Indi<i. 

The situation created by the Afridi incursions com- 
pelled my Government, in the interest of the public safety, 
to impose Martial Law’ in the Peshawar District. The 
Chief Commissioner was appointed Chief Administra- 
tor of Martial Law% and made every effort to ensure 
that there should be as little interference as possible with 
the ordinary administration. In this he was successful, 
and, now’ that provision has been made otherwise for the 
continuance of certain emergency powers under a public 
Safety Regulation, the Martial Law Ordinance is being 
withdrawn. 

With the approval of my Government, the Chief 
Commissioner in July last gave an undertaking that the 
administration of the five districts of the Province would 
be scrutinised, and if, on comparison with the adjoining 
districts of the Punjab, the North-West Frontier Province 
administration appeared to be in any way deficient, espeeisL 
ly in its beneficent activities, steps would be taken, as funds 
admitted, to remedy the defects. The Chief Commissioner’s 
proposals in fulfilment of this undertaking are now under 
consideration. Among other measures, the reassessment 
which w’as recently made of the Peshawar District has 
been revised to bring it into accord with the Punjab 
Land Revenue Amendment Act, with the result that the 
total asse^ment was reduced by some Bs. 60 , 000 . 

Questions afifectii^ Indians overseas have as alwa;j-s 
claimed the special attention of my Government When 
I last addre^d this House, I referr^ briefly to the Land 
Tenure Bill introduced in the Assembly of the Dnmn of 
South Africa, which had caused eonsidei^le alarm amopg 



310 


Spe&Aes hy Lwrd Irmn. 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative 
Assembly. 

Indians in the Transvaal My Government sought coun- 
sel from the Standing Committee on Emigration on the 
far-reaching provisions of this measure, and received from 
them valuable advice to guide them in their line of ap- 
proach to this difficult and delicate problem. We fully 
recognise the serious implications of the Bill, and in 
particular the effect it must have on the trading and 
business interests of the Indian community in the 
Transvaal We are aware too of the feelings of deep con- 
cern which the Bill has aroused amongst those whose in- 
terests are threatened, and of the sympathy which is felt 
for them by their compatriots in South Africa and in 
this country, I have given this question much anxious 
thought and personal attention. Every opportunity has 
been taken of representing the Indian point of view, and, 
as our Agent — Sir Kurma Reddi — announced at the 
recent conference of the South African Indian Congress, 
our views will be communicated to the Union Govern- 
ment. It is unnecessary to assure the House that we 
are making every endeavour, in co-operation with the 
Union Government, to secure an equitable solution, and 
I earnestly hope that the negotiations to be conducted by 
our representative will result, after full and frank dis- 
cussion, in an agreement satisfactory to both sides. 

Turning to East Africa, Hon’ble Members will re- 
member that the conclusions of His Majesty's Government 
have now been referred to a Joint Select Committee of 
Parliament. My Government are not ignorant of how 
widespread is the anxiety on the several questions that are 
involved, and they have submitted their views to this 
Committee through His Majesty’s Secretary of State for 
India. We have further requested perpiission to present 
our ease through a representative from India. I am gkd 



Speeches by Lord Irwim, 


Sli 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative 

Assembly, 

to inform the House that, in the event of that request l>e- 
ing accepted, it is hoped that our spokesman will be th<* 
Right Hon’ble Srinivasa Sastri, whose readiness to under- 
take any duty in the service of his country has ever been 
so conspicuous a characteristic of his public career, and 
who is shortly returning from the Conference to resume 
his seat on the Royal Commission on Labour under the 
Chairmanship of the Right Hon’ble Mr. Whitley. That 
Commission, after sparing no pains t> see for themselves 
the labour conditions of India and to hear all shades of 
opinion, are now engaged in drafting their repoit, and 
Hon’ble Members, who will be grateful to them for the 
manner in which they have prosecuted their enquiry, will 
also be glad to hear that they expect to be able to com- 
plete their work next March. 

I turn now to the main items of the business which 
will claim the attention of Hon’ble Members. It will be 
part of your task to consider the measures for maintain- 
ing the financial position of India, which will be placed 
before you in due course by my Government, and I ven- 
ture to say that there can have been no period in the 
history of the country when financial problems have 
needed not only so much earnest consideration but also 
the co-operation of all the forces in India, which have 
power to help the situation. In using these words I have 
in mind not merely the needs created by the present 
economic crisis, but the task of finding adequate financial 
resources to give the new constitution now under discus- 
sion a favourable start. 

India, like the rest of the world, has suJffered seriously 
from an ahn<^ universal trade depression, and in the 
nature of things has felt the full weight of the eoUapi^ 
in world prices of agricultural products. The troubles, 
arising from this state of affairs, as I i^sently had cause 



312 


Speeches hy Lord Irmm. 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative 

Assembly. 

to point out, are being seriously aggraTated by the dis- 
turbances resulting from the civil disobedience move- 
ment. I do not wish to dwell at length on this aspect of 
that movement today, nor indeed is it profitable to indulge 
in recriminations about the past. What concerns us is 
the present and the future, and I would ask all Hon^ble 
Members to ponder deeply on the injury which the present 
dissensions are causing to the economic life of the country. 

If only distrust and attempts to paralyse Government 
could be replaced by a spirit of mutual confidence and 
co-operation, then even in spite of the world crisis we 
might see the dawn of a new optimism in India, and the 
opening of new ways for the recuperation and development 
of her economic strength. 

There are in particular two aspects of the civil dis- 
obedience movement to which I must invite the attention 
of Hon’ble Members. 

A little less than a month ago, I felt it my duty to 
have recourse again to the special powers, which I took 
last year, for the better control of the Press and of un- 
authorised news-sheets and newspapers, and for dealing 
with persons who may instigate others to refuse the ful- 
filment of certain lawful obligations. In doing so I ex- 
pressed my regret that the urgent nature of the emerg- 
ency, which necessitated the promulgation of these 
Ordinances, had not allowed me to await the meeting of 
the Oentral L^islature, but I indicated tbe intention of 
my Government to bring tb^e matters before this House 
at the earliest opportunity. That intention we now 
propose to carry in|o effect by intrpdncing legislation on 
these two subjects forthwith, and I must therefore briefly 
review the main factors which have led us to this deci- 
sion. 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


313 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislatiw 

Assembly, 

A political movement must be judged and dealt with, 
not according to the professions of those who initiate it or 
carry it into effect, but in the light of practical results. 
Whatever may be, or have been, the true object underlying 
the present civil disobedience movement, Government still 
sees in many parts of India determined efforts to substi- 
tute another authority for its own and to interfere with 
the maintenance of law and order, of which Government 
is the constituted guardian. I need not at this stage de- 
tail the several forms which such activities have taken. 
But none I ithink is more pernicious, or more cruel to 
those whom it endeavours to mislead, than the pressure 
put upon payers of land revenue and other liabilities, to 
withhold payments that they are legally bound to make. 
In certain parts of the country those responsible for this 
movement have successfully instigated the withholding of 
such payments, and in other parts vigorous efforts are 
being made to this end. It is very easy to see how such 
a programme can be put forward in attractive guise, es- 
pecially at a time when the low prices of ^ricultural 
products have unhappily created a situation of great 
gravity. I would once more make it very plain that the 
special powers taken by Government are in no way in- 
tended to modify the usual policy, followed by Local 
Governments, of granting suspension or remission of land 
revenue, when economic circumstances demand it. Indeed, 
while the necessity of combating these insidious and 
dangerous attempts to cripple the administration 
constrained me to take these powers, I attach great im- 
portance to them as a means by which the smaH agricul- 
turists may be saved from the effects of such propaganda 
by people, who themselves have little to 1<^, but who are 
callously ready to involve the small landholder in “Bie 
risks of l^al processes and even forfeiture of Ms land. 



314 


Speeches hp Lord Irmn, 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative 

Assembly. 

Legislation on this subject will accordingly be laid before 
you. 

We also propose to ask this House to give legislative 
sanction for a limited period to the provisions contained 
in the Press Ordinance issued a few weeks ago. Apai‘t 
from the activities of the kind to which I have just re- 
ferred, and which in themselves constitute so gra\e a 
menace to the public tranquility, we have lately wit- 
nessed a disturbing increase in those crimes of violence, 
which have deeply stained the fair name of India and 
which, I know, are as abhorr?ent to the members of this 
House as they are to all other reasonable persons. 

The experience of the past few months leaves no 
doubt as to the existence of an organisation, whose insane 
objective it is to promote the overthrow of established 
Government by the deliberate creation of a state of terror- 
ism. I know that the vast majority of Indians 
deplore the growth of a movement wholly foreign to their 
traditions and instincts, and I see in the wude condemna- 
tion of outrages, and in particular in the indignation 
evoked by the attack on His Excellency the Governor of 
the Punjab, a growing recognition of the ui'gent and para- 
mount need of removing this malignant cancer in the life 
of India. I desire to express my deep sympathy with the 
relatives of all who have fallen victims at the hands of 
assassins, and I gladly pay a high tribute to the skill and 
course of those, who at the constant risk of their lives 
are engaged in the detection and prevention of terrorist 
plans. The devotion to duty of the officers, high and low, 
of every department of Government, in difficult and often 
dangerous circumstances, has been a feature of the past 
year of which all branches of the service may well feel 
proud. I and my Goveijnment in our sphere shall spare 
no effort to protect our officers and the public ; but, 



8pmch€$ by Lord Irmn, 


m 


Address at the opniing i^eyi^ion of the Fourth Leffhhifir.f 

Aascmblif, 

whatever action Government may take in this matter, it 
caniK^t achieve complete success, unless it is a.vsisted hy 
the whole-hearted determination of every citizen to stamp 
out so evil a thiniir from their society, i ciirnestly apt?e4l 
to all, who have at heart India s *rood riam<\ to show hy 
action and words, vhich will admit <»f no doubt or reserva- 
tioiij that they re<rard the terrorist movement with re- 
pugnance, and those who are actively engaged in it, i)r 
extend to it their sympathy or suxiporl, as the worst ene- 
mies of India. 

Among other influences which have undoubtedly 
tended to the encouragement of such revolutionary methotls 
and violent crime, are certain sections of the Press, w’hose 
reiterated laudation of false sentiment and of distorted 
patriotism lead all too often to the injection of deadly 
poison into a certain type of mind. Fair criticism of the 
administration or of our constitutional proposals I do not 
fear ; I rather w'eleome it. But, w'hen the great power 
of the Press is diverted from its true functions to dangerous 
and destructive doctrine, Government can no longer stand 
aside. 

I am very well aware that the two projects of legisla- 
tion to which 1 have referred must excite keen discussion 
and perhaps controversy, and I would gladly have avoided 
controversy at this time had I felt it to be possible. Pro- 
foundly hoping as I do that the outcome of the Round 
Table Conference may be to assist the speedy restoration 
of normal conditions, I should have preferred, if I could, 
to suspend action, and await the advent of a situation in 
w^hich special powers would no longer be required. But, 
so far as the terrorist movement is concerned, there is little 
ground for supposing that those who direct it are likely 
to be deterred from their course by constitutional agree- 
ments that may be reached, and, for the rest, it is not 




316 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


AMress at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative 

Assembly. 


possible for GoYernment to play the role of benevolent 
spectator^, so long as those, who have been endeavouring 
to destroy its foundations at every point, show no sign 
of abating their activities. It therefore seemed clear to 
my Government that, in the face of these facts, it would 
be a dereliction of our duty to refrain from taldng the 
necessary protective action, and it also seemed clear to 
them that on such vital issues the Members of this House 
had both the right and the duty to express their views. 
I am confident that, when they examine our proposals, 
they will do so with a deep sense of the responsibility, 
which they share with Government, for preserving the 
peace and stability of the country. 

I have never concealed my view that action of this 
kind, necessary as it is, will not of itself give us the re- 
medy that we seek for present discontents. And, during 
the past two months, the thoughts of all, who have be- 
lieved that honourable agreement is not beyond our grasp, 
have been focussed upon the proceedings of the Conference 
in London. There were those, both in India and Great 
Britain, who openly scorned its meeting, and, both be- 
fore and since it met, have made scant concealment of 
their hope that it would fail, little mindful of the gravity 
of the times, and of the need for their redemption on both 
sides by practical and courageous statesmanship. Prom 
the outset, there were many among the delegates from 
India who must have been conscious of the fact that their 
own faith in the efficiency of constitutional methods was 
not shared by many of their compatriots. In these cir- 
cumstances, it demanded from them no small degree of 
political courage to disregard the powerful pressure to 
which they were exposed, and men of every opinion can 
well afford to recc^nise the sense of public duty, which 
impelled them to do what they deemed right in the face 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


317 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislniwe 

Assembly, 

of much bitter contumely. Of those who went to England, 
there is one, to w’hom I must make a special reference, 
for I feel assured that w^e should all wish to join in aji 
expression of deep sorrow that one of the most notable 
personalities of the Conference should not have been 
permitted to witness the outcome of the labours, to which, 
as it proved, he gave his last days of life. 

The Conference, graciously opened by His Majesty 
the King-Emperor, is now about to conclude its labours, 
and -we await with eager interest the announcement to be 
made by the Prime Minister in the next few days. Pend- 
ing that announcement I content myself with pointing to 
certain things, which already stand out in sharp relief. 

The first undoubtedly is the recognition by the Indian 
States of the essential unity of all India, and their readi- 
ness to take their full share in designing the instruments 
of Government, through which that conception of unity 
may gain concrete expression and effect. I do not under- 
rate the difficulties that still have to be surmounted 
before these aspirations can be realised in their entirety. 
But those need not blind us to the far-reaching and deep 
significance of the step taken by the Spates’ representa- 
tives in London. I scarcely think I exaggerate when I 
say that the historian a hundi^ed years hence, comntent- 
ing on these times, will find in it the turning point of 
the constitutional history of India. 

The Confei’euce has had two further results that seem to 
me of incalcuiabie value. At the time of its convention 
the atmo^here was clouded with misunderstandings on 
both sides. Opinion in Great Britain was ill-informed of 
the realities of thoi]^ht in India ; opinion in India, even 
in circles where so-ealied moderate views prevailed, was 
suspicious and sceptical of the purpose of Gfmt Britain. 



318 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Address at the opening Session of the Fourth Legislative 
Assembly. 

If ignorance and suspicion still linger, they represent the 
rear-guard and no longer the main body of opinion in the 
two countries. Great Britain has realised, as she has 
heard it at first-hand from all sections of the Indian 
delegation, something of the new forces that are animat- 
ing the political thought of India, while India, feeling 
no longer that she 'is misunderstood, is better prepared to 
recognise that British statesmen have approached the 
problem, not indeed ignoring real difBculties, but with a 
single will to find means by which they may be speedily 
and securely resolved. 

And thus it might appear that all, who have longed 
to see the Conference bear fruit for the true healing of 
the nations, may take new hope. The London discus- 
sions have revealed a genuine desire on all sides to find 
practical means, by which speedy and substantial recog- 
nition may be given to the natural claims of Indian 
political thought. There is no one who will not deplore 
the fact that the work of the Conference should have been 
so gravely impeded by that problem, which continues to 
occupy so pre-eminent and unfortunate a place in the 
domestic life of India. Any constitution that is to work 
smoothly must obviously command the confidence of all com- 
munities, and in this matter India can help herself more 
than anybody else can help her. I would most earnestly 
trust ihat leaders of all communities would once more 
come tc^ether, resolved no longer to allow the constitu- 
tknai pn^gress of India to be impeded by this cause, or 
India herself to lie under this reproach of internal dis- 
cord and mistrust. Apart from this, it is evident that, to 
many of those participating in the Conference, the 
influence of personal contact with men of differing views, 
afcmg with the inspiration of the new and wider vision of 
a United Ii^ia that the Conference has unfolded, has had 



319 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 

Address at the opening Session of the Fonrih Legi^lotire 

Assembly, 

the effect of presenting an old problem in new guise, and 
of leading them to revise some of their earlier views upon 
it. That way lies the best possibility for both eountries 
of return to the conditions of peace and harmony that we 
all desire. 

Many times during the last twelve months thoughtful 
men and women must have pondered deeply over what 
has been one of their most poignant and perplexing 
features. Howe-v’er mistaken any man may think him 
to be, and however deplorable may appear the results 
of the policy associated with his name, no one can fail to 
recognise the spiritual force, which impels Mr. Gandhi to 
count no sacrifice too great in the cause, as he believes, of 
the India that he loves. And I fancy that, though he on 
his side too thinks those who differ from him to be the 
victims of a false philosophy, Mr. Gandhi would not be 
unwilling to say that men of my race, who are today res- 
ponsible for Government in India, %vere sincere in their 
attempt to serve her. It has been one of the tragedies of 
this time that where ultimate purposes have perhaps 
differed little, if at all, the methods employed by some 
should have been, as I conceive, far more calculated to 
impede than to assist the accomplishment of that largely 
common end. And, deeply as I crave to see the dawn of 
a happier day in India, I am bound, so long as a movement 
designed to undermine and sap the foundations of Govern- 
ment holds the front place in the programme of the great 
Congress organisation, to resist it to the uttermost of my 
strength. Is it not now possible, I would ask, for tho^ 
responsible for this policy to try another course Uhat, in 
the light on the one hand of sinister events in India, aiid 
on the iASmr of the encouragement offered to India by the 
piiogress of the Conference in England, would mem to be 
the more excellent way t A great deal remains to be 



320 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the All-India Police Conference. 

done, for it has long been generally recognised that, if 
and when the broad lines of constitutional revision could 
be drawn, much subsequent detailed thought would be 
required for its adjustment to the particular circumstances 
of India. Quite evidently it would be for the good of 
India that all the best elements both here and in Great 
Britain should join hands in the work of elaborating and 
bringing to fruition the undertaking so well begun in 
London, and thus place the seal of friendship once again 
upon the relations of two peoples, whom unhappy cir- 
cumstances have latterly estranged. On the wide basis 
of friendship and mutual respect alone can we confidently 
build the structure of a strong and self-reliant 
India, one within herself and one with the 
other partners in the British Commonwealth. I 
feel confident that I can count on eveiy member of this 
House to lend at all* times such assistance as may be in his 
power to the furtherance of a work, so fraught with 
consequence to the welfare of India, of Great Britain, and 
of that Empire, in which I very earnestly pray India may 
for all time be proud to take her place. 


OPrnim OP THE ALL-INDIA POLICE CONPEEENOE. 

His Excellency the Viceroy in opening the All-India Police 
Conference on Monday, the 19th January 1931, said : — 

Gentlmmr-lt has given me the greatest pleasure to 
come here today and open the third All-India Police Con- 
ference and to meet so many representatives of the Police 
service from all parts of India. It is not my intention to 
say much in detail about the agenda of your, meeting. 
Those are matters in which you are expert, and. I am not, 
and I wish only to make a few observations of a general 



8 perches by Lord Irwin. 


321 


Opeumg of the All-India Prdiee Chnferenee. 

i think that all will agree that the rehultn of the two 
previous conferences have been valuable enough to justily 
the Government of India and the Local Governments in 
calling a further meeting this year, and I hope that this 
conference may in future become a standing biennial 
engagement. For there must clearly be great value in 
examining and reviewing from time to time our methods 
of dealing with Police problems of an all-India nature. 
And, to do this effectively, it is essential to pool all our 
knowledge and experience of these matters, and it is inileed 
only in this way that we can expect to effect progressive 
improvement. In a country so vast as India, with a total 
Police force in the neighbourhood of 200,000 officers and 
men, it would be more than surprising if w^e found no 
inequalities, not only in all-round efficiency, but even in the 
handling of particular branches of work. It is just as 
true, I imagine, of the Police service as of other walks of 
life, that different branches of work make a different appeal 
to different minds, and it is largely to the enthusiast and 
the pioneer that real progress in any particular direction 
is due. So, when an officer, and through him a Province, 
attains marked efficiency in any direction, it is of the 
highest importance that the results of the special knowledge 
and experience so acquired should be made available to the 
rest of the Police forces throughout the country. In 
practice, and largely for this kind of reason, I have no 
doubt that it will be found that each of the Provinces has a 
distinct contribution to make to the common stock. 

These biennial Police Conferences too show that wq in 
India# have s^n the need of keeping pace with world 
opinion in the matter of Police work. To anyone who in 
recent years has been conceited with Police administration 
in its wider aspects, and even to a layman like myself, 
one feature that arrests .attention has been the general and 
growing recognition of the fact that the poEceman^s calling 
is coming more and more to he r^arded as a highly skilled 
* hSPSV 



322 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the All-India Police Conference, 

profession. Developments of modern civilisation offer to 
astute brains great possibilities in the development of the 
skilled methods’ of dime, and recent years have seen a 
gradual widening of such activities and an increasing 
intricacy in their technique. Here neither provincial nor 
international limits are sacrosanct, and, as in matters of 
law and order it is the criminal w^ho sets the pace, so it 
is the duty of the protective forces of the State to see that 
they keep abreast his sinister activities. 

If perhaps we have not advanced as far on the road 
as some other countries, we are at least moving in the right 
direction. In India, of all countries, this is peculiarly 
necessary, for I suppose in no other part of the world are 
the Police confronted with so gneat a range and variety of 
crime, varying from the bomb-maker with his up-to-date 
knowledge of modern high explosives, to the aboriginal 
jungle-dweller who commits a murder in deference to age- 
long and revolting superstitions. 

As I have said, however, my chief object in coming 
here this morning is not to speak to experts about the 
intricacies of their own job. My chief purpose is to have 
an opportunity of thanking you, and through you all the 
ranks of the Indian Police Service, for the splendid work 
that you have done during my five years of ofiSce. None 
of these five years have been years of ease and leisure so 
far as the Police have been concerned, but above aU the 
last twelve months have been a period of difficulty and 
anxiety, and I cannot speak too highly of the way in 
which the Police all over India have during that time met 
and dealt with a situation of great delicacy and gravity. 
I am in this respect in the happy position of being able 
to speak without distinction of province or rank. During 
a period of unprecedented stress the Police have stood 
shoulder to shoulder through the length and breadth of 
India in the unremitting task of preserving the King^s 
peace, and in its fulfilment they have raised the high 



Speeches hy Lore} Irwin, 


323 


Opening of the AU-India Polite Conference, 

traditions of their service to a level never previously 
attained. They have displayed those (lualities which are 
found only in a disciplined force of the first order — 
loyalty and courage, endurance and restraint. If I dwell 
on two features of their record, it is not that I am im- 
mindful of their other achievements. What has made 
particular appeal to me has been the staunchness of the 
police and their moral and physical courage. They have 
showm a fine determination to see the thing through, and 
the attempts to turn them from their duty have only made 
them more steadfast in its performance. They have had 
the moral courage to stand firm against every form of 
social intimidation, affecting them and their families, that 
perverted ingenuity could invent, and they have found 
their reward in the recognition, even of those who have 
spared no efforts to coerce or seduce them, that their 
ranks are not to be broken. Nor have they flinched before 
the physical dangers to which they have been exposed. 
The record of the past year contains many deeds of 
gallantry performed by the highest and the humblest 
members of the force. We remember that one w^ho might 
have been with us today gave his life to save that of a 
brother ofScer, and we call to mind the long roll of thc^ 
of all ranks w^ho have not been afraid to face and to meet 
death. The record is one in which the Indian Police may 
take just pride, and I thank you and, through you, all 
members of the force for services well and faithfully 
rendered. 

And this suggests one other thought. "We are oxi the 
eve of changes when the primary control of the Police 
and of law and order will probably pass into other hands. 
I know and understand the apprehensions which many 
feel and the desire that the discipline and internal ad- 
ministration of the forjee should be prei^rvetl against 
disruptive influences. I do not under^imate the reality 
of the fears which are often expre^d, or the nee^ty 


324 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Red Cross Society HeoRqnarters, New Delhi 

of doing everything that is possible to meet them under 
the new conditions lilvely soon to be in operation. At the 
same time I cannot help feeling that the most secure safe- 
guard lies in the high standard of achievement of the force 
itself. I find it difSeult to believe that any Government, 
charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and 
oijder, will be so foolish as lightly to prejudice the effi- 
ciency of the Police, or that the governments of the future 
will, with equal cause, be any less appreciative than is 
mine of the services of those, whose position it will be 
both their duty and interest to protect. 

Gentlemen, I have not much time left before me in 
India and this is likely to be the last opportunity I shall 
have of talking intimately to the representative members 
of a force to which I have many reasons, public and 
personal, to be grateful. May I conclude, before leaving 
you to your deliberations, by assuring you once more 
that anyone and anything connected with the Police in 
India— from constable to Inspector-General — ^will always 
have my very warm interest and sympathy, and that if 
I can in any way or at any time render them any service 
or assistance I shall deem it a pleasure and a privilege to 
do so. 


OPENma OF THE BED CROSS SOCIETY HEAD- 
QUARTERS, NEW DELHI, 

ethFeWaaay In opening the Red Gross Society Headquarters on 6th 
Fdbruary 1931, His ExceBen^r the Viceroy said 

When, a little less than a year ago, I had the privilege 
of laying the foundation-stone of this fine building, I 
hardly hoped to see the work of construction completed 
in so short a time. But enthusiasm and skill have worked 
wonders, and I warmly congratulate all those concerned 
the d^patch with which they have achieved su<^ 



Specehefi by Lord Irunn. 


325 


Oldening of the Bed Cross Society Eeadqnortfrs, JVV?r DelHL 

excellent results. Nor do we forjs^et — as Sir Henrj’ has 
just said — that ■we owe it all to the princely jprenerosity of 
His Highness the Xawab of Junagadh, who has always 
been such a very good friend of the Red Cross in all its 
aetmties. His name will ever remain associated with this 
building and will be remembered with gratitude by all 
those w’ho have the interests of this great organisation at 
heart. 

The last occasion on which I had the opportunity of 
addressing members of the Red Cross Society was at the 
Annual General Meeting in Simla last July, when I tried 
to summarise the great progress w’hich had been made 
during the preceding five years. The months which have 
elapsed since then have seen another stride forward, and 
I am glad that I have been able, before my time in India 
comes to an end, to see the consummation of a scheme 
which, I am sure, will add materially to the efficiency of 
certain branches of Red Cross work. The formation of 
a Child Welfare Bureau, to which Sir Henry has just 
referred, will mean economy in power, and increase in 
efficiency, and I am glad to know that the management 
of the Bureau is now placed in the capable hands of Dr, 
Ruth Young, to w.hom we all wish a speedy recovery from 
her present illness. In the welfare of the child of today 
is bound up the wrell-being of the State in the years that 
lie before us, and there can be no question that in 
seriously tackling this problem the Red Cross Society is 
doing a work of the greatest national importance. 

My business today is formally to open this central 
buildii^, and I do not propose to touch on the work 
which the Provincial branches are doing. But, as they 
are the real workers in the Red Cross hive of 
I should like to take this opportunity of t»m a 

last message of farewell, and a renewed of tte 

(^nMant sympathy with which L^y Irwin and 1 ^lall 
always watch the pr<^ress and exlenmou of their laboura 



326 


Speeches hy Lori Irwin. 


Unveiling of the Dominion Columns. 

There is one omission in Sir Henry’s speech which I 
feel it my duty to fill. I am not going to follow him in 
a critical examination of how he spends his working hours, 
but I have no hesitation in saying that few people could 
have laboured in the cause of the Red Cross Society with 
greater energy” and devotion than has Sir Henry. In carry- 
ing through the amalgamation of the various organisations, 
which are now combined in the Child Welfare Bureau, his 
legal knowledge and his organising capacity have been in- 
valuable. I am confident that all who are present this 
afternoon would wish me to place on record a public acknow- 
ledgment of the debt which the Society owes to him. 

I will now ask your permission to open this new 
building. In doing so let me once more express iny 
gratitude to the benefactor to whom this building owes 
its existence, and to all those who have co-operated in 
bringing the scheme to completion. I am confident that 
it has a career of great and increasing usefulness before 
it, and I earnestly trust that every success may attend 
the efforts of those who will work within its walls. 


UFTEILIRd OF THE DOMINION COLUMNS. 

His Excellency the Yieeroy made the following speech at 
the Unveiling of the Dominion Columns on 10th February 
1931 :- 


Nineteen years ago His Majesty the King-Emperor 
proclaimed the decision to build a new Imperial capital 
in Delhi. Today we meet to mark the formal completion 
of that work. In laying the first stones of the new 
capital His Majesty expressed the desire that the plan 
of the buildings to be erected should be considered with 
deliberation and care, so that the new creation might be 
in every way worthy of the historic character of its 
surroundings. Standing here we can surely say that His 



Speeches by Lord Irmn> 


327 


Vnveiling of the Dominion Columns, 

Majesty’s commands have been well and faithfully 
observed. 

Those who first conceived the general design, that 
has now taken concrete form, aspired to make something 
that for dignity and beauty might stand alongside the 
architectural triumphs of centuries ago. Those who 
under skilled guidance have brought to completion a 
great idea have adorned it with the highest skill of Indian 
art and craftsmanship. To them, as to all who have 
shared in the fulfilment of the Royal purpose, is due the 
lasting gratitude of India. 

The considerations, which led to the change of 
capital, have now moved beyond the sphere of practical 
debate. But after the passage of twenty years, and in 
.the light of present-day ezperienee, it is not without 
interest to recall that, w^hen this project first took shape, 
Lord Hardinge and his colleagues foresaw a future when, 
with the growih of Provincial Self-Government, it would 
become the more necessary to give the Central Govern- 
ment a separate and independent setting. To such 
course and foresight we owe the birth of this new city, 
on ground from times immemorial the centre of ‘dynasties 
and Empires, of whc^ past greatness many monuments 
are still silent spokesmen. A great responsibility will 
rest upon those who follow us to keep close watch over 
the development of this place. A few years hence, unless 
public opinion is forewarned, much may have happened 
which the men of that time will find it difficult, if not 
impossible, to correct, and it would be nothing short of 
trag^y if, through any lack of timely thought, the 
expanding city of New DeM were to be disfigure by 
evils, which have elsewhere accompanied city growth. 

The four columns which are the immediate purpose 
of our meeting are tokens of something wider than any- 
thing which the past cities of Ddhi represent* They 


328 


Speeches Lord Irwin. 


Ceremony at the Indian War Memorial Arch, 

are the gift of the four great Dominions of the Empire, 
from three of whom we are happy to welcome 
distinguished visitors today, and to whose Governments 
I would offer on behalf of India an expression of deep 
gratitude for their generosity, as for the good-will of 
which that generosity is evidence. For some they will 
commemorate the days when the Dominions fought 
shoulder to shoulder with India in the Great War ; to 
others they will tell of the long history of devotion and 
self-sacrifice, which is our proud Imperial heritage j to 
all of us they enshrine a tradition of affection and loyalty 
to the Person of the King-Emperor, which is the strongest 
tie between the several members of our Imperial Society. 
Other Empires there have been whose ideal has been that 
of uniformity, shaping their constituent elements to a 
common mould. Our aim has rather been that of unity, 
which might join in a single whole wide differences of 
race and clime, and of which the bonds are those of 
freedom. Devoutly then let us pray that these four 
pillars of Fellowship, now given to India, may for ever 
symbolise such an association, large in thought, undaunted 
in faith, and powerful under Providence to work for the 
service of mankind. 

I now have the honour to ask the representatives 
of Dominions to unveil the Columns. 


GEEIMONY AT THE INDIAN WAR MEMORIAL ARCH. 

i2thl^teuwy In opening the Indian War Memorial Arch, on 12th 
February 1931, His Excellency the Yiceroy said ; — 

The memorial before us is the seal of India’s homage 
to her sons who, in the ranks of a brave company from 
all four quarters of the Empire, gave their lives during 
the Great War. We, who today meet to do them honour, 
know how then the manhood of India, from plains and 
hills, from rich homes and poor, went forth unquestion- 



Speeekei by Lord Irwin, 


m 


opening Ceremony of the New Water Work^^ Jaipur, 
ing, when the King-Emperor called on it for aid. Duty 
led these men to diverse battle-fields, some to strange 
countries across strange seas, some to the frontiers of 
their own home-land. East and West, they quitted 
themselves like men, adding a noble chapter to the epie 
of Indian chivalry. They fought, as often before, side 
by side with British comrades and with their brother- 
soldiers from Nepal, wdio are also here commemorated. 
And so together, before their time, they met death, which 
is for every man the only certain fact in life's long 
uncertainty. 

All that we remember and shall not forget. It is 
not therefore for ourselves that we have made this visible 
remembrance of great deeds, but rather that those, who 
after us shall look upon this monument, may learn, in 
pondering its purpose, something of that spirit of sacrifice 
and service, which the names upon its walls record. 

Those who have lost friends, or dearer than friends, 
in war, ask that a memorial should speak of honourable 
pride and sadness ; and here the maker's hand has given 
us a praise and a lament in lasting stone. The sorrow 
of the world passes like the shadow of a cloud, and passing 
leaves more clear the remembrance of a time when men 
thanked God for courage, and were ready, as the summons 
came, to consecrate their liV^ to the cause of justice. 
We, who can judge the worth of that which these men 
did, may be content if others yet unborn may say of 
them, as was said of the Athenian dead, “ They gave 
their lives for the common weal, and in so doing won for 
themselves the praise which grows not old 


OPINING CEEEMONY OP THE NEW WATIB 
WOEES, JAIPUE. 

H. E. the Viceroy in opening the New Wafer Works at 
Jaipur on 13th March said 

lour Sighnm, tadm md gives me 

the greatest pleasure to take part in this ceremony, I 


330 


Speeches hj Lord Irwin, 


Investiture of Eis Highness the Maharaja of Jaipur, 

think that all, who have had the opportunity of visiting 
Your Highneiss’ historic capital, must have marvelled at 
the feat performed in earlier times by Jai Singh in 
founding a great town on Jaipur present site. For the 
lack of any lake or running stream, and the sandy soil 
and barren hills all round, may well make us wonder 
how the neee^ry supplies of water were found. I have, 
therefore, listened with much interest to Your Highness’ 
account of the expedients adopted in the past to provide 
water for this City, and of the reasons that led to the in- 
ception of the scheme which I am privileged to inaugurate 
to-day. 

To have had the courage and foresight to take in 
hand and bring to successful fruition an enterprise of 
this magnitude reflects much credit on the Minority Ad- 
ministration, and I join Your Highness in congratulating 
all concerned on their achievement, in particular the 
Engineers to whose technical skill and experience the 
construction work is due. Although the cost in money 
has been large, it is difScult to imagine a purpose on 
which it could better have been spent, and I know well that 
Your Highness’ subjects will appreciate in full the 
immense boon of having a constant supply of fresh water 
available in their houses or at their doors. 

I now declare the Water Works open, and trust they 
will be of lasting benefit to the people of this City. 


INVESTITURE OF HIS HIGHNESS THE MAHA- 
RAJA OP JAIPUR. 

14tb Mweli H. E. the Viceroy made the following speech at the In- 
vestiture of His Highness the Maharaja of Jaipur on 14th 
March 1931 : — 

lour HighnesSf — Among the most pleasant features 
of the bu^ life of a Viceroy are the personal relations 



Speeches bp Lord Irwin. 


331 


Investiture of Eis Highness the 2Iahai'nja of Jaipur. 

astablished between himself and the Princes of 

India, and I think I sJiy, both on belmlf of myself 
and my predecessors in office, that with no Kiiliiif? Ilfiiisc 
have these relations been more intimate and friendly 
than with that to which Yonr Hiirhness has the honoin 
to belong. When on the death of your illustrious father, 
Maharaja Sir Madho Singh, the Government of India 
became the trustees of the administration of the Jaipur 
State and the guardians of its yonng Ruler, it was natural 
that the Viceroy should regard the discharge of these 
responsibilities as an object of his especial care, and should 
watch with almost a father n pride and {solicitude over 
Your Highness’ training and education. It gives me 
therefore the greatest satisfaction to-day to have the 
privilege of investing Your Highness with ruling powers. 
My pleasure is all the greater in that this is the only 
occasion, on which I have been able to take part in a 
ceremony of this picturesque and historic kind. 

The Council administration has now lasted for eight 
years and more, and, now that the trustees are resigning 
their charge, it is fitting that I should give some account 
of this time of stewardship. At the outset, the problems 
which faced them were of more than ordinary difficulty. 
Methods of administration, which had worked successfully 
when the late Euler was in the fulness of his vigour, 
began to fail in later years when the strong hand, which 
had ruled the destinies of Jaipur for forty years, was 
forced by advancing years and serious illness to relax its 
hold. Tbe virtue had gone out of the old system, and 
the time for change had come. The call was becoming 
insistent for a Government more in keeping with the 
spirit of the times and more responsive to the people’s 
needs. A period of transition and change is seldom with- 
out its difficulties and dangers, and the task of reorganisa- 
tion demands of the administrator, as it demands of the 



332 


Speeches hy Lord Iruein. 


Investiture of Eis Highness the Muharaja of Jaipur. 

architect who modernises an ancient structure, a large 
measure both of political wisdom and of caution in decid- 
ing what to remove and what to leave. New institutions 
and new ideas have to be grafted on to the oli without 
destroying tradition and the spirit of the past, and with 
due regard to local sentiment. The scheme, when com- 
plete, must be harmonious and suited to the purpose for 
which it IS required. I hope and believe that the minority 
administration has been successful in its attempts to 
achieve this end, and I earnestly trust that the system, 
which has been established, will under Your Highness’ 
guidance secure to the people of this State a just, bene- 
ficent and progressive Government, which will repose 
upon a real unity of interest between the Ruler and the 
ruled. 

I have had many opportunities of studying the reports 
of work done during the minority period, and I can 
therefore say with confidence that substantial progress 
has been made in the reform of all departments of the 
administration. The finances of the State have been 
placed on a thoroughly sound footing, and a regular 
Aiidit and Accounts Department has been orjganised. 
The normal revenue of the State has increased from 
about eighty lakhs to one hundred and thirty lakhs, and 
investments have increased nearly four times. A system 
of annual Budgets has been introduced, and a complete 
revision and re-organisation has been carried out in *the 
Judicial and Revenue, and the Customs and Excise De- 
partments. There is now also for the first time a regular 
Court of Wards with duly qualified Managers for the 
supervision of estates under the direct control of the 
Darbaf. 

I ^ould detain you too long if I attempted to enu- 
m detail the various woriss of public utility which 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


333 


Investiture of His Highmss the Maharaja of Jaipur* 

have been executed, but the construction of considers ide 
lengths of road and railway, new schemes for irrigation, 
and the provision of electric light and a new water-supply, 
are among the many sound and valuable projects for 
which the administration is entitled to the highest credit- 

The educational needs of the people have not In^eu 
overlooked. The annual expenditure incurred under this 
head has increased from a little over a lakh to well over 
five lakhs of rupees, and there has been a large increase 
in the number of schools and colleges, and the* pupils in 
attendance at them. The expenditure on medical relief 
moreover has doubled in the last few years, and a well- 
equipped Zenana Hospital has just been completed. 
Finally, there has been a thorough re-organisation of the 
Militaiy, Police, and Jail Deparlmenls. Irregular mili- 
tary quits have been reduced, and two new first line regi- 
ments, the Jaipur Lancers and the Jaipur Infantry, have 
been created. These units have made striking progress, 
and with the Transport Corps they constitute a force of 
which the State may well be proud, and in which I know 
Your Highness takes and will take close personal in- 
terest. All three units have been provided with ample 
space for training grounds and with admirable building. 

The Police have been converted into an organised 
force, properly trained, well-armed and well-equipped, 
and, perhaps most important of all, excellent lin^ and 
living conditions are being steadily substituted for the 
old in^uiequate quarters. 

The facts which 1 have recited are a very satMactory 
assurance that, on assuming the duties of your h%h ofiSee, 
Your Highness will find a State well-dowered with public 
works, a fuU treasury and ^ contented people. All tliat 
was p| in the old pustqms mi tpaditioi^ of ^ 



334 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


hivestiture of Mis Highness the Maharaja of Jaipur. 

State has been, wherever posfeiible, preserved, and the 
minimum of change, compatible with the needs of modern 
progress, has been made. I believe Your Highness al- 
ready has found abundant evidence in your tours through 
the State that the old ties of loyalty and affection, that 
bind your people to the Ruler, persist as strongly as of 
yore. Those w^ho have contributed to these striking 
results may well feel proud of their achievement, and, if I 
cannot mention by name all those who have assisted in 
the task, I would at least wish to make reference to a 
singular and appropriate coincidence. The foundations of 
the reforms were laid in the first and most difficult year 
of the minority by that capable officer, the tried friend of 
so many of Your Highness’ brother Princes, Sir Reginald 
Glancy. To-day his brother, Mr. 13. J. Glancy, relin- 
quishes charge of the office of President, after setting the 
coping stone upon the work of the minority administra- 
tion. To these and others, as to Mr. Reynolds, who as 
President of the Council and as Agent to the Governor- 
General has been closely connected with Jaipur for seven 
years, Your Highness’ State owes a debt of gratitude 
which, I believe, it will not find it easy to repay. 

Your Highness is well aware of the anxious con- 
sideration which I and my officers have given to the ques- 
tion of your training. There are indeed few subjects to 
which succesisive Viceroys have devoted more earnest 
attention, and no which opinions have vari^ so much, as 
that of the best method of educating and draining young 
Princes. There is the risk on the one hand that an 
Indian Prince, if educated in Europe, may thereby be- 
come alienated from his own people. On the other hand, 
it is clearly desirable for a future Ruler to include in his 
education some knowledge and experience of the great 
world outside India. In Your Highness’ case full weight 
has, I think, been given to these varying considerations, 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


335 


Investiture of His Highness the Maharaja of Jaipur. 

and under the guidance firstly of your old friend and 
tutor Mr. Mayne, and later of Lieutenant-Colonel Twiss, 
who is with you still, you have profited to the full from 
your six years at the Mayo College and your year as a 
Cadet, I believe the first Indian Cadet, at the Eoyal Mili- 
tary Academy of Woolwich. I know from many sources 
how high was the commendation Your Highness’ work 
won from the authorities at Woolwich, and how great was 
the regret, among Instructors and fellow Cadets alike, 
when they had to bid Your Highness good-bye. For the 
last six months you have been receiving administrative 
training in your own State under the personal supervi- 
sion of Mr. Glancy. In that time short though it is you 
have had the opportunity of studying the working of all 
the principal State Departments, have regularly attended 
meetings of the Council, and have made several tours of 
inspection in the more distant portions of the State. It 
is a great pleasure to have received from Mr. Glancy such 
favourable reports of the quick understanding displayed 
by Yoar Highness of State affairs, and of your apprecia- 
tion of the duties of your high position. 

Year by year with the general advancement of educa- 
tion and with the growth of new ideas, stimulated by the 
Great War, the art of Government becomes more difficult. 
A fierce and searching light now beats on all who wield 
authority. The old unquestioning acceptance of auto- 
cratic rule is gradually disappearing, even in those quar- 
ters where conservatism seemed to have the strongest 
hold. Rulers are being more and more called on to justify 
their authority to the ruled, and abuse of power attracts 
to itself criticism of growing strength. Nor can it be ex- 
pected that developments in British India should fail 
to have their effect upon the people of Your Highness’ 
and other States. There is abundant evidence that ere 
long a similar standard of administration will be demand- 
ed, which it will be impolitic and dangerous to deny. 



336 


Speeches hy Lord Irwm. 


hvGestiture of Mis Highness the Maharaja of Jaipur. 
Precedent will not in all cases supply an adequate guide, 
and I trust therefore you will forgive me if I conclude 
with a few words of advice to Your Highness on this 
memorable occasion, when you start upon your career as 
Ruler of Jaipur. 

Among the many factors on which the happiness of 
your subjects depends, I 'would judge the most important 
these : — 

Promptness in the despatch of business, impartial 
justice as between man and man, selection of competent 
ofiSLeials, ungrudging support of them so long as they 
prove worthy of your trust, and moderation in personal 
expenditure. It will also be your duty to watch over the 
development of all agencies for the public benefit such as 
schools, hospitals, roads, and irrigation works, to maintain 
close contact between yourself and your people, and to set 
an example, in your private and public life, to those who 
serve ypu and to those over whom you rule. Prom my 
personal knowledge of Your Highness, and from all that 
I have seen and heard, I feel confident that Your High- 
ness will * rise to the height of {yK>ur great responsibilities. 
My Agent in Rajputana and the Resident in Jaipur wiU 
always be ready to help you with advice, and I know you 
will regard them not merely as the representatives of a 
(Jovernment who wish you well, but as friends, whose 
desire is to help you to preserve the great trust that you 
have received from a distinguished line of ancestors. I 
greatly r^ret that in a brief month after your accession to 
power I shall have laid down my present office, and have 
said good-bye to India and to many Indian friends, but 
you may be confident that my successor will evince a 
interest in your career and welfare not less warm 
than mine, and that I myself shall ever watch with close 
concern the fortune of Jaipur and of its Ruler. Your 
burden will be heavy, but no Maharaja has I think entered 
Oip his respontibilities with greater advantages than you. 




Speeches hy Lord Irwiru 


337 


Banquet at Jaipur, 

and I earnestly hope and believe that under Providence 
your rule will redound to your lasting honour and to the 
benefit and contentment of your subjects. 

I declare Your Highness to be vested with full ruling 
powers. 


BANQUET AT JAIPUR 

H. E. the Viceroy made the following speech at the State 
Banquet at Jaipur on 14th March 1931 : — 

Your Highness, Ladies and Gentlemen , — I have al- 
ready had the opportunity this afternoon of expressing 
the great pleasure it has given me to visit Jaipur on this 
occasion of historic interest, and I am glad to be able once 
more to tell Your Highness how sincerely I appreciate 
the privilege that has been mine to-day, and how warmly 
I wish you all fortune and success in the responsible task 
upon which you are now entering. I desire too to ex- 
press on behalf of Lady Irwin and myself our great 
gratitude to Your Highness both for the very kind terms 
in which you have just been good enough to propose our 
health, and for all the hospitality you have shown us 
during our visit to your State. I was fortunate enough to 
spend a few days in Jaipur two and a half years ago, 
and have never forgotten the impression then made on my 
mind by the picturesque romance of its setting, the blend 
of mediaeval and of modern in its streets, and the colour 
of the life that moves among them. It has been delight- 
ful to renew that first acquaintance, and Lady Irwin and 
I shall both take with us to England very pleasant 
memories of our visit, of Your Highness^ kindly welcome, 
and of the briUiant spectacles we have to-day been 
privileged to witness. 

During the five years that I have spent in India 
Your Highness has grown from boyhood to man's estate. 

L6PSV 


14tli March 

mi. 



m 


Speeches Sy Lord Irvdn. 


Banquet at Jaipur^ 

Througlioiit that period I have watched with constant 
solicitude each stage in yoiw upbringing, from the time 
when I first met you as a student at the Mayo College, 
later as a cadet at Woolwich, and now, after an interval 
of administrative training, on the threshold of your career 
as Ruler of an Indian State. In all you have distinguish- 
ed yourself, in the class room, on the playing fields and 
on the polo ground, and in the wide circle of your friends, 
and you have never failed to earn the personal regard and 
affection of those with w^hom you have come in contact. 
All has been of the brightest promise, and I am confident 
that to-day will be memorable in the annals of this State as 
the commencement of a long and beneficent period of rule. 

The years that lie before Your Highness, and especial- 
ly the years immediately ahead, will bring no light res- 
ponsibilities in their train. As a result of the statesman- 
ship shown by the delegates from India at the Round 
Table Conference in London, the Indian States have now 
the prospect of taking part with British India in framing 
a federal constitution for the whole of this great country. 
The labour yet to be performed in the completion of that 
task will be immense. The loom is set, but skill and 
patience of a high order will be needed on the part of all 
to weave the threads aright, and to work into a pattern 
of wise and durable des^n the many intricacies of 
texture in the fabric. In that portion of the joint task, 
which will fall upon the Princes of India, Your Highness 
as Ruler of one of the great Rajput States will take an 
important share, and I can assure you that all my good 
wishes will follow you and all members of your Order 
throughout the further stages of the work to which your 
hands are set. It had seemed, not many weeks ago, that 
that work would have to he pursued in an atmosphere 
over-charged with uncertainty and mistrust. I am happy 
to think that those mists have been to a great extent dis- 
pelled, and that all parties and all interests in India will 



Speeches hy Lord Irmn. 


339 


Banquet at Jaipur. 

jointly now be prepared to lend their assistance in find- 
ing solutions for the vast problems which are before ns. 
I am under no temptation to underestimate their difficulty, 
or to suppose that their solution is assured, because %ve 
have happily been able to create conditions in which all 
may be willing to take part in their consideration. But I 
do believe that, if the spirit, which inspired my recent 
conversations -with Mr. Gandhi and enabled them with 
the assistance of many friends to reach the result they 
did, can be maintained throughout the future constitu- 
tional discussions, it ought not to be impossible to set the 
seal upon a secure and durable understanding between 
India and Great Britain. We met with the single pur- 
pose, if it might be honourably accomplished, of re- 
establishing peace in India. That purpose, I think, I 
may say, we followed with a single determination to win 
success, facing everything, concealing nothing, and 
making no attempt on either side to do other than frankly 
meet and strive to overcome the obstacles that might stand 
between us and the peace we sought to win. 

Throughout my conversations with Mr. Gandhi, I 
felt complete assurance that I could implicitly trust his 
vord, and I am confident that he will do everything in 
his power to give effect to those undertakings, which arc 
recorded in the published statement. For my own part 
I have never doubted that no ejffort within my power 
was too great, when the prize of success was a large step 
forward towards the restoration of honourable understand- 
ing between the peoples of two great countries, and I 
rejoice to think that the result, which my conversations 
with Mr. Gandhi were able to effect, has been hailed with 
satisfaction and approbation by those of every class and 
race and creed in India. 

Your Highness has announced this evening the muni- 
ficent donation which you have placed at Lady Irwin 
disposal for any charitable purpose to which she may 


340 


Speeches hy Lord h^win. 


Banquet at Jaipur, 

wish that it should be devoted. I need hardly say that 
both she and I are deeply grateful to Your Highness for 
your most generous gift. Your Highness eould indeed 
have thought of no way in which you eould have added 
more to the pleasure of our visit to Jaipur than by this 
warm-hearted action, meaning so much to the happiness 
of many who deserve the charity of those more favoured 
than themselves with the good things of life. It is in true 
keeping with the tradition set by your father Sir Madho 
Singh, through whose magnificent contribution of 20 lakhs 
it will be remembered that the Indian People’s Famine 
Trust was brought into existence. 

It remains for me to thank Your Highness once more 
for the great reception which you and your people have 
given us to Jaipur. Lady Ii-win and I only wish that we 
could have taken further advantage of Your Highness’ 
kindness in making a longer stay in these hospitable sur- 
roundings, and we shall regret that we have not on this 
octeasion had an opportunity of seeing something of the 
State outside its capital. There are, I know, many places 
of interest to which, had it been possible, we would have 
greatly desired to pay a visit, whether to the jungles of 
Sawai Madhopur or the ancient fortress of Panthambhor, 
a name almost as illustrious as Chitor in the annals of 
Rajputana. But five years ai'e too short a time in which 
to see even a little of all the sights that India offers to 
those, who wish to acquire knowledge of her ancient 
glories. I doubt though whether anything that even 
India holds could have surpassed our wonderful experi- 
ences of the last two days, and. Your Highness need not 
fear that passing time will dull these vivid memories, or 
diminish the warm friendship that we shall always enter- 
tain towards the Ruler and the people of Jaipur. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, I now ask you to rise and 
drink to the health of our host His Highness the Maha- 
raja cff Jaipur. 



Speeches iy Lord Irwin. 


341 


OPENING- OP THE GHA3^IBEE OF PRINCES. 

His Exeeilency the Viceroy, in opening tlie Chamber ofieth March 
Princes on the 16th March, 1931, said 

Four Highnesses r-Fod^y, for the fifth time, I have 
the pleasure and privilege of welcoming Your Highnesses 
to this Chamber, which now enters upon its tenth session. 

The completion of a decade in the history of an institution 
such as this is an occasion which naturally tempts us to 
look back along the road we have travelled, to count up 
the achievements that mark the miles behind us, and to 
take new thought and new hope for the journey that is 
still to come. For myself it means, I grieve to say, the 
end of what I shall always look back upon as a very 
happy partnership, a five years ^ partnership which I 
believe— as I think Your Highnesses believe— has been a 
period as critical and important as five years well could 
be. When the history of our time comes to be written, 
the last few years may indeed seem pregnant with great 
issues to the States, and the Round Table Conference, 
in which members of this Chamber played so notable a 
part, may prove to have been as vital to your interests 
as even the conclusion of your Treaties or the Proclama- 
tion of Queen Victoria. In addressing you therefore 
this morning, I am deeply conscious of the momentous 
ksues which at present occupy our minds. 

Before, however, I pass to other matters, it is my 
melancholy duty to recall that death has been busy since 
our last meeting, and has taken heavy toll among the 
Members of your Order. In two brief months last 
summer five great Princes passed to their rest, and since 
then two more have been added to that number. His 
Highness the Maharana of Udaipur, the senior Rajput 
Prince, had for many years been a famous and historic 
figure. Revered for his blameless life and high conception 
of Ms duty, a model of Rajput chivalry and a great and 



342 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes, 

courteous gentleman, he stood upon ancient ways and 
cared not greatly for the modern world around him. 
Age and infirmity prevented his joining the Chamber ; 
it was the poorer by his absence. In him the British 
Government has lost a faithful ally whose loyalty and 
friendship never wavered. 

His Highness the Nawab of Tonk was another Prince 
who did not attend the sessions of this Chamber. When 
he died he had ruled for over 60 years, thus linking us 
with the time, that now seems so remote, when John 
Lawrence was still Viceroy of India. It was perhaps 
not to be expected that he would move rapidly on the 
lines of modern progress, but his keenness of mind, sense 
of humour and vitality of body at a great age will long 
be remembered by those who knew him. The Maharaja 
of Orchha too was of a generation that has now almost 
passed. The doyen of the Bundelkhand Princes, he had 
been prevented latterly by weight of years from regularly 
attending the Chamber, but those who knew him will not 
forget the stately figure, the keen intelligence and the 
dominating will. His Highness the Nawab of Rampur 
was the personal friend and valued adviser of many of 
Your Highnesses. He was a Nestor among your Order, 
the sage of ripe experience and the most friendly of 
peace-makers, and, though he never disguised his hesit- 
ancy in attending this Chamber, there were few who at 
the Council table were wiser or more shrewd. Her 
Highness the Begum of Bhopal is another whose loss will 
be widely felt. She had for many years been in the 
forefront not only of the Princes of India but of its 
great women, and Indian womanhood, by her death, is 
bereft of one of its most devoted champions. She took 
a prominent part in the earlier sessions of this Chamber, 
^d after she retired in favour of her son her interest 
in its deliberations continued unabated. We have also 
to mourn the dep,ths of Their late Highnesses the Rana 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


343 


Opeyiing of the Chamber of Princes. 

of Barwani and the Nawab of Sachin. Your Highnesses 
will, I know, wish to express your sorrow at these great 
and grievous losses and to convey your sympathy to the 
bereaved families. You will also wish to join with me 
in welcoming cordially to your deliberations those on 
whose shoulders have fallen their duties and responsi- 
bilities. In that w’^eleome I would desire to include those 
other young Princes who are now joining this Chamber 
for the first time. 

Let me now briefly claim Your Highnesses’ attention 
to certain items of business which have recently come 
within the purview of Members of this Chamber. Your 
Highnesses will remember that last year you passed a 
Eesolution recommending that an Indian Ruling Prince 
should lead the Indian Delegation to the Assembly of 
the League of Nations at least once in a cycle of three 
years. It fell to His Highness the Maharaja of Bikaner 
to be the leader of the Delegation at the meeting of the 
League Assembly last September, and I am sure that the 
statement which he will present to the Chamber will be 
as instructive as any of those made by his distinguished 
predecessors. His Highness will also give you an account 
of his work as the Representative of India at the Imperial 
Conference. We need no assurance that His Highness 
discharged these high responsibilities with dignity and 
judgment, and he deserves the deep gratitude of this 
Chamber for undertaking this onerous duty at a time 
when so many other pressing matters demanded his 
attention. 

There are also certain questions which have recently 
been under examination by the Standing Committee, and 
to which I would wish to make reference. For, though 
changing conditions may involve a fresh examination of 
some of these problems, the valuable work which the 



344 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes, 

Committee has done stands as a foundation for further 
constructive effort which has yet to be undertaken. 

The important subject of Air Navigation in Indian 
States has now reached a compromise, thanks to friendly 
concessions by all the parties concerned, and I understand 
that His Highness the Chancellor wiU lay a summary 
of this ease before you. 

The question of the future of the Chiefs’ Colleges 
has also been decided, and the scheme which has recently 
received the approval of the Secretary of State will be 
brought into effect as early as possible. I trust that it 
will help to infuse fresh life into these institutions, and 
in increasing measure to enlist, among Your Highnesses 
and your nobles, the sympathy upon which their future 
well-being must largely depend. 

Another matter of no small concern to the States is 
the step which my Government have recently taken, 
following the recommendation of the Road Development 
Committee, in imposing an additional duty on motor 
spirit, and allotting the proceeds for expenditure on roads. 
A share of the income will be devoted to the Indian 
States, and to assure co-ordination of policy periodic 
Road Conferences ” will be held, at which the States 
will be represented. The amounts available for distribu- 
tion may be limited for some years to come, but they are 
likely to grow with the gradual improvement of com- 
munications, and I feel sure that Tour Highnesses will 
co-operate with my Government in this highly important 
work, which means so much to the development of India’s 
agricultGre, industry and commerce, and to the general 
pr<^perity of the people. 

The brunt of the work which it is the duty of this 
Chamber to perform naturally falls upon the Members 
of file Standing Committee. Your Highnesses would no 
doubt wish me to offer our kmcere thanks to Hig Highness 



Speeches "by Lord Irwin, 


345 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes. 

the Chancellor and the Members of the Standing Com- 
mittee for the devoted labours undertaken by them on 
behalf of the Chamber during the past year. For 
reasons, of which you are well aware, the year has been 
a peculiarly exacting one, but Their Highnesses have 
given freely and ungrudgingly of their time and effort 
in the interests of your Order. His Highness the Maharaja 
of Patiala has held the post of Chancellor throughout 
the five years of my Vicero^’^alty, and during this critical 
and important period — a period in which he has personally 
had to meet, and has successfully exposed, much 
undeserved calumny — ^he has spared neither time nor 
money in performing the duties and upholding the 
dignity of his high office. Your Highnesses are, I know, 
deeply conscious of the services he has rendered on your 
behalf, and for my own part I would wish to acknowledge 
personally and warmly the whole-hearted assistance he 
has given to me in all matters affecting the affairs of 
Your Highnesses and Government. I desire also to pay 
tribute, as I feel certain will Your Highnesses, to the 
work done by His Highness the Maharao of Cutch during 
the time he carried on the duties of the Chancellor while 
His Highness of Patiala was absent in Europe. His 
Highness at no small inconvenience to himself remained 
for a considerable time in Delhi in order to maintain 
touch with myself and the States representation in 
London. 

If time and Your Highnesses’ patience permitted, 
T might have been tempted to survey in more complete 
manner the achievements of the Chamber since its birth 
ten years ago. But I may perhaps sum up briefly some 
of the useful purposes it has served. It has given us, 
for one thing, an arena for mutual and friendly discus- 
sions, which have clarified our ideas on either side and 
assisted towards the settlement of many questions at 
issue between you and the Government of India, and of 



346 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes. 

many points of political practice and procedure. It has 
had valuable I’eactions moreover in ways more personal 
to Yam* Highnesses yourselves. Apart from training the 
younger Members of your Order in public speaking and 
debate, it has brought about a unity and solidarity of 
feeling on matters of common interest, that are of im- 
portance not only to yourselves but to all India. Even 
those who have taken no part in the debates of the 
Chamber must recognise the advantages it has obtained 
for their Order as a whole. Without trespassing on 
the individuality of States, the Chamber has shown, and 
Your Highnesses have been quick to seize, the value of 
common discussion. The examination of your position 
and problems by the Butler Committee gave an impulse 
to this spirit of unity, and no one will ignore the strength 
it has attained under the stimulus of the recent delibera- 
tions in London. Whatever be the result of these, I have 
no doubt that the spirit which enabled the States^ 
Delegation to speak with so much authority on behalf 
of the Order was born and nurtured in this Chamber. 
What part the Chamber is to play in the India of the 
future we can scarcely now foretell. It may be that it 
has already served its early purpose and that it must 
now yield place to the new Chambers of a federated India. 
But, whatever be in store, we can say with confidence 
that in its ten years’ history it has played no inconsider- 
able part, and that it has given those who brought it into 
being good cause to reflect with pride upon their handi- 
work. 

I now come to the topic of greatest importance to 
our session, which is, I know, engaging your anxious 
consideration. When your delegates sailed from India 
last autumn to attend the Round Table Conference, few 
of us, I imagine, had anticipated or foreseen the dramatic 
announcement made after thdr arrival in {London. I 
had of course from time to time, and even as late as last 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


347 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes. 

July, when I conferred with certain of Your Highnesses 
in Simla, had the opportunity of discussing with some 
of you the advantages which a federal system in this 
country would clearly offer, and the mutual benefits likely 
to accrue from some form of financial and economic union 
between the States and British India. But I had no 
certain indication that the States would as yet be willing, 
by surrender of the necessary powers, to make a system 
of federation a reality, and it is therefore with all the 
greater cordiality that I welcome the statesmanlike 
decision which your representatives took to join with 
British India in the constructive task of fashioning a 
constitution for the complete entity of this great country. 
I have followed with the keenest interest the record of 
your discussions in the various committees, and I am 
glad to see that, while the most dif&cult problems still 
await solution, you are resolved to face them frankly in 
a genuine spirit of compromise and concession. Both 
these qualities will be much needed in the negotiations 
that still lie before you and the representatives of British 
India, but if they are fx*eely given I am confident that 
your labours will be crowned by the achievement of a 
united, stable, and prosperous India within the British 
Empire. I wish the Delegation all success in commend- 
ing the results of their work to their brother Princes and 
in enlisting their support in the further discussions that 
a^vait them. For, if counsels are divided, the task of 
fashioning a cohesive scheme of federation must be 
seriously handicapped, and it is therefore to be hoped 
that the co-operation of at least a great majority of the 
States may be assured without delay. 

It is a matter for personal regret to me that I shall 
not be with you to aid in the continuance and applaud 
the completion of your task. For before many days are 
past the time will have come for me to bid farewell to 
Your Highnesses and this Chamber. 'When that time 



348 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes. 

comes, and when I look back on the years I have spent 
in India, among my most pleasant recollections will be 
my associations with Your Highnesses and yonr States. 
They have ranked high among my most important duties, 
but their performance has been greatly lightened by the 
warm and universal friendship extended to me by Your 
Highnesses. The events of these years and the subjects 
we have discussed haA^e been so many and diverse, that 
agreement has, in the nature of things, not always been 
possible. But I think that you have believed that I have 
ever been actuated by what I considered best in the 
common interests of the Rulers and peoples of the States, 
and on this last formal occasion of addressing you I 
would wish to acknowledge and thank you for that con- 
fidence. I must thank you also for many happy memories 
of days spent as a guest in your States and for much 
generous hospitality. I am well aware that there are 
carping critics who are ready to accuse the Princes of 
India of wasting their substance in entertaining- Viceroys, 
and who believe that such visits are compact of pomp and 
ceremonial, in the midst of which moves a Viceroy, 
blinded to the true conditions existing in the States. As 
you know, and I Imow, this picture is far from reality. 
The conditions, difficulties and problems of the States 
would mean little to a Viceroy who never left Simla or 
Delhi, and did not see things for himself and with his 
own eyes. The picturesque ceremonial that represents 
the ancient traditions of the past, the varied entertain- 
ment which is so hospitably provided ^ for a few lighter 
hours, form only the smaller part of the intimacy which 
i'? a feature of these occasions. I personally can remember 
long heart to heart talks, in which every aspect of ad- 
ministrative problems and difficulties has been discussed ; 
I have met your officials and seen your institutions and 
he would be unworthy of the post of Viceroy who could 
not derive some profit and form some judgments from 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


349 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes, 

such exii^eriences. There have been cases too when these 
visits have seen the settlement of serious and weighty 
problems at issue between my Government and the Rulers. 
And, last but not least, who can claim to know India, and 
India’s wonderful history, who has not travelled widely 
in the States and seen the age-old monuments of ancient 
India, the Buddhist temples, the deserted cities of 
vanished kingdoms, the fortresses famous for stories of 
Rajput, Mughal and Maratha courage and chivalry, and 
the ports and harbours whence from times immemorial 
the trade of India has set forth ? It is indeed hard to 
name a State that has not added to my knowledge of, 
and interest in, all for which this great country stands- 
For this and much more I tender to Your Highnesses my 
thanks on the eve of my departure. If, on rare occasions, 
we have disagreed, have disagreed as friends, and I 
say in all sincerity that your unswerving friendship has 
done much to lighten the inevitable burden of my high 
ofBce. 

The course of events has decided that I should sever 
my official association with Your Highnesses at a momentous 
period in your history. You stand at the parting of the 
ways and the road to which your deliberations in London 
have guided you is, I believe, the road which will best 
promote your own interests, the interests of your subjects 
and of India. It means, as we all recognise, a departure 
from a tradition which has lasted for a hundred years, which 
has, taking it all in all, served you weU, and under which 
your States have been preserved and brought to their 
present point of advancement and progress. It means 
a passing of the old conditions in which you have been 
able to develop on your own lines, affected but little by 
the movements around you. Your internal affairs have 
for the most part been excluded from the questioning of 
outsiders, and you have had every opportunity of achiev- 
ing the ancient Hindu ideal of Kingship. Success in 
that achievement has varied with the individuality of 



350 


Speeches Lord Irwin, 


Opening of the Chamber of Primes, 

, different Eulers, but I am glad to testify, both from my 
own observation and from the evidence of those who are 
qualified to judge, that there has, in the main, been a 
steady improvement in the standards of administration 
in your States. The spirit, which inspires a Government 
and in which its functions are carried out, is more im- 
portant than its constitutional form, and whether it be 
autocracy, constitutional monarchy or democracy its success 
will be guided by the extent to which it pro\ddes certain 
essential conditions for the welfare of its subjects. Your 
Highnesses will perhaps allow me to indicate briefly what 
in my view these are. There must be a reign of law 
based either expressly or tacitly on the broad goodwill 
of the community : individual liberty and rights must 
be protected, and the equality of all members of the State 
before the law be recognised. To secure this an efficiently 
organised police force must be maintained, and a strong 
and competent judiciary, secure from arbitrary inter- 
ference by the executive and irremoveable so long as they 
do their duty. Taxation should be as light as circum- 
stances permit, easy of collection, certain, and propor- 
tionate to the means of the tax-payer to pay. The personal 
expenditure of the Euler should be as moderate as will 
suffice to maintain his position and dignity, so that as 
large a proportion as possible of the State revenues may 
be available for the development of the life of the com- 
munity, such as communications, education, health and 
social services, agriculture, housing and other kindred 
matters. There should be some effective means of 
ascertaining the needs and desires of its subjects and of 
keeping close touch between the Government and the 
governed. Eeligious toleration and conciliation in all 
disputes between the subjects are important, and last but 
not least is the need to choose and trust good counsellors. 
By this, perhaps more than aught else, is a wise ruler 
known, and the fulness of his t^nst in competent advisers 



Speeches by Lord Irmn^ 


351 


Opening of the Chamber of Princes. 

will, in great part, be the measure of the confidence which 
his people repose in him. 

I must not however allow my address to Your High- 
nesses to develop into a treatise on the theory of Govern- 
ment. Some may say that it is not always so easy to 
carry such precepts into practice, but there are, I believe, 
few who would not readilj" admit these minima require- 
ments of good administration, and you will remember that 
a Resolution by His Highness the Maharaja of Bikaner 
commending its essentials was passed not long ago with 
unanimity in this Chamber. There is no use in dis- 
guising from ourselves that the new order of things and 
the irresistible logic of events are lifting the veil from 
much that has hitherto been considered of private con- 
cern, and more and more factors are tending to bring your 
affairs into publicity. Where there is criticism of any 
of your administrations, be it based on reasonable grounds 
or scurrilous and misinformed, the best answer on the 
part of those who have nothing to hide is the issue of 
full and regular administration reports from which the 
public may learn how your Government is carried on. 
Such publication has always been desirable, but it will be 
essential when, in these changing times, you come to 
take your part in the federal constitution of all India. 
That constitution will not affect your internal autonomy 
in non-federal matters, but in common subjects you will 
have to bring to the common pool information of which 
the Political Department and the Government of India 
have hitherto been the sole repositories. The time is ripe 
for the change and, believe me, I welcome it. I welcome 
the enlargement of vision, which sees beyond territorial 
boundaries, and embraces in one wide sweep the identity 
of interests and solidarity of British India and the Indian 
States. But let us not forget that, as you acquire a 
share in the control of common subjects, and as your in- 
ternal affairs become of increasing interest to public 
opinion in India, there will come to you more and more 


352 


Speeches by Lord Irwm. 


mi. 


'Entertainment for the Government of India Secretcnat, 

responsibility for bringing your administrations to the 
level demanded of all modern Governments. I acknow- 
ledge gratefully that there are many States that have 
nothing to fear, where within the compass of their 
resources all that is possible is done for the welfare and 
progress of their subjects. But there are still others to 
which this description cannot apply ; where personal 
extravagance has injured the financial stability on which 
sound administration must rest, and where too little is 
spent on the welfare and advancement of the people. 
Where such conditions exist, , they cannot fail to be a 
danger to the whole body of your Order, and I appeal 
to Your Highnesses to use all your infiuence, as the 
Viceroy must use his, to secure improvement. There will 
then be little reason for apprehension. Tour personal 
and dynastic relations are likely to continue to lie through 
the Viceroy with the Crown, and your guarantees will 
remain under the same conditions as heretofore. Let it 
therefore be your endeavour so to rule your people that 
they will be as proud to be subjects of your States as 
they will be proud of your States^ partnership in a 
federation of all India. 

Your Highnesses, you will require both courage and 
wisdom to deal with the many new problems with which 
you will be confronted. My last words in my last 
opening address in this Chamber are to express the hope 
and belief that you will be found not unequal to the task, 
and in aU sincerity and with all goodwill to wish Tour 
Highn^ses Godspeed in your efforts for the greater 
happiness and well-being of your States and of India 
within the orbit of the British Empire. 


EKTIRTAIHMENT FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
SECRETARIAT. 

His ExeeHeney the Viceroy entertained the members of 
the Govenimmt of India Searetariafc at a Garden Party at the 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


353 


Entertainment for the Government of India Secretariat, 

Viceroy’s House, New Delhi, on 21st March 1931, and addressed 
them as follows : — 

Oentlemen, — Four weeks today Lady Irwin and I leave 
India, and it has been a great pleasure to me that so many 
members of the Government of India Seei’etariat have 
been able to come here this afternoon, for, apart from the 
privilege of welcoming you to the Viceroy’s House, Lady 
Irwin and I were anxious to take this opportunity of 
saying good-bye and of trying to express something of 
the gratitude I personally feel for the part you have played 
in carrying on the administration of this great country 
during my five years of office as Viceroy. All who have 
held official positions under Government know how much 
they owe to an efficient and willing office staff, and I am 
quite sure that the heads of every department and every 
branch in the Government of India would wish me to 
pay tribute to the high standard of work and the high 
sense of duty that is to he found among the extensive 
establishments nnder their charge. The ministerial staff 
of Government have often to 'work in busy seasons at 
uncomfortably high pressure, some of their work must 
sometimes seem to them as tedious routine, and they no 
doubt often think the ways of their superior officers 
mysterious. I expect they ask themselves, as we all do 
sometimes, ** Are the results I have produced really worth 
all this time and trouble and are they really appreciated 
by those for whom I work ? I can readily reassure 
you on this score. For, unless every part of a great 
machine performs its proper function fully and efficiently, 
the loss of power is very quickly discerned, and no one 
discerns it quicker or on the contrary takes more pride 
in the smooth running of every part, great or small, than 
the Chief Engineer. 

The Qevemment of India is a great machine, hut it 
is also a human machine — ^and you may be very sure 
L6TSV 




354 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


Chelmsford Club Dimer, 

therefore that the part which every cm of you plays in 
the central administration of India has its own particular 
value and importance, and that no one appreciates this 
more than those in authority, whose own efiSeiency depends 
so much on the thoroughness, accuracy and despatch 
of those who assist them. I have little doubt that, if you 
searched the heart of a Secretary to Government, he 
would confess that he would willingly part with his best 
Deputy Secretary, but that only over his dead body could 
you rob him of an efficient Superintendent or Clerk. Thus 
the future of India depends very closely upon the work 
of each one of you, and I would have you all believe that, 
if you do that work well, you are rendering service to your 
country not less vaulable than any other. 

In saying good-bye to you today, therefore, I wish 
to thank you, one and all, for services well and faithfully 
performed, and to say that, though many thousand miles 
of sea may lie between us, I shall always retain a very 
warm admiration for the secretariat (Staff of the Govern- 
ment of India and shall send them constantly across the 
waters my warmest good wishes for their own welfare 
and for that of the India 'which they represent and serve. 


CHEIMSFORD CLUB DINNER. 

2St|i March His ExeeUeney the Viceroy made the following speech at 
the Chelmsford Club dinner at Delhi on the 26th March 1931 

Mr. President and Gentlemen ^ — This is the third 
time on which you have allowed me the privilege of being 
the guest 'of the Chelmsford Club, and, while I should 
have been grateful at any time for your generosity, I 
appreciate it in special degree now that I am on the verge 
of brir^ng my term <ff office to an end. But it makes 
the task of acknowledging your kindness all the more 
’^eavy^ and your President has allowed his natural seu^ 



Speeches hy Lord Irmn. 


365 


Chelmsford Club Dinner. 

of charity to come perilously near inducing him to 
depart from that strict veracity and regard for fact 
which are always the dominant qualities of his profes- 
sion. But I at least should be the last person to com- 
plain if Sir B. L. Mitter had permitted our friendship 
to affect favourably his judgment. 

He has spoken of some of the difficulties of the last 
few years, and no one perhaps better than I has cause 
to know how difficult they have been. No one better 
than I has had opportunity of judging how deeply and 
how strongly the currents have been running, or how 
anxious has been the task to which anyone holding the 
office of Viceroy in these days would have been, compelled 
to address his energies. 

I conceive that task in the main to have been that 
of attempting to secure smooth* running for the coach 
laden with the relations between India and Great Britain- 
That coach is drawn by two horses, namely, the public 
opinion of India and the public opinion of Great Britain, 
and it is the duty of the Viceroy to do his best to see 
that those two horses pull with, and not against, one 
another. Time and again in the last two or three years, 
when there seemed fair chance of getting nearer to this 
smooth and even pulling by the two horses, the chance has 
been wrecked either in India or in England. 

Three years ago, when Sir John Simonas Commis- 
sion, to whom more and more India will come to realise 
that she owes a great debt of gratitude, was at work 
here, the character of its work, and its own functions 
vis^vis Indian opinion on the one side and Parliament 
on the other, were the subject of grave misunderstanding, 
with much consequent damage to British Indian relations. 

Again, a year and a half ago, when with the 
authority of His Majesty ^s Government I made my 



356 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin. 


Chelmsford Club Dinner. 

declaration of tlie 1st of November 1929, it seemed for 
a time as if we really might succeed in getting British 
opinion and Indian opinion harmonised. I have been 
criticised for my share in the making of that declaration ; 
but, looking back over the time that has elapsed since 
then, I can see nothing that would have led me to act 
differently from what I did, and I have no doubt at all 
that the clear making of that statement was right. 

After all, in that portion of it which was most keenly 
attacked I, said nothing that had not been said, or 
directly implied, by speakers of every British Party for 
several years past, and, as I remember pointing out at 
the time, my own instrument of Instructions spoke in 
exactly similar sense. What was the result in England ? 
Instead of saying ‘ ‘ Dominion Status ? Of course it is 
our intention to give India Dominion Status. What 
other purpose eouid we have in view as the goal of her 
growth \ There are difficulties of course ; Indians know 
them as well as we do ; but difficulties are meant to be 
defeated, and we shall in the Conference that is proposed 
strain every nerve with Indians to find the best and the 
quickest way of defeating them the general note of 
British criticism was that anyone who talked about 
Dominion Status in connection with India must be 
mentally affected, and that the idea was almost too 
fantastic to merit serious discussion. What wonder that 
Indian feeling was offended, and a real chance of 
approach was thrown away I 

Lastly, we all know what has been the history of the 
last twelve months, and how greatly the campaign of 
Civil Disobedience has puzzled and baffled and annoyed 
average opinion in Great Britain. 

And so, if we are to avoid these recurring misunder- 
standings, we must at all costs diagnose the problem 
aiight, for m correct diagn<^is wise treatment of it will 
^depend. 



Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


357 


Chelmsford Club Difiner, 

There are those who see in the present movement 
and stirring of thought in India merely a movement 
engineered by a negligible minority, which ought never 
to have been allowed to attain its present importance, in 
that much of it is frankly seditious, and with firm 
Government could readily be suppressed. Therefore, the 
conclusion is — ^let us only have firm Government and get 
back, as we rapidly shall, to the good old days of paternal 
administration, with populous markets reserved for 
British trade I 

That diagnosis I believe to be superficial, distorted 
and wholly divorced from reality. That there is sedition 
in India no one will deny ; that the numbers who are 
politically-minded are a fractional minority of the whole 
is also true ; but these things are not the whole, or the 
most important part, of the picture before which we 
stand. 

Great Britain will delude herself if she does not 
recognise that, beneath all the distinctions of community, 
class and social circumstance, there is a growing intellec- 
tual consciousness, or more truly self-consciousness, which 
is very closely akin to what we generally term nationalism. 
1 know well that any general statement of this kind re- 
quires great modification if it is to fit the manifold 
diversities of the great continent of India, and this 
feeling of which I speak makes itself felt through a great 
variety of ways. But that it is a real thing and a thing 
of growing potential force, few who know modern India 
intimately will be concerned to deny. 

The two principal fields of expression for this grow- 
ing self-consciousness with which we are concerned are 
the political and the economic, in which fields the natural 
demand' is for political control by Indians of their own 
affairs and economic development of India’s resc»arces 
for Indians good. 



358 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin, 


Chelmsford Club Dinner, 

I would say one thing about each of these aspects of 
a single movement. No Englishman can, without being 
false to his own history, and in recent years to his own 
pledges, take objection to pursuit by others of their own 
political liberty ; nor have I ever been able to appreciate 
the attitude of those who might be the first in Great 
Britain to exhort their countrymen only to buy British 
goods and yet would regard a movement for the en- 
couragement of Swadeshi industry in India as something 
reprehensible and almost, if not quite, disloyal. 

I am well aware that in these matters the methods 
employed are of the essence of the business, and that is 
why in my agreement with Mr. Gandhi I laid stress, 
which he readily accepted, upon the importance of allow- 
ing traders and purchasers complete liberty of action so 
long as they were occupied in the discharge of legitimate 
avocations. It may be that from time to time these 
methods of persuasion, propaganda and advertisement 
will be transgressed. What I am how^ever concerned at 
the moment to assert is that anyone like myself, who has 
preached on behalf of British industry in Great Britain 
and advocated tariffs for its protection, seems to me 
debarred from raising points of principle against those 
who would wish India to supply, as far as she may, her 
own requirements from her own resources. It is also 
well to remember that trade will only flourish when it 
reposes upon a voluntary and mutually beneficial basis, 
and that the more successful Great Britain can be in 
finding a solution of the political side of the problem the 
more will she be doing, by the restoration of general 
friendly conditions, for the benefit of British trade. 

It follows that, just as my diagnosis is different from 
that other which I sketched just now, so I would consider 
that a different treatment was required. In so far as 
the present movement involves any of the forces that we 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


359 


Chelmsford Club Dinner. 

call nationalism, I would repeat what I have said more 
than once, that an attempt to meet the case with rigid 
and unyielding opposition is merely to repeat the un- 
intelligent mistake of King Canute. And therefore it 
behoves us to seek another and a better way. 

That way has surely been the way of the Round 
Table Conference, and I would take this occasion again 
to thank all the delegates to that Conference, whether 
from the States or from British India, for the immense 
work they there did. No one I know hopes more earnestly 
than does His Majesty’s Government that the work which 
the Round Table Conference so well began should, with 
the help of those delegates reinforced if possible by 
others, be brought to an early and successful issue. What 
can we say of the auguries for this happening ? I have 
never shared the enthusiastic anticipations of those who 
said that, because Civil Disobedience was no longer 
operative under the agreement that was reached, all 
trouble M^as automatically over. It is not possible for 
the sea to become immediately calm when it has been 
violently agitated by a storm, even though the storm has 
passed. But I did think, and think today, that the re- 
establishment of peace was an essential preliminary of 
any approach to the real constitutional problems. 

The spirit of that agreement Government will do 
everything to implement, Mr. Gandhi I know will do 
the same, and I would trust that in all quarters a real 
attempt may be made to judge of the present situation? 
not in any grudging spirit appropriate to the atmosphere 
of an uncertain and manoeuvring truce, but rather with 
the intention — each and everyone of us in our spheres 
of influence — to do everything in our power that may 
assist the conversion of the present cessation of civil 
strife into a permanent and enduring peace. 



360 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin* 


Chelmsford Club Dinner, 

There is great compelling necessity for the best 
brains of India to take their part in the, constructive 
constitutional work that lies before us. The Eound Table 
Conference has indeed drawn us a powerful and promis- 
ing framework, and he is a very shallow critic who would 
undervalue what the Conference actually achieved. But 
the men who achieved it know better than others how 
much yet has to be done by way of fitting and adjusting 
the different parts and delicate connections that are re- 
quired before the fruit of their labour can be secured. 
Many questions will arise betw-een British India and the 
States that whl be difficult of adjustment and will be 
adjusted only if both sides can approach them in the 
s}>irit that will not be denied a settlement. And there 
-will be many similar questions arising between India 
and Great Britain. I must however frankly confess that 
I have never been greatly impressed with the reality of 
the distinction, that it is sometimes sought to draw in 
many of these matters, between the interests of India and 
the interests of Great Britain, for it 'would be clean con- 
trary to all nature if the result of the long relationship 
bet^veen the t-^vo had not been, in most of the things that 
matter, to create a community and not a divergence of 
interest. 

Defence, for example, is obviously a vital interest to 
India herself, but it is also surely a British and Imperial 
interest of the first magnitude. The communal difficulty, 
so forcibly and so unhappily brought to our notice these 
last two days, is a prime Indian interest, and one for 
which solution bringing security and content in its train 
must be found, if Indian political life is gradually to be 
free to grow on broader lines. But surely no one would 
deny that it was not less an interest and a responsibility 
of Great Britain, if and when she hands over power, to 
satisfy hersf^lf that in the new dispensation the just 
rights of minorities will not be imperilled. 


Speeches by Lord Irwin, 


361 


Chelmsford Club Dinner, 

Again, the aasurance of British traders against unfair 
discrimination may certainly be, and no doubt is, in 
British interests, and I constantly see it suggested that 
there is a natural antagonism here between the true 
interests of India and Great Britain. That view I believe 
to be mistaken : indeed, I would go further and say that 
the assurance of fair treatment to British traders is an 
assurance that Indian leaders should be prepared to give 
in the direct interest of India’s credit in the world, on 
which develojpment of her resources and raising of the 
standard of her people’s life depend. 

So with finance. The safeguards suggested at the 
Bound Table Conference have been the object of some 
criticism and also I think of some misunderstanding. 
Indian opinion is surelj^ not less anxious than any 
opinion in Great Britain to see ample security provided 
where necessary for the good of India in the sphere of 
credit and finance. It is the considered view of His 
Majesty’s Government that in the interest of India it is 
imperative to provide effective safeguards for the main- 
tenance of financial stability and for the protection of 
India’s credit. As the Secretary of State recently stated 
in Parliament His Majesty’s Government have reached 
the conclusion that to secure this purpose the financial 
safeguards discussed at the R 9 und Table Conference are 
essential. If, however, in the course of further con- 
stitutional discussions any of those participating in them 
desire to suggest other financial safeguards. His Majesty’s 
Government, in accordance with the terms of clause 2 of 
the statement issued on March 5th by the Governor- 
General in Council, would not wish to limit their right 
to do so and would be prepared to give such suggestions 
careful consideration. If, in the case of any particular 
safeguard, alternative suggestions are made, it follows 
from what I have said concerning the principal purpose, 
which in the interest of India His Majesty’s Government 




362 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Chelmsford Club Dinyier, 

deem it their duty to secure, that the acceptance by His 
Majesty’s Government of such alternative suggestions 
would depend upon the ability of those proposing them 
to convince His Majesty’s Government that they would 
be equally effective for the purpose above described. 

It is not perhaps in this constitutional field that the 
gravest of India’s difficulties will be found to lie. Nearly 
five years ago at Simla, in speaking to this Club, I made 
a very earnest appeal to the leaders of religious com- 
munities to throw all their weight on the side of religious 
and communal peace. That appeal, with the news of 
Cawnpore still staring us in the face, I repeat today. 
Governments can here do comparatively little to remove 
root causes. They cannot change a people’s soul. It is 
the communities themselves that must learn toleration and 
restraint, if India is to be spared the spectacle of these 
periodic outbursts of savagery, and if she is to have any 
hope of building for herself a balanced national order in 
which all men may live and move and have their being. 
Many public bodies have been good enough to offer me 
addresses of farewell. I shall no doubt receive messages of 
farewell from many good friends I have made in India. But 
no message could so cheer me before or after I leave 
India as the news that a real settlement of Hindu-Moslem 
differences had been effected. 

The first necessity of progress in this, or indeed in 
any other of these matters, is that everybody should do 
what they can to assist the restoration of a calmer 
atmosphere, and it is in this respect that I have been told 
that the Government of India and I mj’-self have made 
Mr. Gandhi’s task far harder by failure to commute the 
sentences recently passed upon Bhagat Singh and his 
companions. I can well believe that our action has at 
this juncture been a real difficulty for Mr. Gandhi and 
those associated with him, and I owe it to Indian opinion 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


368 


Chelmsford Chib Dinner . 

generally that I should take thk opportunity, in a few 
words, of placing them in clear possession of my own 
thought. I take full responsibility for the decision at 
w’hich Government arrived. I know no heavier respon- 
sibility that rests upon the shoulders of a Viceroy than 
the decision of whether he should or should not make 
use of his special power by way of commutation or re- 
mission of sentences. As I listened the other day to 
Mr. Gandhi putting the ease for commutation forcibly 
before me I reflected, first, of what significance it surely 
was that the apostle of non-violence should so earnestly 
be pleading the cause of devotees of a creed so funda- 
mentally opposite to his own. I reflected also upon the 
quality of the responsibility that falls on those in whose 
hands it lies and whose duty it is to decide finally whether 
their fellow men should live or die. And I am free to 
confess that I should frankly regard that responsibility 
as an intolerable one to any man to support, unless he 
guided his conduct by adherence to certain very clear and 
definite principles. What should those be ? First of all, 
he must satisfy himself that no facts have been brought 
to his notice which w^ere not before the sentencing tribu- 
nals and which might suggest a possible miscarriage of 
justice. There was nothing of this sort in this case, and 
it is significant that none of the petitions in any form, 
directly or indirectly, suggested that the prisoners were 
other than guilty of the crimes alleged against them. 
For the rest, I conceive it right that I should have regard, 
in the exercise of clemency, to the actual merits, as I can 
judge them, of the case before me. On these principles 
I from time to time, on the advice of my Council, concur 
in or remit death sentences that have been imposed. But 
I should regard it as wholly wrong to allow my judgment 
on these matters to be influenced or deflected by purely 
political considerations, I am well aware of the interest 
taken by large numbers of people in the fate of Bhagat 



364 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


Chelmsford Club Dinner, 

Singh. But I could . discover no argument by wMcb 
commutation of that sentence could have been justified 
that would not have involved, if justice was to be equal, 
the commutation of all other sentences involving the 
death penalty. For I could imagine no case in which, 
under the law^ the penalty had been more directly 
deserved. I have seen it suggested in the Press that, 
even supposing commutation \vas impossible, it was 
highly undesirable that the executions should take place 
on the eve of the Congress meeting at Karachi. 1 was 
fully alive to these considerations, and I will state with 
complete frankness the principal reason which led me to 
think the suggestion of postponement was not one that 
my Government could possibly accept. 

To suggest to Congress that there w^as after all a 
chance that the sentence w^ould be remitted, whereas I 
should have in my own mind been clear that the sentence 
must be carried out as soon as the Congress had con- 
cluded, seemed to me — as it would have to you — a wholly 
indefensible proceeding. I am quite prepared to think 
that it would have made the immediate atmosphere at 
Karachi easier, but only at the cost of enabling Congress 
to say wuth justice that it had been treated by the 
Viceroy and by the Government with complete lack of 
candour. For those reasons I felt that the action sug- 
gested to me was impossible. 

In the controversies of the present day we not in- 
frequently hear the phrase “ defeatist ’’ on the lips of 
those who think that force and repression are the 
remedies for all oiir present troubles. It is worth 
analysing what the word means. The word no doubt 
implies that you are engaged in a warfare, and that you 
are going more than half way to meet defeat. Now, 
Mr. President, it is very easy to be wise after events, 
especially for those critics who have, and can have, no 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


365 


Chelmsford Club Dinner, 

responsibility for llieir guidance. But I think we eom- 
plicate the whole question by using language that sug- 
gests that Great Britain and India, or any substantial 
part of either, are in a state of warfare with one another. 
Defeatism I further conceive to be a state of mind in 
wliicli, through paralysing atrophy of faith, men lose the 
confidence and vigour of hope, and recoil from the 
difficulties involved in the attempt to carry through the 
high mission on which they had embarked. Who then 
to-day are the real defeatists ? Those who face facts 
with honesty and the future with hope, and meet diffi- 
culties with the single desire to overcome them, or those 
who deceive themselves with the belief that they are 
lining in an India of ten or twenty years ago, and who 
would have us employ methods and yield ourselves 
victims to a mentality which must destroy irrevocably 
any hope of retaining a contented India within the 
Empire ? 

Whatever may happen to others, let us not lose our 
faith ; v;e sliall have disappointments ; we shall have to 
face failures ; many men will lose heart ; many men will 
misjudge each other’s actions ; trust will flag ; mistrust 
will again rear its ugly head. But my faith in British 
statesmanship and good-will and my faith in the 
patriotism and good sense of India are both too great to 
permit me to join the ranks of those who would say that 
India is a ‘ Lost Dominion ’ of the Crown. 

It is with real regret that I take leave of India at 
this critical period in her history ; but that regret is 
diminished by the reflection that she will receive in my 
stead one "who has already justly earned a secure place 
in Indian hearts, and who will return to new responsi- 
bilities fortified not only by knowledge of Government 
here in two great Presidencies, but also in the eldest of 
the King’s Dominions. This ripe experience of men and 
things wfill stand him in good stead, and I feel no doubt 



366 


Speeches hy Lord Irwin, 


28th March 
1931. 


Address to the Members of the Central Legislature. 

whatever that India will find in him a very sincere friend 
and very wise counsellor. For myself I can only say 
that I have done my best, that I shall carry away with 
me from India a real affection for her people, and grati- 
tude for many kindnesses that Lady Irwin and I have 
so constantly received at their hands, and that wherever 
I am I shall always welcome any opportunity that may 
present itself of continuing to serve her to the best of 
my ability and powers. 


ADDRESS TO THE MEMBERS OF THE CENTRAL LEGIS- 
LATURE. 

In addressing the Members of the Central Legislature on 
the 28th March 1931, His Excellency the Viceroy said 

Gentlemen ^ — I have come to take formal farewell of 
the Members of both Houses of the Central Legislature, 
find it is not therefore my intention to embark upon 
matters of controversy. It might however appear dis- 
courteous to the House if I were to pass over without 
remark the difficult position that has developed in con- 
nection with the Finance Bill. Before finally deciding 
upon the action it may be my duty to take, I propose 
to convene a small conference of Leaders in both Houses 
with the members of my Government to discuss the 
situation. 

This occasion of farewell for me is of necessity 
tinged with much regret, for it marks the close of my 
official connection with these two bodies, whose delibera- 
tions I have always watched with the keenest interest, 
and whose presence in Delhi and Simla has given me 
the privilege of meeting, and taking counsel with, so 
many public men from all quarters of India. 

This might seem to be the moment to survey the past 
five years, and to sum up the progress which has been 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


367 


Address to the Members of the Central Legislature* 

achieved in the various spheres of the national life in 
Avhieh we here, as devotees of the science of politics, are 
particularly interested. But I know, gentlemen, that 
you are drawing to the close of an arduous session, and 
I do not wish to detain you long. Nor is the period of 
a Viceroj’alty necessarily a self-contained era and, though 
to a Viceroy his five years of ofiSce must always appear 
as an outstanding epoch of his life, the historian of the 
future will he likely to mark the passage of events hy 
tendencies, rather than by persons who for a period were 
privileged to play their part upon this great stage. 

But before taking leave of you, there are a few 
things which I should like to say. First of these is to 
express to you something of the debt in which I and 
my Government feel you have placed us by your very 
presence here this session. During the last year the 
country has passed through dark days. Tt was the 
opinion of some that nothing good could come out of 
participation in the legislative bodies of this country. 
You, gentlemen, thought otherwise, and, in acting as you 
did, you acted, many of you, in the face of unpleasant- 
ness, rdslcs and bitter reproaches of which I am only too 
well aware. Had you not had the courage of your con- 
victions, the continuity of Indian parliamentary progress 
might well have suffered a rude set-back, and therefore 
it is not only I and my Government, but the whole 
country, who owe you gratitude for the service you have 
rendered. In this appreciation of your public spirit I 
would wish also to include, with grateful recognition, 
the membeo's of your sister-bodies in the Provinces. “We 
cannot now predict how soon a revised constitution can 
be framed and brought into being ; but I would wish 
here to assure you, if such assurance is required, that 
there is not, and neyer has been, any intention in my 
jnind of putting an earlier term to the life of the present 



368 


Speeches T>y Lord Irwin, 


Address to the Me^nhers of the Central Legislature. 

legislature than that ^vhich is laid down by the Govern- 
luent of India Act, or may be rendered necessary by the 
supervention of a new constitution. 

At present most of us are absorbed in the problems 
of the immediate future, and it may be that there are 
some who feel that, beyond the careful discharge of 
their duties within the House, there is little that can be 
done of use outside in their capacity of representatives 
of the people. But T would venture, not in any spirit 
of infallible knowledge but as one who has been brought 
up among polities in a country, where political institu- 
tions have flourished for several centuries, and from 
which therefore there is perhaps something to be learnt, 
to suggest one direction in which Members of the Legis- 
latures can do much. That work is the political educa- 
tion of their constituents. 1 am well aware of the dififi* 
culties in the way — the wide areas to be covered, in many 
cases the difficulties of travel, and the lack of education 
among a large proportion of those to whom they must 
appeal. But these are difficulties wliieli can he overcome, 
and I conceive it to he one of the many obligations rest- 
ing upon the Members of this Legislature, on whom 
depends in so large a measure the standard of political 
thought, that they should strive to bring home to their 
electorates the rights and responsibilities of each elector 
and thus perform a work of immense benefit in the 
evolution of the constitutional life of India. 

I need not tell you, gentlemen, how earnestly I hope 
that whatever may be done within these walls, under 
the present constitution, or under whatever changed 
conditions the future may have in store, may redound 
to the benefit and happiness of the people of India. 
Controversy there must he, for controversy is an in- 
separable feature — ^if not the very purpose — of parlia- 
mentary institutions. But I trust that, in all the clash 



Speeches ly Lord Irwin, 


369 


Police Parade at Neio Delhi. 

of opinion and debate, rancour and bitterness may here 
nnd no place, and that, if men must differ as to the 
method most suited to attain the ultimate object that 
all seek to serve, they may agree in paying mutual res- 
r^ect to the motives which underlie their actions. I 
\v^oiild go further and ask that, whenever Members of 
lliese Houses feel constrained to disagree with views ad- 
vocated by their brother politicians in England, they 
will at least not lightly be tempted to question their 
sincerity. I shall be in England, the majority of you 
will remain in India. Though many miles will separate 
us, I trust that our association in the objects which we 
both have so close at heart may not be impaired. In 
all sincerity I would assure you of my abiding interest 
in every matter that concerns the political life of India 
and of the attention with which I shall follow the record 
of your achievements, both corporate and individual: In 
bidding you farewell, I earnestly wish that aU. good 
fortune may attend you, and that every blessing may 
iiest upon the people of India whom you represent, and 
among whom it has been my privilege and happiness to 
live and work during the last five years. 


POLICE PARADE AT NEW DELHI. 

His Excellency the Viceroy made the following speech at 28th March 
the Police Parade at New Delhi on 28th March 1931 

I have often had opportunities, during my tours in 
different parts of India, of trying to express to the 
members of the Indian Police whom I have met some- 
thing of the gratitude which Government, and I per- 
sonally, owe them for the way in which they carry out 
their im]>ortanT and responsible task. Those occasions 
however are usually of a private and informal kind and 
I am therefore very glad indeed to welcome such a 
L6PSV 



370 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin, 


Police Parade at New Delhi. 

representative gathering o£ the Indian Police to Delhi, 
both because it gives me the privilege of presenting a 
number of richly-earned decorations, and because it 
affords me a chance of thanking your Service in a more 
formal and public way for the conspicuously good work 
they have done during my five years of office. 

They have not been easy years for me, or for you, 
or for anyone else concerned in the administration of 
this country. There have been times, especially in the 
last twelve months, when things have been done which 
have been a severe test of good temper and restraint, 
when hours of duty have been long and more than 
usualiy arduous, and danger to life and limb has had to 
be constantly faced. It is greatly to the credit of the 
Police That they have taken these exceptional difficulties 
as all in the day’s work. Officers and men have shown 
a fine example of loyalty, courage and discipline and 
liave raised the high traditions of their service to a level 
of which they may be rightly proud. You may rest 
assured that the Government on their part are very 
conscious of the debt they owe your Service on this 
account. The discipline and efficiency of a country’s 
Police Force is to a high degree the criterion of good 
government and the measure of the extent to which the 
administration retains the confidence of the population at 
large. I think that the Government of India may well 
congratulate themselves on having, as protectors of the 
King’s peace, a force so efficiently organised, so well- 
disciplined, and possessed of so fine a spirit as the 
Indian Police. 

The decorations I have just had the honour of pre- 
senting are a recognition of a small part of the sterling 
work and gallantry for which all ranks of the Service 
Juay justly take credit. The written record of those 
deeds is before those who are present today, and they 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin. 


371 


Address from the Indian Christian Community, 

need no words of mine to commend them. But I would 
mention the name of one whose distinguished service in 
the Police will come to an end a few days hence. Sir 
David Petrie name has long been familiar throughout 
the length and breadth of India as that of one who has 
worthily upheld the highest traditions of his Service, 
and I should not wish to let this occasion pass without 
thanking him for the invaluable work he has performed 
for Government in his present responsible post and in 
many others. 

There is nothing further for me to say except to 
wish you good-bye and good luck. In doing so I wish 
to assure you of the interest and sympathy with which 
I shall constantly watch the fortunes of your Service 
in years to come. My interest will be the greater because 
we are on the eve of great changes, and in the readjust- 
ments that will have to be made there will be much work 
to be done that will make demands on all your foresight, 
your good sense and your loyalty. I am confident that 
the Indian Police will always maintain the high standard 
of achievement it has set itself, and will continue to 
take an honoured place 'among the Police forces of the 
world. 


ADDRESS PROM THE INDIAN CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY. 

In reply to the Address from the Indian Christian 
Community on 30th March 1931, His ExceHency the Viceroy mu 
said 

It is more than kind of you to have come here this 
afternoon to bid good-bye to Lady Irwin and myself on 
behalf of the Indian Christian Community. In that 
community, I am glad to think, we count many friends, 
whom we have met during our time in India, and I am 



372 


SpeBches hy Lord Irwin. 


Garden Party gwen hy the Citizens of Delhi. 

glad to have been given this opportunity through you 
of wishing them and all members of your body the most 
cordial of farewells. 

For all that you have said this afternoon, I thank 
you warmly. If I have been able, during these past 
five years, to help forward at all the task of working 
for the greater contentment and happiness of the people 
of this country, I can only express gratitude for having 
been given the opportunity to take part in that great 
endeavour. The basis of such contentment must, as yon 
have said, be an abiding spirit of mutual goodwill and 
respect between our two countries, and I shall constant- 
ly be associated with you in the hope that the ideal of 
fellowship and human brotherhood may inspire all races, 
all classes, and all creeds in the common service of your 
country and its people. Especially do I join you, at this 
juncture, in the hope that the present constitutional dis- 
cussions, in which I have been privileged to take a 
certain part, may find a happy issue and provide a solu- 
tion of the difficulties which have yet to be surmounted. 

In all these matters you and your community will 
I hope take your due share, for you have, as we all here 
believe, a great contribution to make to the social and 
political life of India. In taking leave of you therefore 
I can assure you that I shall watch future developments 
in which you will be concerned with close attention, and 
pray always that' the work it may be given to you to do 
may be worthy of the Faith you represent, and redound 
to the honour of your motherland. 


GA.RI)E1)1 party GIVEN BY THE CITIZENS OF DELHI. 
Stk April His Excellency the Viceroy made the following speech at 
the Garden Party given by the Citizens of Delhi at Talkatora 
Gardens on 8th April 1931 

Gentlemenr-lTO- six days Lady Irwin and I shall 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


373 


Garden Party given hy the Citizens of Delhi. 

have to say goodbye to this city, which during our 
residence here for the last five cold weathers has taken 
such a deep and constantly growing hold upon our 
affections. There can indeed be few places, in the length 
and breadth of India, which make a surer appeal to 
anyone who loves the beauties of Indian architecture, 
old and new, or who is fascinated by the long pageant 
of history that has been staged on this ground of Delhi. 
Some of that history is written in crumbling stones and 
vanishing walls, some of it in exquisite buildings that 
recall the great names of ancient Kings and Emperors, 
and the latest of all in the new Capital whose formal 
opening was inaugurated only a few weeks ago, and 
which is a worthy successor to the greatest of the cities 
which have gone before her. Today in Shahjahanbad 
and in Eaisina the life of Delhi throbs perhaps more fully 
than ever before. 

To say goodbye for the last time to this place and 
to its people will be a sad moment for us both. This 
afternoon, by the kindness of the leading gentlemen of 
Delhi, we have been given an opportunity, amid these 
beautiful surroundings, of meeting a great number of its 
residents, and we are deeply grateful for the hospitality 
which has been shown to us and for the way in which bo 
many of our friends have gathered here to bid us fare- 
well. In the address to which we just had the pleasure 
of listening you have said many very kind things about 
us both, and you can be sure that wn in our turn wish 
that all good fortune and all happiness may attend the 
future life of Delhi and its citizens. 

Delhi, old and new, is a heritage of which you may 
vrell be proud, and I am confident that it will always be 
the endeavour of those responsible for its administration 
to make it^ a worthy setting for the Central Governm.ent 
of a great countiy. Much has been conceived for the 



374 


Speeches ly Lord Irwin* ■ 


Garden Party given by the Citizens of Delhi, 

improvement and development of the old city, but much 
still remains to be done, as anyone can realise who has 
visited some of the poorer quarters of the town. The 
comprehensive scheme which was drawn up some three 
years ago is a considerable step in the right direction, 
and I would take this opportunity of emphasising that, 
though the Government of India have recognised their 
responsibility for meeting a large part of the expendi- 
ture, there is an obligation on the city to contribute its 
own share. Apart too from technical services, which are 
but the apparatus of health, there is much to be done by 
way of education of the masses before a really healthy 
population can he produced. 

It has been a great disappointment to me that 
circumstances have prevented further progress with the 
construction of a hospital on the foundation stone I laid 
last year. I earnestly hope to hear before long that a 
solution of the diflSculties has been found, and that this 
work, whose noble purpose it is to relieve sujffering and 
sickness, is on its way to completion. 

You have also been good enough to make reference 
to the part I have been able to play in the great task, 
which faces us all, of building, as you say, a newer and 
better India. I thank you warmly for all that you have 
said, and I echo your hope that those varying interests, 
on whose statesmanship the strength of that structure 
will largely depend, may be united in a common purpose 
to achieve a solution that may recognise and respect all 
claims that need adjustment and have a title to be heard. 

How seriously that purpose must be frustrated by 
senseless outrages, of which we have just seen another 
example in the murderous attack upon a District OfBcer 
in Bengal, must be patent to anyone who ,has given 
thought to the foundations upon which all well-ordered 
society rests. It must be the duty of any Government 



Speeches ly Lori Irudn. 


376 


Farewell Address from the Bombay Chamber of Commerce, 

to fight to the uttermost the creed which encourages such 
outrages, and I trust that every sane citizen will feel it 
incumbent upon him to use all his influence for the con- 
demnation and prevention of such deeds which bring 
shame to the cause they profess to serve. 

I conclude, gentlemen, by thanking you again for all 
your kindness to Lady Irwin and myself this afternoon, 
for many kindnesses shown us in the past, and for your 
generous good wishes for the future. We shall never 
forget them, and our thoughts will often turn back to 
you and to the place you are fortunate enough to be able 
to call your home. 


FAREWELL ADDRESS FROM THE BOMBAY CHAMBER 
OF COMMERCE. 

In ]*eply to the Farewell Address from the Bombay Chamber leth April 
of Commerce H. E. the Viceroy said : — 

Mr, President and Gentlemen ^ — remember well, oust 
over five years ago, listening to the address with which 
your Chamber so kindly welcomed me on my arrival in 
India, and thinking what a long time five years of oflSce 
then appeared to be. In retrospect it has seemed all too 
sliort, at least too short to see the fulfilment of many of 
one’s hopes or of the important political developments to 
which you have just referred. You have however been 
good enough to speak appreciatively of the part it has 
fallen to me to play in the course of those five years, and 
I thank you warmly for what you have said. History has 
indeed moved fast in the decade since the inauguration of 
the Reforms, and few, I think, would have then forecast 
that the year 1930 would see a distinguished and repre- 
sentative delegation from India conferring round a table 



376 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin, 


Fareicell Address from the Bombay Chamber of Commerce. 

in London with His Majesty’s Government on those moment- 
ous matters, with vrhich all here are now familiar. “When 
the Conference resumes its labours, and approaches the 
later difficult and delicate stages of its task, it wiii surely 
do so with the cordial goodwill of all those who, like yoxiv- 
selves, look forward to an India growing to its full ^trength 
on lines of sound constitutional development. 

As to those administrative matters in which you are 
interested and which you have mentioned in your Address, 
I do not propose to speak at length. For, as you. know, 
I am forced by the pressure of other engagements to be 
brief, and it is moreover difficult for a departing Viceroy 
to do more in such matters, how^ever important they may 
be, than to commend them to the earnest consideration and 
attention of his successor. This I will certainly do, and 
you know w^ell that I could do so to no more sympathetic 
listener than to Lord Willingdon, who comes to you with 
the advantage, possessed I think by no previous 'Viceroy, 
of wide practical knowledge of Indian px'oblems and of 
close personal friendship with so many of India’s people. 
I think I may claim to have always done my best to help 
forward any measures, such as those of which you have 
spoken, designed to stimulate or develop the commercial, 
industrial and agricultural life of India. For, though 
opinions may differ on the forms of government and 
constitutions, there is no dispute as to the obligation 
resting upon every Government to foster that material 
prosperity, upon which the happiness and the peace of a 
country so largely depend. I only wish that the economic 
blight, which has descended upon the world during recent 
months, had not for the time deprived all Indian Govern- 
ments of the financial resources requisite to give pradical 
shape to their desires. 

You have however had as the Head of your administra- 
tion during these difficult times one who by his under- 
standing and sympathy has gained the coiffidence of aU 



Speeches by Lord Irmn. 


377 


Farewell Address from the Bombay Mill-owners^ Association. 

j-ections of the community, and I know that all here present 
would join me in paying tribute to the value of the services 
he has rendered to Bombay. Sir Frederick Sykes has, to 
our great regret, been forced under medical advice to 
lake a brief holiday from his arduous labours. We all 
wish him a speedy return, and a complete restoration to 
health, and we may also express our warm good wishes 
to a tried and trusted servant of the Bombay Presidency, 
Sir Ernest Hotson who, at no small inconvenience to him- 
self, wdll take up the reins of office during Sir Frederick’s 
absence. 

To no part of your Address did I listen with greater 
pleasure than to your expression of gratification at the 
result of my recent conversations with Mr. Gandhi and at 
the prospect of achieving conditions in which everyone 
may work together with greater trust and understanding. 
For my own part there is no consummation for which I 
more earnestly pray, or to which, after I have left India, 
my thoughts will be more constantly dir;ected. 

It remains now to take my last farew^ell of you. I 
have been greatly touched by your kindness in coming here 
this morning to speed Lady Irwin and myself upon our 
way, and on her behalf, as on my own, I thank you from 
the bottom of my heart. I need hardly say, Gentlemen — 
for I am sure you know it — ^that, in parting from India, 
we leave with you and with the great commercial interests 
you represent all our good wishes for better times and our 
'warmest sympathy in your present difficulties. Goodbye 
and good luck to you all. 


FAREWELL ADDRESS FROM THE BOMBAY MILL- 
OWNERS’ ASSOCIATION. 

In reply to the Farewell Address from the Bombay Mill- letL April 
owners’ Association, H. E. the Viceroy said : — 1931 . 

Gentlemen , — The hospitality of Bombay must be my 
excuse if my reply to your address is brief. But in the 



378 


Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


Farewell Address from the Bombay Mill-owners^ Association. 

all too short period of my last visit I am to have the 
pleasure of receiving four addresses, and time, our in- 
exorable master, will not stay. 

I am most grateful to you for your, address and for 
the occasion which it has afforded to me of meeting once 
more the members of a body, which has so large a part 
to play in the economic life of the City of Bombay. Your 
members have been through hard times, due to many causes 
on which it is not now necessary for me to dwell. I was 
glad when the Government of India were able to give some 
practical assistance to the industry, even at the expense 
of inevitable reproaches from other quarters. And I 
need not assure you that I shall continue to watch your 
future with close interest. 

You have referred, Mr. Chairman, in kindly terms to 
my work in India during the last five years. They have 
been difficult years, more difficult indeed even than I 
anticipated when I first came among you. But I shall 
always be grateful that I was given this opportunity to 
play a part in these great events, and to do what I might 
to guide their course. The end of the road, as you say, 
is not yet, and much still remains to be done. You, Mr. 
Chairman, were able to take a very useful part in the 
Bound Table Conference, and will I hope before long be 
carrying the work further that was there so well begun. 
You, gentlemen, I would ask to use all your efforts to bring 
about a happier understanding among all those in India, 
upon whom you can exert your influence. 

For, if we are to realise the ideal o>f partnership 
between two great peoples, to which your address alludes, 
then we must dethrone from men's hearts the discord, 
mistrust and misunderstanding which for the last three 
years have perpetually blocked the path, and we must 
exalt in their place the true desire and determination for 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


379 


Farewell Address from the Bombay 3£ill-owners^ Associatiom. 

peace. We have a chance to do so now, and I would ask 
every member of Government, all political parties and 
communities, to do their utmost alike to seize it If we 
could only all join together, European and Indian, com- 
munities, parties, official and non-official, in a single united 
effort, we should already be more than half way to success. 

I believe that the settlement, with which Mr. Gandhi 
was so closely associated and which I know he is doing his 
best to implement, has been of great value in one special 
direction, in assisting towards the removal of these doubts 
find misgivings ; but I cannot conceal from myself that 
here also much remains to be done. I particularly regret 
the tendency, manifest in some quarters, to regard the 
immediate future as a period of truce, of which advantage 
should be taken to reorganise forces for a further struggle, 
since the state of mind it represents is not only incon- 
sistent with the whole-hearted discharge of the obligations 
which the settlement imposes, but contains within it 
dangerous germs of trouble. It is a continuous menace to 
the peace which it was our intention, and remains my 
dearest desire, to see re-established. On the one hand, it 
arouses forces which those who call them into being may 
find difficult of control j on the other hand, it necessarily 
imposes on Government the duty of preparedness for 
counter action, and I fully recognise that the discharge of 
this duty must inevitably in its turn breed distrust. 

Let all men therefore pursue peace, not as a temporary 
expedient, but as an enduring blessing, and I have no 
doubt that it is thus and thus only that the abiding 
interests of India can be served. 

Gentlemen, I must conclude. Lady Irwin and I shall 
leave India with your good wishes echoing in our ears. 
For these we thank you again, and, in my turn, I wish 
yon and those for whom you speak all happiness and good 
fortune. 




380 


Speeolm ly Lord Irwin. 


J’iJlEWELL ADDRESS FROM THE MUSLIM COMMITTEE 
OF BOMBAY. 

I6th April In reply to the Address from the Muslim Coniauttee oi 
Bomba 3 ’, H. E. the Viceroy said : — 

Mr. President and Gentlemen ^ — It is most kind of you 
to have gathered here this morning, and to join in the 
series of farewells which the people of Bombay have been 
good enough to arrange forj Lady Irwin and myself. T 
greatly value the opportunity, not so much of elaborating 
my views on any of the momentous questions now at issue — 
for time is already short enough for my many engage- 
ments — as of saying good-bye, through the representative 
body here present, to the great Muslim community, whose 
interests are and always will be to me a matter of deep 
concern. You would not, I think, wish me to go deeply 
intc the intricacies of such matters as electorates, weightage 
in favour of minority communities, and other particular 
safeguards which may be necessary for the fair adjust- 
rrjent of conflicting claims. Most of those matters have, 
as you say, been dealt with in our Despatch upon this 
subject, and more lately by the Round Table Conference, 
which is now having a breathing space after its strenuous 
labours, but will, I hope, resume before long its important 
deliberations. On some of these questions general agree- 
ment was reached at the Conference ; on others 1 lielieve 
the overwhelming majority ’of Muslims throughout India 
feel even more strongly today than ever before. Many 
persons think quite honestly that they are mistaken in their 
views, and in the tenacity with which they hold tliem. 
But that is not the real point at issue. Indian opinion of 
all sorts is now striving to lay the political foundations 
of a homogeneous nation. And, if there is one thing more 
certain than another, it is that no political society can 
prosper or be at peace within itself, unless minorities 
included in it are reasonably satisfied with their conditions. 
Therefore it is no answer to say that particular provisions 



Speeches hy Lord Irwin. 


381 


Farewell Address from the Muslim Committee of Bombay. 

that minorities deem essential for their interests are 
inimical to the evolution of Indian nationhood, for this 
ultimately depends upon a consideration far more funda- 
mental, namely, the contentment of those who form a vital 
part of the whole society. And that is the end that must 
constantly be kept in viewv Therefore, if, as I believe to 
be the case, there is a wide feeling of apprehension among 
minorities, and if I may offer a word of personal advice, 
I would say that the only wise course for the majority 
community is frankly to recognise these apprehensions, 
unfounded though they may adjudge them to be, and be 
prepared to give them the reassurance that they desire 
and claim until such time as, of their own free choice, the 
minorities are with substantial unanimity prepared to let 
it go. 

No one can exaggerate the harm brought by these 
recent savage outbursts in Cawmpore and other places in 
the United Provinces, and it is inevitable that they should 
have greatly hardened Muslim opinion, so that in present 
circumstances the hope of settlement seems remote. If 
however the majority community, acting with sound poli- 
tical judgment, could see their way to give the message 
I have suggested to their Moslem fellow-countrymen, I 
believe its immediate effect would be to work such a 
change in Moslem feeling as would alter the whole at- 
mosphere for the better, and make the whole problem very 
much less intractable than it unhappily is today. 

You were good enough just now to express the hope 
that the experience I have been able to acquire during 
my five years as Viceroy would not be entirelj- lost to 
India. I can assure you that I look upon that experience 
as far too precious and privileged a possession to be 
lightly laid aside, and it will always be my endeavour to 
interpret to English opinion what I believe to be the 
ideals and aspirations of the Indian people. The thought 


382 


Speeches iy Lord Irwin. 


Farewell Address from the Bombay Municipal Corporation, 

that in years to come there will still be that work to do, 
and the knowledge that that work will help to keep me 
in toneh, personally or by correspondence, with many of 
the friends I have made in India, go far to re^^oncile me 
to the parting which I shall have to take two days hence. 

In taking this farewell of yon, and in thanking yon, 
on Ijady Irwin’s behalf and on my own, for the kind 
things yon have said this morning, I need not assure you 
that any influence or knowledge that may be mine will 
continue to be at the service of India, and that no warmer 
wishes than my own will always accompany those who 
are loyally striving for her greater good. 


FABEWELL ADDRESS FROM THE BOMBAY MUNICIPAL 
CORPORATION. 

In reply to the Farewell Address from the Bombay Munici- 
pal Corporation, H, B. the Yieeroy said : — 

Your ExcellencieSi Your Highnesses, Ladies and 
Gentlemen^ — ^Lady Irwin and I have had during the last 
few weeks to take many sad farewells. The final parting, 
the saddest of all, has now come, and a few brief moments 
are ail that is left of five years which, if they have been 
laborious, I can truly say have been not less a labour of 
love. To Sir Frederick Sykes, who has given himself un- 
sparingly to the service of this Presidency, to you, Your 
Highnesses, and to you, ladies and gentlemen, who have 
gathered here to bid us good-bye, our thanks are due for 
thus speeding us on our way. To the Corporation of 
Bombay, to whose generous words we have just listened, 
we are more than grateful for their kindness. It is fitting 
that this last address in India should come from the body 
responsible for the welfare of this great and beautiful 
seaport, and beneath the shadow of the Gateway where so 
many players upon the stage of India have their exits 
and their entrances 



Speeches by Lord Irwin. 


883 


Farewell Address from the Bombay Municipal Corporation. 

Of the partieiilar matters, important as they are, con- 
cerned with the administration of this city or of India I 
do not propose, at the very moment of my departure, to 
speak, except to say that any question which touches the 
welfare of town or country, of Indians in India or Indians 
overseas, has always had, and will always command, my 
unfailing sympathy. An equal sympathy, as I am sure 
you know, is Lady Irwin’s, and I would .join her name 
with mine in all that we can express of gratitude and 
good-will to this land and to its people. India, and not 
least Bombay, has good cause to welcome back to her 
shores two of India’s truest friends. Lord and Lady 
Willingdon, who, as all here know, will devote once more 
to this country qualities of understanding and sympathy 
v/hich are theirjs in no common measure, and for which 
there was never greater need. 

From the day I landed in India five years ago, I 
knew that my main task — apart from the day-to-day work 
of administration — ^would be concerned with the investiga- 
tion which was to be the first step in the building of a new 
constitution for India, and with the subsequent stages 
through which these grave matters would have to pass. 
As to whether the estimate I have made from time to 
time of Indian opinion, or the advice I have given to His 
Majesty’s Government upon this subject, has proved right 
or wrong, or whether the methods employed by one side 
or another have been justified by the result, it is still too 
early to pronounce. We have been faced with difficulties, 
some that we might have foreseen and perhaps avoided, 
some that were inherent in the conditions with which we 
have to deal. The judgment of all this must be left to 
the cold and impartial gaze of history, by the verdict of 
which for my own part I am well content to abide. But 
one thing I have never doubted, and if my memory serves 
me I have more than once affirmed, that the only way of 



384 


Speeches iy Lord Irmn. 


FaretoeU Address from the Bombay Municipal Corporation, 

achieving the end, v^hieh I believe we all desire, was by 
a synthesis of the best statesmanship of East and AYest, 
by the collaboration of two partners working side by side, 
not in any huci.stering spirit as to who would get the 
best of a hard bargain, not with a view to this or that 
individual or this or that community gaining an advantage 
or victory over a rival, but with the sole pui’pose of 
creating and perpetuating a prosperous, strong and con- 
tented India embracing both British India and the States 
as an honoured member of the British Commonw'ealth of 
Nations. 

The end of that task; as you have said, is not yet. 
Though much has been accomplished, the sti&st part of the 
hill is yet, I think, to come. To none of us is it given to 
east a true horoscope of the future, or to foresee clearly 
the final shape of the great design, on which for a while 
we are set to labour. The work of any man, or of any 
generation of men, is a small factor in the evolution of a 
nation, and will surely be weighed in larger balances than 
we know. The ultimate issue of that for which we are 
jointly striving lies indeed in other and wiser hands, but 
I know that my own hope and confidence in its attainment 
is shared by that old and trusted friend of India, to whom 
I am now handing over my duties and responsibilities. 
Under Providence may he guide India to peace and happi- 
ness. 

In front of The Viceroy's House in New Delhi stands 
a column, presented by the late Maharaja of Jaipur, on 
which are inscribed the words : — 

In Thought Faith 
In Word Wisdom. 

In Deed Courage 

In Life Service 

So may India be great." 


Speeches 'by Lard, Irwin. 


385 


FareiceVl Address frcm the Bombay Ihtnicipal Corporation. 

I can wisli India nothing better, and so I would saj'- to you 
and 1o all those in this eountiy^ that I have tried to serve, 
“ In your thinking, in your speaking, and in your doing, 
God be with you.” 


L6PSV— 161--13^r31-GIPS 








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